At present, around 37,000 people in Ireland are affected by epilepsy, now neuroscientists have identified a new gene involved in the disorder. The teams finding may help in the development of a new treatment option for the condition.

The study, conducted by researchers at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSO), is published in Nature Medicine.

The team focused on a new class of gene called a microRNA. This class of gene controls protein production inside cells. The researchers found that patients with epilepsy have significantly higher levels of microRNA-134 in their brain. In addition, they found that they could prevent epileptic seizures from occurring by using a newly found drug called antagomir, which locks onto the microRNA-134 and removes it from the brain cell.

Professor David Henshall, Department of Physiology & Medical Physics, RCSI and senior author of the paper explained:

"We have been looking to find what goes wrong inside brain cells to trigger epilepsy. Our research has discovered a completely new gene linked to epilepsy and it shows how we can target these gene using drug-like molecules to reduce the brain's susceptibility to seizures and the frequency in which they occur."

Dr Eva Jimenez-Mateos, Department of Physiology & Medical Physics, RCSI said: "Our research found that the antagomir drug protects the brain cells from toxic effects of prolonged seizures and the effects of the treatment can last up to one month."

Approximately 37,000 people in Ireland live with epilepsy. For two-thirds of all patients, seizures can be controlled by medication. Unfortunately, the other third continue having seizures, regardless of what medicines they take.

The authors say that their findings could potentially lead to new treatment methods that could help a greater proportion of patients control their seizures.

This study could potentially offer new treatment methods for patients.

Approximately 3% of all people in the USA will at some time in their lives be diagnosed with epilepsy. Among younger patients, the cause is more likely to be due to a congenital or developmental condition. Tumors are the more likely causes among patients diagnosed after the age of 40. Epilepsy can also be caused by central nervous system infections or head trauma.

At any one time, between 5 and 10 in every 1,000 people have epilepsy. Lifetime prevalence is high because many patients have seizures, which stop, and never come back, while others (much rarer) die from it.

Over the last ten years, epilepsy rates in industrial countries have dropped among children, but have risen in seniors.



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Heimdal Security just completed a widespread intelligence analysis of system software vulnerabilities. Our data clearly shows that the problem of software vulnerabilities is actually growing and you may think that companies already got better at closing security gaps faster.

The Bad News

The main problem here is that time periods between patches don’t follow and fix the great amount of vulnerabilities that continue to appear.

Some vendors are improving though.

Security holes in software is arguably one of the most used attack vector malicious hackers employ in a modern IT environment, with exploits accounting for 60 – 90% of the attack , depending on which data you look at.

This is precisely one of the reasons why you would think that software companies should be very quick at closing their security gaps, but the actual situation indicates quite the opposite.

If we take a quick look at the most vulnerable 3rd party software in the market, the list narrows in on some of the most used software components in the world.

The Numbers Speak for Themselves

The top 4 pieces of most commonly used vulnerable 3rd party software in 2012 / 2013 / 2014 are:

1. Oracle Java Runtime environment
2. Adobe Acrobat Reader
3. Adobe Flash Player / Plugin
4. Apple Quicktime

Of these 4, Adobe Flash Player accounts for 314 registered vulnerabilities alone in 2015. That comes to 26 vulnerabilities PER MONTH! The next piece of software on the list is Acrobat Reader with 130 vulnerabilities or 10,8 per month, still quite high, but not as extreme.

Placing them in a table, the 4 appear as below for 2012 / 2013 / 2014 / 2015 respectively:

If you look closely at the numbers, it is highly concerning that Java has an average of roughly 9 new vulnerabilities discovered every month. That is an extreme number. Looking at Adobe’s products, that number is significantly lower but still very alarming, ranging from 3 vulnerabilities on average in Acrobat Reader to 4 in Adobe Flash Player.

The only decent performer in the field is Apple with their Quicktime software, which has approximately 1,2 vulnerabilities per month and that number appears to be decreasing, while the others show no general improving trend.

On its own it might not be a concern that the numbers of vulnerabilities are high, but for Java for example, the number of vulnerabilities are actually higher than on some Windows operating systems.

Not only that the severity of the vulnerabilities above are extreme as well.

The average severity of each of the vulnerabilities on these products is listed below with a CVSS (Computer vulnerability severity system) score, where 7-10 means a HIGH number!

When showing the data on a visual graph, you have an indication that all 4 products are clearly at or above the limit of critical vulnerabilities number on average.

So not only is the number of vulnerabilities highly alarming, but it also represents an important attack vector which poses a severe security risk for our computer systems. That becomes relevant because a very commonly used attack vector on our systems today is by linking to URLs which point to malicious content that can exploit known software vulnerabilities.

In fact, another recent study performed by Heimdal and one of its partners showed that 27% of all delivered emails contain malicious URLs, which try to access your PC by using malicious code or exploits.

Naturally, all this concern about exploits only becomes relevant if these 4 pieces of 3rd party software we cover in this article are actually being used, so we also looked into that as well. The data stacks up as below and we took the liberty of combining it with the severity score.

If we place the data on a visual graph, we notice a clear market evolution for Adobe Acrobat Reader and the high average usage of the Oracle Java.

All this data is more than scary. Intelligence shows that usage of Java, Acrobat Reader and Adobe Flash Player is very common on business computers and has been for a while. The good news is that Flash usage has dropped significantly, mainly because HTML 5 replaced the need for having it installed, but also because Flash was a preferred attack vector in 2015. Meanwhile, the widespread usage of software is most likely linked to the fact that we consume more and more data on the computer, and that we access a broader variety of software to do so.

Most likely, your private computer system is not much different from a standard business computer, therefore consumers, as well as companies, should be very aware there is a crucial risk here.

Corporate Security Risks are High

We now know 4 key facts which should have your full attention, since they put you or your corporate data at risk:

1. The top 4 pieces of vulnerable 3rd party software is and has always been vulnerable to attacks
2. Vulnerabilities are severe and there is a high number of them!
3. Most computer systems actually use a minimum of 3 top vulnerable software presented here
4. Cyber criminals commonly exploit and develop attack vectors for these vulnerabilities

Knowing all this, you may think that manufacturers keep us safe by quickly fixing these problems for their users and customers. Well, our analysis indicates that is not the case.

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