The Würsburger lock is located in the Maine, making it possible to cross from the black sea to the north sea. The river is 524 km long and runs trough the german states of Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and Hessen. The biggest city the Maine flows through is Frankfurt am Main. There's a total of 34 locks on the whole river Maine. The locks are useful for getting the ships on the right water level to continue on the river on the other side. Thanks to this, transportation on the river has become much easier.

The waterway name is Main and it opened in january 1st in 1992.


By: ​Emma Persson, Anna Öberg, Josefin Hansen Sweden

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Kristianstad Water Kingdom is a protected wetland area in and around Kristianstad , and along the River Helge. Since 2006 this place has got the permission to call themselves a Biosphere Reserve. In these waters is Sweden's lowest point 2.41metres underwater. There is also a large bird life and some endangered species living here. Around the water kingdom there’s a few large sand ridges coming from the last ice age .

In Kristianstad Water Kingdom , one can find 21 different facilities and all of them are popular all year round.

Naturum Vattenrike was inaugurated on November 27, 2010. The building Naturum Vattenrike costs almost 90 million swedish kronor.
Naturum Vattenrike was nominated for Word Architecture Festival in 2011.
During the first 8 months Natumshuset had about 100 000 visitors, which was more than expected. There is also a lot of concerts being held here.

My own thoughts about our visit to the wetlands was that it was very interesting to see the bird - and fish life that you not usually see. All the students were divided into two smaller groups, one group went into a tour around Kristianstad Vatten Rike and inside Kristianstad , and the other group got to listen to a lecture about different birds, fish and nature that was around about Kristianstad Vatten Rike . After you had done the tour, and listened to the lecture, we got the opportunity att go around by ourselves inside the Naturum  Centre. And There you could find more facts about different species of animals and nature. And then there was one room where we had the opportunity to try a simulation of a submarine and helicopter in 4D, giving us a ride around Kristianstad Vattenrike.

By: Anna Öberg, Sweden



What is the Water purification process?

Here is some information about it,

Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human consumption (drinking water), but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including fulfilling the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications. The methods used include physical processes such as filtration, sedimentation, and distillation; biological processes such as slow sand filters or biologically active carbon; chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.

Purifying water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, as well as reducing the amount of a range of dissolved and particulate material derived from the surfaces that come from runoff due to rain.

The standards for drinking water quality are typically set by governments or by international standards. These standards usually include minimum and maximum concentrations of contaminants, depending on the intended purpose of water use.

Visual inspection cannot determine if water is of appropriate quality. Simple procedures such as boiling or the use of a household activated carbon filter are not sufficient for treating all the possible contaminants that may be present in water from an unknown source. Even natural spring water - considered safe for all practical purposes in the 19th century - must now be tested before determining what kind of treatment, if any, is needed. Chemical and microbiological analysis, while expensive, are the only way to obtain the information necessary for deciding on the appropriate method of purification.

According to a 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) report, 1.1 billion people lack access to an improved drinking water supply, 88 percent of the 4 billion annual cases of diarrheal disease are attributed to unsafe water and inadequate sanitation and hygiene, while 1.8 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year. The WHO estimates that 94 percent of these diarrheal cases are preventable through modifications to the environment, including access to safe water.[1] Simple techniques for treating water at home, such as chlorination, filters, and solar disinfection, and storing it in safe containers could save a huge number of lives each year. Reducing deaths from waterborne diseases is a major public health goal in developing countries.

By: Nicola Dori



Water Purification service in Marche’s region

In the region of Pesaro and Urbino the ASET s.p.a. manage the service of water purification. All the water that comes from the houses, industries ecc goes into the sewers that they take the water to the water purification establishment.
In the establishment the ASET tries to remove all the dangerous substances they can, because the substances that the mens use for their ordinary action, like work for example , pollute the environment and has a big negative impact on it.
ASET s.p.a. has a lot of modern technologicals facilities and methods to be better at the quality of the water that it wants to reintroduce in the environment.

In the territory of Fano , ASET manages three establishment:
-Ponte Metauro, in Fano , near the mouth of river Metauro.
-Ponte Sasso, situated on the Adriatic road in Ponte Sasso.
-Bellocchi, located in the industrial area of Bellocchi between the “canale Taglio del porto” and the river Metauro.

The process of water depuration consist in the succesives pass:
1) The dirty water is taken into the purification plant. In many cases it is essential to lift the sewage conveyed from the manifold to send them to the subsequent processing steps .

2) As a first treatment in a purification plant we find the filtering, which serves for the removal of coarse material ( pieces of plastic, wood, Hyghieneartikel , stones, paper, etc . ) All this, which might otherwise clog the pipes and pumps. The grid is washed , pressed and taken to the landfill .

3) In the de-oiling sand separation, the separation of the sands takes place by natural sedimentation , while the separation and ascent of the oils and fats to the surface is favored by insufflation of air which, ensuring a limited turbulence, also prevents the sedimentation of organic substances. 

4) In the sedimentation tank primariab separation takes place by gravity settleable solids . The sludge that accumulate on the bottom of the tank are pushed by the blade from the bottom of the bridge crane scraper in the collection hoppers and from these are then taken to be sent to the subsequent treatments. At this point ending mechanical treatments which have removed about 1/3 of the organic load .

5) The removal of dissolved substances and suspended solids occurs in the activated sludge tank. This process is based on the action of microorganisms metabolic pe bacteria that use organic matter and oxygen dissolved in the sewage for their activity and reproduction . In this way they are formed flakes consist of colonies of bacteria easily removed in the subsequent phase of sedimentation. For an optimal absorption of the substances it is neccesaria a sufficient presence of oxygen , which is supplied by blowing air from the bottom.

6) The separation of the flakes of sludge from the aerated mixture is obtained by sedimentation in the final sedimentation tank . A bridge scraper collects the settled sludge. A part of the activated sludge is recirculated into the aeration tank and the extra part is sent to the next treatment. The water coming out of the final sedimentation can be defined at this point clean and can therefore be returned to the river surface .

7) In addition to the mechanical and biological processes it is necessary also other treatments that have the purpose of limiting nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in the final discharge , substances that can lead to problems of hypertrophy in rivers and lakes. The nitrogen removal occurs with biological processes by means of special bacteria in the oxidation tanks , while for the elimination of phosphorus is used a chemical process , which consists in the addition of a flocculant product (eg iron salts ) during the purification process .

By: ​​
Nikola Dori






In these days in Sweden we have heard about the mussel farming in the Baltic Sea.
Now I´m gonna show you some details about this interesting and fantastic project.

Project Description

The Baltic EcoMussel project aims to accelerate the adoption of
mussel farming in the Baltic Sea Region by providing information
and tools to support investments.
Recent research shows that commercial farming of mussels in
the Baltic Sea Region can be viable and offers socio-economic
and environmental benefits.
Commercial farming of mussels would enable fishing communities
to diversify their income sources, create jobs and provide
an alternative feedstock for use as feed, in biogas production or
in other sectors.
The innovative project aims to achieve a commercially-viable
mussel economy in the Baltic Sea Region by supporting key
stakeholders the tools needed for up scaling of mussel farms
in the region.
This includes assessment of regulatory conditions and developing
guidelines and business plans for farmers; assessment
of market potential and socio-economic impacts of large-scale
farming; establishing methodologies and routines for monitoring
and evaluation of farms and gathering, informing and training
key stakeholders from the research community, aquaculture
and end-user groups.

The Baltic EcoMussel Project – Background

The Baltic Sea of today faces many challenges in connection with the shortfall of traditional fishing activities in coastal communities while also restoring the fragile brackish waters, suffering from decades of serious environmental degradation. Just as in other European coastal communities, the decreasing availability of fish stock has left geographically remote small-scale fishing villages in a vulnerable position in terms of employment.

The situation is worsened by the fact that aquaculture, which
has been an important alternative for livelihood throughout the
Baltic Sea region, is haltering or even in decline.
This decline is not due to a decrease in demand for seafood, quite
the contrary, but to the difficulty of reconciling environmental
policy with a viable aquaculture economy.

Serious threats
In fact, the continuing eutrophication of coastal waters in the
Baltic Sea, not only from aquaculture but also from many other
human activities, is a serious environmental threat to the whole
region, and calls for urgent action to ‘avoid an irreversible
disaster’ (HELCOM, 2007).
On a global scale, concerns have also been raised that the
aquaculture industry is currently threatening the world’s wild
fish stock as it is relying heavily on wild fish to feed the farmed fish (Naylor et al. 2000).
Thus, there is not only a demand for
alternative means of livelihood in the Baltic Sea coastal areas
but also an increasing and urgent demand for alternative
and more sustainable fish feed in the aquaculture industry,
to meet sustainability goals and decrease the nuisance of

Mussel farming could provide a series of benefits and realistic
solutions to many of these challenges. Lindahl and Kollberg
(2009) point out that mussel farms not only improve coastal
water quality, but they also provide new jobs and produce
healthy marine food, while recycling nutrients from sea to land.
It is under these premises that the Baltic EcoMussel project
is being developed. The project explores how mussel farming
could contribute both to increased ecological and economic
benefits in different regions around the Baltic Sea.

End Uses – and Closing

the Nutrient Loop

While achieving increased mitigation against the on-going
eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, finding an end-use for
the farmed mussels is decisive for a long term profitable
mussel industry in the region. The Baltic EcoMussel project
will explore different end-use possibilities, and their labour
market effects.

Highest profits could be achieved if the end use is directed
towards human consumption and particularly gastronomic use
in restaurants. However, due to their small size, the mussels
from the Baltic provide limited possibilities for gastronomic use
and direct human consumption (albeit still possible).
Nevertheless, as fish and poultry feed, the mussels could still be
used in the food industry, achieving higher profitability than in
other industries such as fertilizers or bio-energy use.

Fish or mussel meal?
In fact, recent large-scale experiments, replacing fish meal with
mussel meal as chicken feed, indicate that mussel meal could
very well replace the need of fish meal in the poultry and egg
production (Jönsson, 2007).
Mussel meal could also replace the use of soy or fish meal in fish
farms, thus decreasing the nutrient load in the sea by closing
the loop between nutrient loading fish farms and nutrient
cleaning mussel farms.
An additional positive effect of mussel meal could be its
nutritional benefits. The mussel flesh contains some essential
amino-acids and essential oils in high quantities in comparison
with other vegetable products (Naylor et al. 2009).

It provides jobs
This may improve the quality of the salmon/pork/poultry when
mussel meal is used instead of for example soy. The converting
process of mussels into meal is based on a lactic fermentation
process (fragment proteins into amino-acid) and then a
chemical process which converts the mussel meal into pellets
with specific concentrations to respective animal diets.
Based on experience in Denmark, such a process provides jobs
for two persons when the production process is stable.

Popular products
We should also incorporate the extraction of Omega-3; It has
been said that Perna canaliculus, the New Zealand green-lipped
mussel, has the highest concentration of the essential fatty
acid Omega-3 fatty acids among animals producing it. Omega-3
products are very popular, since they can be used in clinical
Because Omega-3 fatty acids are essential in growth and
development throughout the life cycle, they should be included
in the diets of all humans (Simopoulos 1991).
Due to their high level of omega-3 fatty acids (see above),
mussels could also have an important role to play in food
supplement industry where the demand for omega-3 fatty
acids is on the increase.

Decreasing toxic loads
The synergy effects from mussel farming in the Baltic Sea and
innovative end-uses deserve further exploration.
Not only does the presence of mussels have a positive effect
on other industries such as fish farming, providing cleaner
water, improving photosynthetic activities of desired species
as bladder-wrack and eelgrass deeper down in the water
and consequently better conditions for fisheries and fish
aquaculture (Petersen et al. 2012), but the mussel itself has also
qualities that can decrease toxic loads in currently non-related
For example, the adhesive material in the mussel may function
as a biodegradable substitute to current chemical adhesive

By: Nikola Dori, Italy



This photograph shows a small section of masonry from a church in Northern France.

The rock was originally a smooth pillar-like structure forming a part of the outside decoration of the building. Over the last hundreds years or so, acidic rain water has constantly dripped onto the rock from a rain gutter several meters above it.

The acidic rain has slowly dissolved away those parts of the rock that were richest in calcium carbonate, leaving behind the more resistant areas. Whilst this sort of weathering can give a building an attractive “weathered” appearance it can also be a serious threat to the structure. Weaked building stones can lead to sections of the structure falling off, waterproof roofing starting to leak, and even result in major collapses.




The quality of drinking water in Sweden

Tap water in Sweden is as safe to drink as bottle water. Tap water is clear, good and free.

Lake water is also drinkable.

If you don’t have a filter and can’t boil water, it should be traited chemically - iodine is effective and is avaible in both liquid and tablet forms.

Fishing is very important in Sweden and in 2013 Sweden was the 9th fish and seafood importer in the world.


By Lea, Annabelle, Floriane and Leo.

Picture source:



​Ales Stenar

Here in Sweden we went to Kåseberga and Ales Stenar. It's 59 diffrent boulders, is 67m long and 19m wide. And all this is located on a high hill, and it's a very famous touristdestination when you visit Sweden. 

By: Anna, Sweden

In Sweden, we were in Malmö, Swedens third biggest town. We had a boat trip around in Malmö, then we had lunch, and after that we went to Malmö Museum, where we had some activities that is about water and then we went to an aquarium.

One of the days we were in Simrishamn and one of the days in Kristianstad, but we don't have any pictures from there, yet. In Simrishamn we were listening to an lecture, then we were in Kåseberga, where the first pictures in this post is. In Kristianstad we also listened to an lecture, then walked around in the town.

By: Emma Persson



This is when we came to Italy, and what you see is an train station, a beach and the sea.

Gola del Furlo

One of the days in Italy we went to a place in the mountains named Gola del Furlo.

Comacchio, "The mini Venice"

In Italy we also visited the town Comacchio, also called The mini Venice. We had an guided tour around in the town, went to some churches and some other things.

The bridge you see in the first picture was build in 1638 by Giovanni Pietro da Lugano with an design by Luca Danese of Ravenna.

And this is some other pictures from Italy.

By: Emma Persson



Here is two maps over the baltic sea. The baltic sea is about 413000 km big and upp to 459m deep.

The countries who is connected to the baltic sea is Danmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Germany. 


By: Anna Öberg