Refractorybrick is also called firebrick. It is the refractory material with acertain shape and size. According to the preparation method, it can bedivided into the burnt brick, air brick, refractory insulatingbrick. According to the shape and size, it can be divided into standardbrick, ordinary brick, and other abnormal shape brick. It can be used as abuilding kiln and various thermal technology equipment of hightemperature building materials and structure materials, and underhigh temperature can withstand various physical and chemical changes andmechanical action. Refractory brick is themost important refractory material, the lining plate of rotary kiln adoptsrefractory brick, choose suitable refractory brick, the correct and reasonableuse of firebrick, plus maintenance in place is the key to improve the servicelife of refractory brick, so how to improve the service life of refractorybrick?

1.Choose high quality refractory brick, high quality refractory brick cansignificantly improve the service life of refractory brick.

2.Using the correct construction method, high quality of stack is the key toimprove the service life of refractory brick.

3.New stack of refractory brick strictly control the temperature of warming andcooling, not heating or cooling too quickly, causes the damage of refractorybrick.

4.According to different needs, choose unstudied refractory brick, differentkinds of refractory brick, concrete performance index has certain difference,so according to the actual need, choose suitable refractory brick.

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Theinstallation steps of Ceramic fiber module:

1.Scrap rust: before construction, steel structure party need scrap rust to thefurnace wall copper plate, in order to meet the welding requirements.

2.Wiring: according to the design drawings as shown in the ceramic fiber modulearrangement, pay off on the wall board, mark the welding points of anchor boltarrangement.

3.Welding bolts: according to the design, welding the corresponding lengthof bolt on the furnace wall board according to the requirements ofwelding, when welding, should take protective measures to the bolt thread part,shall not  splash down welding slag to the part of the bolt screw thread,and ensure the welding quality.

4.Smear high-temperature and anticorrosive coating layer: according to theprovisions of the design drawings, on the wall plates and bolts' root evenlywelds high temperature anticorrosive coating layer, the coatingthickness according to 3 kg/m2. When brushing, should take the protectionmeasures to bolt thread part, must not splash down coating to thepart of the bolt screw thread.

5.Tile carpet installation: laid the first layer of fiber blanket, and then laidthe second fiber blanket, a stagger volume of joints should be no less than 100mm. For the convenience of construction, furnace roof tile need make rapidcard to make temporary fixed.

6.The installation of module

7.Theinstallation of compensate carpet

8.Lining repair: finish the whole lining installed, from top to bottom forrenovation.

9.Lining surface spraying: finish whole lining installed, adopting reasonable constructiontechnology and formula of my company, in the furnace surface spray a lay ofsurface coating, high temperature curing agent.



Refractorinessrefers to refractory cone sample in which there are no load cases, resistanceto high temperature function and not soften the Celsiustemperature. Refractory materials is not less than 1580 refractoriness of inorganic non-metallic materials. But just to define therefractoriness cannot fully describe the refractory materials, 1580 is not absolute. Now defined as any physical and chemical properties toallow its use in high temperature environment is called refractorymaterial. Refractory material is widely used in metallurgy, chemicalindustry, petroleum, machinery manufacturing, silicate, motivation andother industrial area, etc. The dosage in metallurgy industry isthe biggest, accounts for 50% ~ 60% of total output.

Althoughthe definition of national regulation is different, for example, theinternational organization for standardization (ISO) in the officialpublication of international standard, "refractory material, therefractoriness is at least 1500 of nonmetallic materials or products (but do not rule out that contain acertain proportion of metal)", but the basic concept is the same, namelythe refractory material is the structure material used for high temperaturefurnace, furnace thermal equipment, as well as high temperature containers andcomponents of materials used in industry, and can withstand the correspondingphysical and chemical change and mechanical action.

Accordingto the refractoriness, can be divided into ordinary refractory products (1580 ~1770 ),high-grade refractory products (1770 ~ 1770 )and super refractory products (above 2000 ).

Inmetallurgy, silicate, chemical, power, petroleum, machinery manufacturingindustry, refractory material is used widely. Metallurgical industryof refractory consumption accounted for about 50 ~ 60% of the totalrefractory. With the development of metallurgical industry and otherindustries, is pressing for improving the quality of refractory material,production, increase new varieties.



Toresolve the overcapacity, the first is "swelling" in theorythe second is to expand the market demand. Under the condition of therefractories market shrinking, expanding market demand is not possible. Ina shrinking market, in order to survive to spell price forusers, manufacturing enterprises conduct a disorderlycompetition. So only need "swelling", and "swelling"can only be taken to eliminate market backward production capacity. Therefore,how should refractory materials get rid of overcapacity, the key point tomake rectification in transformation and upgrading, environmental governance,resource control, etc. The following four aspects as the analysis of currentsituation of the development of refractory industry, and corrective actions ofrefractory industry.

1.Refractory enterprises need transfer and upgrade to energy saving,environmental protection, improving quality and reducing costs, and theautomatic production

Atpresent, the refractory enterprises existing problems are: serious pollution,harm to people's livelihood, high energy consumption, waste of resources, hardto recruit workers, large intensity, product sales of low-margin, difficult toaccept payments and loss ratio is widening. Transformation and upgradingmust conduct zero emission to environmental. Products are pollution-free,the service life is long, production equipment is automationdevelopment. Save people, save electricity, save maintenance, safety inproduction to reduce production costs, enhance product competitiveness. Inthe implementation of new environmental laws and severe overcapacity in thefierce competition, not to conduct environmental protection zero emissions,automated production equipment, high-quality development and cost reduction isno way out. Through the transformation and upgrading, energy saving,environmental protection, improving quality, cost reduction to occupy themarket, promote the market elimination backward capacity.

2.Refractoryenterprises layout need to go joint, mergers and reorganization enterpriseof transformation and upgrading

Atpresent, due to a lot of enterprises, small and scattered pattern, exacerbateovercapacity and disorderly competition, lack of enterprise marketpower. To guide joint coordination with strength enterprises merging toform large enterprise groups, to promote healthy development of theindustry.

3.Refractoryenterprises need to transfer and upgrade from thesupplier  to service provider

Inconstant innovation and development of science and technology, the managementis also constantly innovation transformation.  After-sale services ofproducts decided the development of the market. As the main users steelmills for overall contracting of refractory material and according to the steelproduction and settlement, has placed refractories enterprises into the serviceposition. Service quality decided the economic benefits of supply anddemand, decided refractory material production enterprise's survival.



Refractorybrick's molding in the manufacturing process, refers to therefractory raw materials recuring to outside force and the model,making the blank will be processed into specified dimension andshape. However, the flow castable's construction of the latestdevelopment does not need basically external forces.

Themolding of refractory brick, firstly is to satisfy the using demand of theproducts, when refractory brick masonry, the requirement of products must havea certain shape, precise size, and enough strength. Secondly, molding isalso the efficient way to improve the physical and chemical properties ofproducts, by shape can improve the organizational structure ofproducts. Refractory brick has a lot of molding methods, the traditionalprocessing methods according to how much moisture content can be divided into:

1.Semi-dry method: its blank moisture is around 5%, suitable for blank ofdifferent clinker content(50% 100%).

2.Plastic method: its blank moisture is around 15%, suitable for manufacturinglarge or complicated shape of the products.

3.Grouting method: its blank moisture is around 40%, is suitable for all kindsof hollow thin-walled refractory materials in production.

Themodeling methods of refractory brick have a lot, the common used molding wayscontain organic pressure molding, vibration molding, extrusion molding, rammingforming, isostatic pressure molding, casting molding, grouting, etc.

Choose what kind ofmolding method, mainly according to the nature of the plaster, body shape, sizeand other technical requirements. 



Firstly,the most basic is that the nature of silica brick belongs to acidity. 

Thetrue density of silica brick is the smaller, the lime change is the morecomplete, in the process of the oven, generated residual expansion is thesmaller. In silica brick, the true density of tridymite crystal issmallest, the linear expansion rate is small, the thermal stability is betterthan quartz, thermal conductivity is good, refractoriness under load is high,slag corrosion resistance is strong, is the most stable volume form in quartz.In good firing silica brick, the content of tridymite is the highest,accounted for 50% ~ 80%. Cristobalite takes second place, onlyaccounted for 10% ~ 10%. The content fluctuation of quartz and glass phaseis in 5% ~ 5%.

Whenworking temperature is below 600 ~ 700 , silica brick volumechange is bigger, the resistance to thermal shock performance is poor, thermalstability is not good. If the long-term work under the temperature of cokeoven, masonry is easily broken.

The key to determinewhether thermal stability of silica brick is true density, the size of truedensity is to determine one of the important marks of the quartz.

Silicabrick is the ideal refractory products of coke oven, the important parts of themodern large and medium-sized coke oven (such as the combustion chamber, rampsand regenerator) all use silica brick to build. In the oven process, thebiggest expansion of silica brick occurs between 100 ~ 300 ,300 previous expansion of thevolume is about 70% ~ 70% of total amount of expansion.



Lightweightrefractory material is also known as heat insulation refractories andinsulation refractories, refer to the high porosity, small volume density, lowthermal conductivity, has the thermal insulation performance of refractory materials. Itincludes insulating refractory products, refractory fiber and refractory fiberproducts. 

Asa kind of refractory material, lightweight refractory has a certain hightemperature mechanical properties and good volume stability, is all sorts ofhigh-temperature thermal equipment necessary. Compared with denserefractory material, the lightweight refractory filled with gas shows highapparent porosity, small volume density, good insulation performance, has thescreened effect on heat. Therefore, the main characteristics oflightweight refractory material are:

1Highapparent porosity

Amain performance index to measure lightweight refractory material quality isthe porosity. Pore is made of the pore in the refractory raw materials andintergranular porosity after forming. 

2. Smallvolume density

Thevolume density of lightweight refractory is small, nomore than 1.3g/cm³. At present, volume densityof common lightweight refractory industry is 0.5~1.0g/cm³in industry.

3.Low thermal conductivity

Underunit the temperature gradient, within the unit time through unit verticalheat. It is the important performance index of lightweight refractorymaterial quality, is also the important index of the design of thermalperformance design. It indirectly reflects apparent porosity and bulkdensity of the products.

4.Lowcompression strength

Lightweightrefractory material, due to large apparent porosity, low bulk density, not forma compact connection between crystals. So relative to the dense refractorymaterial, its pressure strength is low, wear-resisting performance is poor.


Lightweightrefractory material is important component part of kiln, boiler, thethermal container and other equipment, is widely used in industry. 



Fire Clay brick is used inconstruction of artificial small piece of material, is one of the world'soldest building materials. With clay (such as shale, coal gangue powder) as themain raw materialpassthrough sludge processing, molding, drying and roasting completed.The main raw material of fire clay brick isnature or sandy clay, its main chemical composition is SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 andcrystallization water, because of the different geological formationconditions, may also contain a small amount of alkali metal and alkaline earthmetal oxides. The production technology of fire clay brick mainly includessoil, mud, blocking, drying, roasting, etc.


Theadvantages of fire clay brick:

1.Fire clay brick shows weakacid under high temperature, alkaline slag erosion resistance is a bitpoor, but enhanced with Al2O3 content increase, and the thermal stability thansilica brick, magnesia brick as well.

2.The blast furnace fire clay brick of quality qualification goes through dryingtreatment, vacuum impregnation phosphate, secondary low temperature firing ofphosphate impregnation products, can be used for laying on blast furnacelining.

3.Fire clay brick use local materials, cheap price, durable, and fire prevention,heat insulation, sound insulation and absorption of moisture, widely used incivil instruction engineering, waste brick bat also can make concreteaggregate.



The several factors to affect the dense refractory brick wear resistance have:

1.Hardness: hardness is often thought to bethe important indicators of refractory brick abrasion resistance tomeasure. Harder materials, its abrasion resistance is better, but in thecase of impact wear large, hardness impact is not necessarily verylarge. Refractory brick is heterogeneous body, the hardness of the partsmay be different. To include corundum brick, carborundum brick, if enoughintensity, when the low hardness of material wear, these high hardness of thematerial can still wear resistance of refractory brick.

2. Crystalstructure and solubility of crystal: with aparticular crystal structure material with good abrasion resistance, such ascobalt with close-packed hexagonal structure's friction coefficient is small,wear resistance. In metallurgy between the weak solubility metal’s wearresistance is also good.

3.Strength: refractory brick in useprocess will encounter a lot of impact wear, therefore, high strength ofrefractory brick’s abrasion resistance capability is strong.

4.Bulk density: large bulk density, low apparent porosity of refractory brick'swear resistance is high.

5.Temperature: temperature has influence tothe hardness of materials, solubility and reactivity, thus indirectly affectthe wear resistance of refractory brick. In general, with the temperatureincreasing, the hardness decreased, solubility and reactivity improved, wearresistance of materials decreased.



The use performance ofcorundum brick refers to the corundum brick has the performance when used inhigh temperature. Including refractoriness, refractoriness under load, linearchange rate, thermal shock resistance, slag resistance, acid resistance, alkaliresistance, oxidation resistance, resistance to hydration and CO erosionresistance, etc.

1.Increase therefractoriness.

Refractorinessrefers to corundum brick with non-melting performance under resistance tohigh temperature. Refractoriness is the basis fordetermining material whether can be used as a refractory brick. Theinternational standardization organization stipulates above 1500 refractoriness of inorganic non-metallic materials is the refractory material.The significance of refractoriness and melting point is different. Can nottake refractoriness as the use of corundum brick temperature. Thebasic factor of refractoriness to decide is chemical mineral compositionand its distribution of corundum brick.

2.Increase the refractoriness under load.

Corundumbrick refractoriness under load refers to the products bear constant loaddeformation temperature under thecondition of rise temperature. It shows corundum brickthe ability of resistance to high temperature and load effect, to a certainextent, indicates that products in the similar conditions of use case structurestrength. The major factors that affect corundum brick refractoriness underload is the chemical mineral composition and microstructure. To improve thepurity of raw materials, reduce the content of low melting or flux, increasethe molding pressure, made of high density of bricks, can significantly improveproducts refractoriness under load.

3.Improve the thermal shockresistance

Thermalshock resistance refers to the corundum brick with damage resistanceperformance to the temperature change rapidly. Generally speaking, the thermal expansion rate of corundum brick isgreater, thermal shock resistance is worse. The thermal conductivity ofproducts is higher, thermal shock resistance is better.