Victor Seastrom-Greta Garbo
"The Image Makers see their images emerge out of the story. And then suddenly: darkness."- Per Olov Enquist in Bildmakarna, a fictional account of Victor Sjostrom, Julius Jaenzon, Tora Teje and Selma Lagerlof
"The stylistic changes brought about by Sjostrom's moving to Hollywood may not have been as definite as film history would have it according to the paradigm. Still the story of Sjostrom was transformed by his transition to Seastrom"- Bo Florin
An actress tells a film director, with whom she is having a brief affair, that he is not the author of the film he is making, "Hon menar att det ar hennes bok Victor. Inte din. Du mekar bara."/ "She means that it is her book Victor. Not yours. You are just tinkering with it."- Lynn R Wilkinson on the film Bildmakarna
While evaluating, or comprising, a filmography of silent film of the Swedish directors of Svenska Bio and Svenska Filmindustri; Mauritz Stiller, Victor Sjostrom, John Brunius and George Af Klercker and with them the camerman Julius Jaenzon, It was refreshing to find that author Astrid Soderberg Widing tries to agree with film critic Leif Furhammar that Georg af Klerker, who began as a filmmaker at Svenska Biografteatern, can be placed with Sjostrom and Stiller as being an autuer of the pioneering art form, in that, although he seldom wrote scenarios, he added a "personal signature" to filmmaking contemporary to the other two directors- during the centennial of the two reeler in the United States and of Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller having become contemporaries at Svenska Bio. "Of the utmost importance is an appreciation of film, film as a visual literature. film as the narrative image, and while any appreciation of film would be incomplete without the films of Ingmar Bergman, every appreciation of film can begin with the films of the silent period, with the watching of the films themselves, their once belonging to a valiant new form of literature. Silent film directors in both Sweden and the United States quickly developed film technique, including the making of films of greater length during the advent of the feature film, to where viewer interest was increased by the varying shot lengths within a scene structure, films that more than still meet the criterion of having storylines, often adventurous, often melodramatic, that bring that interest to the character when taken scene by scene by the audience." The study of silent film is an essential study not only in that the screenplay evolved or emerged from the photoplay, but in that it is imperative to the appreciation of film technique. In my earlier webpage written before the death of Ingmar Bergman I quoted Terry Ramsaye on filent film,"Griffith began to work at a syntax for screen narration...While Griffith may not have originated the closeup and like elements of technique, he did establish for them their function." Director Ingmar Bergman  had been among those who had spoken on the death of the Swedish actor- American director Victor Sjostrom
While Ingmar Bergman was not unknown for his efforts toward film preservation- Widding credits hism with having preserved the film Nattiga Toner directed by Georg af Klercker- Gosta Werner painstaking restored Swedish Silent Films "frame by frame", taking thousands of frames from envelopes and reassembling them before copying them into a modern print, his enlarging prints made on bromide paper and then in order to reconstruct their shot structure, comparing them to stills from several films to insure the director's sense of compostition, his also recommending the searching for of all material on the film, including a synopsis of the plot and other descraptions of what the film contained. Essential to the viewing Swedish Silent film is the evaluation of the thematic technique of conveying a relationship between man and his environment, the character to the landscape, but before even introducing this the present author would share that there is an interesting quote form Gosta Werner the archivist from his having examined the restoring the films The Sea Vultures (Sjostrom), The Death Kiss (Sjostrom), The Master Theif (Stiller) and Madam de Thebes (Stiller), "In pre-1920 films, close ups were very rare, as were landscapes devoid of actors. Actually, shots without actors were very rare. Almost every shot included an actor involved in some obvious situation. The film told its story with pictures, but they were pictures of actors." It is with that appreciation of the art that the present author would look toward the photoplays that, with the development of both their dialogue and expository intertitles, became cinematic novels during the silent era. Werner further analyzes the early films and their mise-en-scene, making them seem as though they were in fact part of the body of work produced in the United States, "Many sequences begin with an actor entering the room pand with the main actor (not always the same one) leaving the set." It is also of interest that the last film of the twenty seven that he restored was one of the most difficult in that it was a Danish detective film that lacked intertitles. Particularly because I found the cutting on the action of the actor leaving the frame of interest, if I can connect the quote to one from my own previous webpages on silent film, before reading Werner I had written, "The aesthetics of pictorial composition could utilize placing the figure in either the foreground or background of the shot, depth of plane, depth of frame, narrative and pictorial continuity being then developed together. Compositions would be related to each other in the editing of successive images and adjacent shots, the structure; Griffith had already begun to cut mid-scene, his cutting to another scene before the action of the previous scene was completely finished, and he had already begun to cut between two seperate spatial locations within the scene." It is now difficult to overlook the importance of Gosta Werner's having directed the short film Stiller-fragment in 1969. Produced by Stiftelsen Svenska Filminstitutet it showcased surviving footage from several silent films made by Mauritz Stiller in Sweden, including Mannekangen (1913) with Lili Ziedner, Gransfolken (1913) with Stina Berg and Edith Erastoff, Nar Karleken dodar(1913) with Mauritz Stiller behind the lens and George af Klerker and Victor Sjostrom both in front of the camera, Hans brollopsnatt (1914) starring Swedish silent film actresses Gull Nathorp and Jenny-Tschernichin-Larson and Pa livets odesvager.
     There is one important recent quote from that Swedish Film Institute and the Internet, "Films considered to be lost still resurface in private collections or in foreign archives."
It may be fitting that, although a film version of the novel the Atonement of Gosta Berling had been planned by Skandinavisk Film Central, a company that had merged the Danish Silent Film companies Dania Biofilm and Kinogram into Palladium, between 1919 and 1921, the first part of The Saga of Gosta Berling, during March of 1924 premiered in Stockholm at The Roda Kvarn, it's second part having premierPed a week later- not only is the art-deco, art-nouveau theater famous as having continued into the twenty first century, but when constructed in 1915 by Charles Magnusson, included in the first films screened in the art-house theater were those directed for Svenska Biografteatern by Mauritz Stiller, particularly, the 35 minute film Lekkamraterna, written by Stiller and photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, which starred Lili Bech, Stina Berg and Emmy Elffors, and the 65 minute film Madame Thebes, written by Mauritz Stiller and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, which starred Ragnar Wettergren, Martha Hallden and Karin Molander. It is often written that Swedish silent film before Molander had paid devout attention to Scandinavian landscape and its effect upon the characters in the drama, there also being an underlying sense that the conception of space, traveling through space according the the seasonal, played a transparent part during the recoding of the now ancient, therefore runic, Prose and Poetic Eddas. true to form the daughter of Ingmar Bergman, Journalist Linn Ullmann, included the historical place of Swedish Filmmaking in her second novel, Stella Descending. "The once thriving ostrich farm in Sundbyberg was sold, taken over by two rival companies, Svensk Bio and Skandia, who joined forces to build Rasunda Filmstad, home of the legendary film studios. Here the filmmakers Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller worked alongside such stars as Tora Teje, Lars Hanson, Anders de Wahl, Karin Molonder and Hilda Bjorgstrom. Greta Garbo turned in an impressive performance in Gosta Berling's Saga in 1924, "giving us hope for the future" to quote the ecstatic critic in Svenska Dagbladet. I can well imagine how Elias must have cursed the day his parents put their money in ostriches rather than the movies....And so it passed that Elias was part of the audience that evening in February 1934 to see When We Dead Awaken."
Swedish Film-Victor Sjostromsilent-film

Scott Lord-Silent Film Victor Sjostrom: Swedish Silent Film
Mauritz Stiller Peter Cowie writes of a voice that was described to Vilgot Sjoman as being "so nice and gentle" it having "a quiet huskiness that makes it interesting". "'Yes, this is Stiller's room, I know for sure.'
After Greta Garbo took off her glasses to show Ingmar Bergman what she looked like, her watching his face to measure the emotion of the director, she excitedly began discussing her acting in The Saga of Gosta Berling. When they returned to the room, one that had also been used by Molander, Bergman
poeticlly studied her face." It had been
Gustaf Molander, during 1923 while director of the Royal Dramatic Academy, who had been asked by Mauritz Stiller to decide upon two students to appear in his next film. Mona Martenson was already in Molander's office when Greta Garbo was called in and asked to report to Svenska Filmindustri's studios the following morning. Garbo went to Rasunda to meet Stiller for a screen test to be filmed by Julius Jaenzon, whom sh happenned to meet on the train, it almost to presage the unexpected encountering she had years later with Swedish director ragnar Ring while crossing the Atlantic. While waiting for Stiller to arrive, cinematographer Julius Jaenzon told Greta Garbo, "You are the lovliest girl I've ever seen walk into the place." While visiting Stockholm during 1938, Garbo asked view the film The Saga of Gosta Berling, her having said to William Sorensen it was "the movie I loved most of all." Not incidentally, Barry Paris has since chronicled that it was Kerstin Bernadette that had brought Garbo to meet then renowned Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman, his having requested it in order for her to return to the screen in his film The Silence. One of the smaller theaters, one with 133 seats, at Borgavagen 1, is named after Mauritz Stiller, another one with 14 seats named after Julius Jaenzon, cameraman for Svenska Bio. Biografen Victor, with its 364 seats is a permanent tribute to Victor Sjostrom and the 363 ghosts that at anytime may accompany him to, perhaps in search of a new Strindbergian theater known as filmed theater, step into the past. My earlier webpages, which often noted film festivals in Scandinavian, namely Sweden, had mentioned that, "In previous years Cinemateket has screened the films of Mauritz Stiller, it having published with Svenska Filminstituet the volume Morderna motiv-Mauritz Stiller I retrospektiv, under Bo Florin, to accompany the screenings. Bo Florin and the Cinematecket have also published Regi:Victor Sjostrom= Directed by Victor Seastrom with the Svenska Filminstituet." It also noted that at that time that the silent films of Sweden were also being screened on Faro, where resided the Magic Lantern and the dancing skeletons that appear when lights are lowered, possibly representative of the magician-personnas we only for a brief time borrow, identify with, while spectators; Ingmar Bergman had added a screening room to Faro that sat fifteen with a daily showing at 3:00.
During her Photoplay interview, Greta Garbo continued on the film remarking that,' Lars Hanson played my leading man...but there were no love scenes, not even a kiss.' About Lars Hanson, after having seen The Saga of Gosta Berling, Lillian Gish wrote, 'When I saw it I thought that he would be the ideal Dimmesdale.' There is a similar earlier account written before her autobiography where she is quoted as having said that she had been told to go into the projection room to watch The Saga of Gosta Berling specificly to decide whether Lars Hanson would be aquirred by the studio to play against her in an adaptation of Hawthorne's novel, "The moment Lars Hanson appeared on the screen, I knew he was the man we wanted."
     Mauritz Stiller in 1921 had directed Lars Hanson in the film The Emigrants (De landsflyktiga) with Karin Swanstrom, Jenny Hasselquist and Edvin Adolphson. The scrapt was co-written by Stiller with Ragnar Hylten Cavallius, it having had been being an adaptation of the modern novel Zoja, written by Runar Schildt. There also seems to have been an unused screenplay written by Ture Newman. Photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, it was the first film in which Tyra Ryman was to appear. Exhibitor's Trade Review during 1922 listed the film under the title In Self Defence, it also appearing as Guarded Lips. It wrote, "It has a closing of real power. And by power, we mean the final thousand feet...It is a generally sombre role that falls to Miss Hasselquist, but it is played with fine feeling and excellant judgement." In the United States, Motion Picture News Booking Guide during 1922 provided a brief synopsis of the Swedish Biograph film In Self Defence, directed by Mauritz Stiller, "Melodrama centering about a group of Russioan refugees. The Prince and Princess were able to escape at the time of the uprising through aid of young revolutionist under obligation to them. Living in a foreign country, their means dwindles and the Prince becomes heavily indebted to a banker who covets the Princess. She repulsed him but still a situation develops where the Prine dies, the banker is shot and she is accused. Through the assistance of the young revolutionist who has left Russia, she is cleared of the charge and the story closes with a promise of happiness for them."
     Interestingly, actor Lars Hanson had been briefly mentioned in the United States in Pantomine magazine during March of 1922, in Out of the Make Up Box, On to the Screen, written by Helen Hancock. "Lars Hanson, who is one of the most versatile actors on the screen, and one of the most versatile artistic breakers of the hearts of the Swedish flapper, is an adept in the art of make-up." An appreciation of the film made by Hanson in Sweden was displayed by photos of Hanson not only as himself, but in greasepaint as men much older than himself, it including stills from Bluebeard's Eighth Wife, Andre the Red and The Lodge Man. Helen Hancock had only months earlier in Pantomine praised Swedish Silent Filmstar Lars Hanson in the article How About those Viking Ancestors, A little Talk about Swedish Matinee Idols. The photo caption read, "He looks mild- but dare him to do something" It reads, "A star of the legitimate stage, where for a number of years he has has been one of the principal attractions at the Intima Theatre, Stockholm, this virile specimen of manhood is best known for his psychological characterizations." The author then praised Hanson for his doing his own stunts, acting on screen without a stuntman. To highlight this, the magazine The Film Daily later reviewed the performance of Lars Hanson opposite Lillian Gish, "Hanson may lack looks, but is a splendid dramatic actor." During 1929, Photoplay Magazine reviewed the release of The Legend of Gosta Berling, "the only European film appearance of Greta Garbo before she was sold down the river to Hollywood..It need only be said that Hollywood has made The Glamorous One...You won't die in vain even if you miss this one." Greta Garbo was interviewed in Sweden during the filming of Gosta Berling's Saga by for the magazine Filmjournalen (Filmjournal) by Inga Gaate, who had interviewed Mauritz Stiller in 1924, Garbo in the article having praised Stiller for his direction and having referred to him as Moje. Greta Garbo appears on the cover of Filmjournalen 8, bareshouldered, in 1925. Stiller, incidently, had invited Sten Selander, a poet rather than actor, to Rasunda before his having decided upon
Lars Hanson for the film. Jenny Hasselquist also appears in the film- Hasselquist was much like modern Swedish actress Marie Liljedahl in that she was a ballerina, her having been  introduced to readers in the United States in 1922 through Picture-Play Magazine with a photograph it entitled The Resting Sylph. Sven Broman has quoted Greta Garbo as having said, 'We sat in a lovely drawing room and Selma Lagerlöf thanked me for my work in Gosta Berling's Saga and she praised Mauritz Stiller...She also had very warm and lovely eyes.' While filming Gosta Berling's Saga, Stiller had said, 'Garbo is so shy, you realize, she's afraid to show what she feels. She's got no technique you know.', to which the screenwriter to the film, Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius, replied, 'But every aspect of her is beautiful.' To those either fascinated by her, or, bluntly, merely erotically stimulated by her body, one possible reason for this was alighted upon by biographer Raymond Durgnat, "The obverse of Garbo's divinity was her shyness. There were few close ups of her during Gosta Berling's Saga because of her nervous blink." He added that it continued into her filming with G.W. Pabst, who speeded up the camera to adjust for it. "Years after his death Garbo still spoke of him in the present tense: 'Maurice thinks...'" Appearing seperate to the hard cover biography titled Garbo written by John Bainbridge was his work published in magazine form, which was titled, "Garbo's Haunted Path to Stardom. A hypnotic director made over her very soul." In it he gives an account of Mauritz Stiller's first session with Greta Garbo at Rasunda, where he asked her to act in front of the camera, Stiller having been quoted as having said, "Have you no feelings. Do you know nothing of sadness and misery? Act, miss, act." Stiller instructed that there be close ups of Garbo shot and this is thought by Bainbridge to be the reason Stiller remarked upon Garbo's shyness. An eerie not arose in 1962 as the author of a volume entitled The Stars claimed John Bainbridge to be "Garbo's best biographer". The author of the now out of print volume used a quote acquired by Bainbridge from "a woman who workded at Svenska Filmindustri, particularly, "Stiller was always teaching and preaching, Greta solemnly listening and learning. I never saw anyone more earnest and eager to learn. With the hypnotic power he seemed to have over her he could make her do extraordinary things. But we had little idea that he was making over her soul." The author portrays Greta Garbo in retirement, adding "Perhaps the last sentence is hyperbolic but the essence of the reminiscence is true." More eerie still is the foregone conclusion that Greta Garbo had sealed herself into a crypt of retirement, the article published as though her comeback was out of the question, despite the amount of truth in that there may have been- a photo of Greta Garbo, middle adged, perhaps thin with her facial skin drawn a little tighter than in most photos, with dark sunglasses, the author adding, "There is reason to believe that Garbo knows her career was mismanaged, and that from time to time the knowledge still disturbs her."
     During its filming Greta Garbo and Mona Martenson had stayed in the same hotel together. The beauty of Mona Martenson is miraculous, a deep beauty that can only be seen as wonderous. In The Story of Greta Garbo, a rare interview with Ruth Biery published in Photoplay during 1928, Garbo relates of Martenson's being in Hollywood and of her planning to later return to Sweden. Karin Swanstrom, who had already directed her first film, also appears in The Saga of Gosta Berling. Gloria Swanson, when asked what she enjoyed in literature by Picture Play magazine during February of 1926 replied, "Just now I am greatly interested in Gosta Berling by Selma Lagerlof. I first read it in the hospital in France during my illness and brought it home with me."
     By the time Stiller had begun co-writing the scrapt to Gosta Berling's Saga, he and Selma Lagerlöf had begun to disagree in regard to how her novels were to be adapted. Lagerlöf had asked that Stiller be removed from the shooting of the film before the scrapt had been completed, her having as well tried to acquire the rights to the film to vouchsafe its integrity as an adaptation. During the filming Stiller went further; he then included a scene that had not appeared in either the novel or the film's scrapt. After Victor Sjostrom had directed several stories based on the writing of Selma Lagerlof, while in the United States he had been interviewed by the publication Scenario Bulletin Digest and had seemed to broach the subject of film adaptation that had brought a rift between Mauritz Stiller and Selma Lageloff, "'Some great works of literature should not be attempted in motion pictures yet,' says Victor Seastrom, famous European director now with Goldwyn. He says further that one should not try to film a masterpiece unless the picture can be made as fine as the book." Iris Barry briefly reviewed the film by Maurtiz Stiller in 1926, "In Sweden, the creative impulse has not some much died down as been bled away" and from that context sees a film that, "shows a gloomy and unusual subject, full of sincere passion and conflict and with the fine somber, photographic quality peculiar to the Scandinavian cinema." 
 There is an account of Mauritz Stiller having introduced Greta Garbo to author Selma Lagerlof and an account of Lagerlof having complimented Garbo on her beauty and her "sorrowful eyes." In particular, Sven Broman has quoted Greta Garbo as having said, "We sat in a lovely drawing room and Selma Lagerlof thanked me for my work in Gosta Berling's Saga and she praised Mauritz Stiller...She also had very warm and lovely eyes." Although far from being a playwright or sceenwriter, Selma Lagerlof flourished as a novelist during the silent film era, despite many of her novels having had having remained unfilmed, including the earlier Invisible Links (1894), The Queens of Kungahalla (1899) and The Miracles of the Antichrist (1897). After her contemporary, Swedish poet Gustaf Froding, had died in 1911, a year during which Lagerlof had published Liljecrona's Home (Liljecrona's Hem), Lagerlof went on to publish Korkalen (Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness, one of the most important novels included in the screen adaptations of the silent era as it appeared on the screen in 1920 directed by Swedish director Victor Sjostrom, in 1911, and Trolls and Men (Troll och manniskor. During 1918 she included the novel The Outcast (Bannlyst) and published a second volume to Trolls and Men in 1921. It was during the filming of Lagerloff's The Phantom Carriage that an ostrich farm that had fallen into desuetude in Rasunda was converted into the Svenska Filmindustri studio, and with that named Filmstaden. Lagerlof wrote the autobiographical novel Marbacka in two parts, her concluding the volume in 1930 and publishing The Diary of Selma Lagerlof in 1932. Victor Sjostrom had met Selma Lagerlof when she had invited him to Flaun during January of 1917. It is only with beaming delight that modern readers encounter the writing of Leif Furhammer, which chronicles that as early as 1910, Selma Lagerlof had become a shareholder with, among others, Queen Dowager Sofia in the albeit short lived film company Victoria, which had filmed her newly bought estate in Marbacka for publicity purposes. it has been seen that Victoria eventually merged with Hasselblad.
     After The Saga of Gosta Berling was shot, Greta Garbo briefly returned to Sweden to the Royal Dramatic Theater before being brought to Berlin for its premiere- Stiller was also with Greta Garbo for the premiere of The Joyless Street. Like Greta Garbo, actress Mary Johnson travelled from Sweden to Germany. Mary Johnson had starred with Gosta Ekman in the first film directed by John W. Brunius, Puss and Boots (Masterkattan i stovlar) in 1918 for Film Industri Inc Scandia. The film was co-written by John W. Brunius and Sam Ask and was the first in which actress Ann Carlsten was to appear. The following year Scandia merged with Scandia to team Charles Magnusson with Nils Bouveng to run AB Svensk Filmindustri. Having been an actress for several films directed by George af Klerker, Mary Johnson was also that year to appear in the Swedish silent film Stovstadsfaror, directed by Manne Gothson and photographed by Gustav A. Gustafson. Appearing with Johnson in the film were Agda Helin, Tekl Sjoblom and Lilly Cronwin.
     Significantly, during 1923 actress Mary Johnson starred for silent film director Mauritz Stiller and cameraman Julius Jaenzon in the film Gunnar Hedes Saga, in which she starred with Pauline Brunius, Stina Berg, and Einar Hansson. The screenplay was co-written by Stiller and Alma Soderhjelm and it is what appears to be her only screenplay. The film was an adaptation of the novel Herrgarssagen. Forsyth Hardy on Gunnar Hedes Saga writes, "Again there is a distinctive combination of a powerfully dramatic story and a magnificent setting in the northern landscape.When reviewed in the United States during 1924 while screened as The Blizzard although the film was reported as an adaptation of "The Story of a Country House", the review featured two stills and the subtitle "Swedish Production is Entertaining."; it ran, "This is highly dramatic and interesting, with several excellant scenes of reindeer swimming across a wide stream and following their leader blindly. The stampede is most realistic and well filmed. The rest of the film is quite ordinary and drags near the end." A second review from the United States seemed all too similar, "unusual entertainment through a strong dramatic story. A bit gruesome but splendidly acted...Drama bordering on tragedy...It is unusual in theme and from a dramatic standpoint, a thoroughly strong and forceful theme." The reindeer stampede was hailed for its "genuine thrills" which were "splendidly pictorial" but from that point onward in the plotline, the story was said to "drag slightly." and its interest said to begin to disappear. Motion Picture News Booking Guide in the United States provided a brief synopsis of The Blizzard, directed by Mauritz Stiller during 1924, "Theme: Drama of a broken romance which nearly culminates in tragedy when a youth drives a herd of reindeer across the white wastes. The frightened animals stampede. The romance is renewed." While the direction of Mauritz Stiller was seen as "unusually good; displays great sense of dramatic values", "Mary Johnson is pleasing though rather lacking in expression." Einar Hanson appeared as Gunnar Hede on the cover of Filmnyheter during 1923; it is an issue in which there is an article that reads "Mary Johnson, var Svenska Filmingenue framfor kameran". One source, perhaps resource, of beautiful material on the film is the Svenska Filminstituet Biblioteket. On reviewing Mauritz Stiller'sSir Arne's Treasure/Snows of Destiny in 1922, Exceptional Photoplays wrote, "Mary Johnson, if she has a chance to become known on the American screen, will show us what it is to be lovely without being vapid, with the magic of a child and the magic of a woman- tenderness and sweetness that is not chiefly a product of simpering smiles and fluffy curls." Forsyth Hardy looks at the entire film, "Herr Arne's Penger was essentially visual in expression. Mauritz Stiller and Gustav Molander, who collaborated in writing the scenario, appeared to have absorbed the values of the Lagerlof story and translated them imaginatively into film form. The film had dramatic balance. It also had a visual harmony absent from some of the earlier films where the transition from interior to exterior was too abrupt." Kwaitkoski, in his volume Swedish Film Classics, writes, "Stiller and his scraptwriter Molander simplified the meandering plot of the story, making the narration more consistent and building up tension in a logical way justified by the development of events." 
Swedish Silent Film Swedish Silent FilmMauritz Stiller-Silent Film

While Greta Garbo was finishing the The Temptress, Stiller, having written the scrapt before the scrapt department had reworked its plot, had begun shooting Hotel Imperial (1927, eight reels) for Paramount; she went to the preview of the film. Greta Garbo had said, 'Stiller was getting his bearings and coming into his own. I could see that he was getting his chance.' The conversation between the two actresses related in retrospect by Pola Negri may almost seem eerie, her account beginning with a telephone
call from Mauritz Stiller, "May I be permitted to bring along a friend? She does not know many people here yet. Greta Garbo." After dinner Negri gave Garbo advice in creating for herself a unique personna, something individual, her going so far as to say, "Never be aloof or private" with Garbo adding the rejoinder without noting that they were both actresses that had worked abroad that they were in fact both remaining private while in Hollywood and Negri telling Garbo that she would soon have to film without Stiller. Negri writes, "She held her head high. A look of intense interest was spreading over that perfectly chiseled face, making it the one thing that one would not have thought possible: even more beautiful." In a letter to Lars Saxon, Greta Garbo wrote, "Stiller's going to start working with Pola Negri. I'm still very lonely, not that I mind, except occaisionally." Motion Picture Classic gives a jarring account of Stiller's new assignment, "It's just one director after another with Pola Negri...And the blame has rested equally on the mediocre stories given her and on the directors. The latter have failed to understand her...So Pola, according to my spies on the Coast, will give Mauritz Stiller a chance to understand her moods and make the best of them. The tempermental swedish director has been given a verbal barrage of bouquets by the other foreigners who handle the megaphone. Practically all of them proclaim him the master of them all." It went on with a severity to explain that the director and star were forever joined by their being tempermental, and that that in fact was the reason Stiller was dismissed from The Temptress, it claiming "maybe it needs temperment to combant temperment." Paramount, having had been being reluctant to allow Stiller to direct, at the insistence of the producer relented and granted his artistic license and freedom to create with the other branches of the studio. "He wrote the scenario for the film in nine days." Biographer John Bainbridge quotes Lars Hanson as having said, "I saw Stiller when he was ready to shoot Hotel Imperial', Lars Hanson has recalled, "He was bursting with energy. He showed me the scrapt of some of the scenes he was preparing to do- mass scenes of people in a square. According to the scrapt, that was to take three weeks of shooting. Stiller did it in three days." The biographer continues later by writing that after Hotel Imperial Stiller told Lars Hanson he then intended, for financial reasons and for commercial success to make only one more film in the United States. Greta Garbo had intimated words very much to the same effect, "'I'm not staying here much longer,' she told the Hansons when they talked about leaving Hollywood, 'Moje and I will go home soon.'"
Of Stiller's camerawork in the film, Kenneth MacGowan wrote, 'Hung from an overhead trolley, his camera moved through the lobby and the four rooms on each side of it.' In a brief review of the film R.E. Sherwood complimented Stiller on his use of camera postion and shot structure, but while praising Stiller as a director and the film's "visual qualities", which included "trick lighting" among its camera effects, which according to the author harken back to earlier "photo-acrobatics" from silent film director F.W. Murnau, Sherwood sees a lack of depth or meaning in the film's screenplay or its message as an organic whole in its having moment. Maurits Stiller Whether or not the United States can be viewed as imperial, as it is as seen by Dianne Negra, she writes about Pola Negri's character in Stiller's film, her almost connecting thematically the difference between Negri's role in the film and earlier vamp roles with the film's ending and its reuniting of Negri and her lover in a plotline similar to that of Victor Sjostrom's The Divine Woman (En Gudomlig Kvinna). 'The film closes with its most emphatic equation of romance and war as a close up of a kiss between Anna and Almay fades to the images of marching troops.' Mauritz Stiller, when invited to a private screening of Hotel Imperial for Max Reinhardt had said, 'Thank you. But if not for Pola, I could not have made it.'
Photoplay Magazine reviewed the film favorably, "Here is a new Pola Negri in a film story at once absorbing and splendidly directed...Actually, "Hotel Imperial" is another variation of the heroine at the mercy of the invading army and beloved by the dashing spy. This has been adroitly retold here, untill it assumes qualities of interest and supspense...Miss Negri at last has a role that is ideal..."Hotel Imperial" places Stiller at the foremost of our imported directors." Motion Picture Magazine reviewed the film with, "It accomplishes almost to perfection those photographic effects which directors have been striving for; and so simply and directly that one is unconscious of the freakishness of the camerawork in one's absorption in the dramatic unfolding of the plot, with rapid succession...It is a smooth, eloquent tale told in an entirely new language- a thrilling language of pictures...Though one is ever conscious that it is essentially a war story, and the menace of wartime is (constantly) present, there are no actual battle pictures. It is almost altogether a story of the reactions of individuals to war." Motion Picture News during 1927 looked at the view, "The story could be stronger, yet its weakness is never manifested so expertly has the director handled it. The plot disntegrates toward the finish principally because it is so difficult to keep it so compact all the way. The story centers around The Hotel Imperial...Pola Negri plays the servant with splendid feeling and imagination." Under its section on Theme, the magazine summarized, "Drama of intrigue and decepetion revolving around hotel maid outwitting commander of army and finding happiness with her bethrothed."
In The Negri Legend, A new view of Pola Negri written by one who really knows her, Helen Carlise of Motion Picture Magazine wrote, "In Hotel Imperial we see a world figure who having sufferred much, having learned much, can with her great gift of artistry portray the soul of a Woman." When reviewed by Film Daily it was deemed that, "Although the vehicle does not offer her anything particularly fine, Pola Negri makes a fairly unimportant role outstanding...There is ready made exploitation in the star's name and the mention of her latest production." Paul Rotha writes, "Not only was it the comeback of Miss Negri, but it was a triumph of a star in a role that asked no sympathy." Paul Rotha extensively quotes Mr. L'Estrange Fawcett, but because The Film till Now is out of print, the present author will requote it here, "Some may remember the use of the travelling camera in Hotel Imperial...the stage accomodating the hotel was one of the largest in existence, and eight rooms were built complete in every detail...Suspended above the set were rails along which the camera mounted on a little carriage moved at the director's will. Scenes (shots) could be taken of each room above from every point of view...to experiment with angle photography, representing impressions of scenes taken from the point of view of a character watching the others...the story could be filmed in proper sequence. In Hotel Imperial, an attempt was made to build up cumulative dramatic effect following the characters swiftly from one room to another by means of several cameras and rolling shots." For those who may have seen the subjective camera of Carl Dreyer in Vampyr, the quote is intriguing.


Stiller also directed Pola Negri, and Clive Brook, in Barbed Wire (Ned med vapen 1927, seven reels). Motion Picture Magazine wrote, "Again in Barbed Wire, Pola Negri proves herself one of our great screen artists. It would seem that Pola is to match the European pictures in which we first knew her, after her appearing in countless poor American productions." Barbed Wire was adapted from the novel The Woman of Knockaloe by Sir Hall Caine. Author and curator Jan-Christopher Horak writing about scraptwriter Lajos Biro in Film History chronologically follows Barbed Wire with a scrapt directed by Victor Fleming, "His next film was to be The Man Who God Forgot (released as The Way of All Flesh, 1927), again to be directed by Mauritz Stiller, which went into preproduction as Emil Jannings' first American film. Pommer and Stiller both disagreed with studio executives about the scrapt." This, according to the author, lead to Pommer's resignation and to Stiller's dismissal from the studio. When Stiller directed the actress Pola Negri again, with Einar Hanson in The Woman on Trial (En kvinnas bekannelse 1927, six reels), Photoplay reviewed the film as "An unusually fine story and one that offers Pola Negri a chance for penetrating character study. Not for children." Motion Picture News reviewed the film as being "well-suited" for Pola Negri, "Having done pretty well by Pola Negri with Hotel Imperial, Mauritz Stiller takes her in tow and guides her through a likely melodrama- one in which she makes a strong bid for sympathy...The director uses the cutback method in building the plot. but he gets away from the obvious plan by refraining from flashing to the woman...the characters are sharply contrasted and as the cutbacks develop it is easy to guess...it is logically told and builds progressively. Miss Pola Negri gives a sincere performance and succeeds in establishing a sympathetic bond with her audience. The late Einar Hanson delivers some elegant pathos as the sick lover." During 1927, Film Daily foreshadowed, quietly and not ominously enough, that, "Immediately following The Woman of Trail, Pola Negri is planning a vacation trip to Europe." It had earlier that year reported that "Cortez Opposite Negri, Ricardo Cortez will play opposite Pola Negri in Confession." A month later it reported, "Pola Negri began work yesterday on A Woman on Trial with Mauritz Stiller directing and Ricardo Cortez and Lido Mannetti in the lead roles" That year Paramount advertised Negri as "The Empress of Emotions". Negri was in Paris during the early Spring while Stiller was viewing the rushes and working on the cutting. It was reported that upon her return from Europe that she would make one more picture for Paramount before filming and already decided film slated to be filmed with Rowland V. Lee- it was elaborated that, "Although she is now a princess by virtue of her recent marraige, Pola Negri will not retire from the screen." She had by then wedded Prince Devani.
     The previous year Pola Negri had starred in the films The Crown of Lies (Buchowetski, five reels) and Good and Naughty (Malcom St. Clair, six reels). In her autobiography, Memoirs of a Star, Pola Negri describes her first meeting with Greta Garbo.'To tell the truth, I was also very curious about the girl...She smiled wistfully, as we shook hands...Through dinner she was resolutely silent...', her then giving an account of their conversation and of her having given Garbo advice. There is also an account of her attending a dinner party that Pola Negri had "given in her honor" "She had her hair waived and arranged in a novel style resembling a half-open parasol. Her gown for the occasion was equally sensational, being a silk green creation that had been to the cleaner's and shrunk so that the hem was at her knees." All four films that Stiller had begun directing at Paramount had been a collaboration between him and cameraman Bert Glennon. It was through Stiller that Greta Garbo became acquainted with Emil Jannings, who in turn had brought Garbo together with director Jacques Feyder, with whom Garbo often met with socially. Motion Picture News during 1927 published a photograph of "a little Sunday afternoon group of celebrities" in front of the home of Emil Jannings, the group consisting of Mauritz Stiller, F.W. Murnau, Jannings, and actor George O'Brien. That year the trade magazine reported that Emil Jannings' second starring film for Paramount, tentatively titled Hitting for Heaven, "was started last Monday under the direction of Mauritz Stiller."
     The Street of Sin (Syndens gata 1928, seven reels) starring Fay Wray and Olga Barclanova was begun by Stiller and finished by the director Joseph von Sternberg. It would be Stiller's last attempt to film in the United States before returning to Sweden in late 1927 and presently there are no copies of the film. Motion Picture Magazine during 1927 reported that, "Maurice Stiller, who was slated to direct Jannings in his first picture, will not be given that pleasure. Stiller is to handle megaphone work on Pola Negri's next production." Kenneth MacGowan writing about the film notes, 'The film was more distinguished for its players-Jannings and Olga Barclanova- than for its scrapt by Joseph Sternberg. Paul Rotha wrote, "Taking shots through hanging iron chains did not establish the atmosphere of place, although it may have created pretty pictorial compositions. Sternberg seems lodged in this gully of pictorial values. He has no control over his dramatic feelings (Street of Sin and very little idea of the filmic psychology of any scene that he shoots. He has, however some feeling for the use of women. His contrast of Betty Copson and Olga Baclanova in the latter film was good." (It might be asked if this criticism is lacking in regard to the symbolic scenework of Ingmar Bergman, and that if his "pretty pictorial compositions" have been given just enough dramatic ambiguity to become symbolic in their being arbitary, a personal obscurity accepted as having layers of meaning.) Sternberg's work on Stiller's film has been credited as having secured his position as the writer and director of the silent films The Last Command (1928) with Evelyn Brent and The Case of Lena Smith (1929) with Esther Ralston. During 1928, actress Olga Barclanova also appeared in the films The Man Who Laughs (Paul Leni, ten reels), The Dove (Roland West, nine reels), Forgotten Faces (Victor Schertzinger, eight reels), Avalanche (Otto Brower, five reels) and Three Sinners (Rowland V. Lee, eight reels). Three Sinners, with Warner Baxter was the second film to pair Olga Backlanova and Pola Negri, their both having appeared in the film Cloak of Death in 1915. During 1928, Photoplay Magazine announced, "Lucy Doraine, of Hungary has been signed by Paramount. She is reported to be the successor to Pola Negri." During 1928, Fay Wray appeared in the films Legion of the Condemned (William Wellman, eight reels), The First Kiss (Rowland V. Lee). It was the year she began her lengthy first marriage to playwright screenwriter John Monk Saunders. Legion of the Condemned also that year appeared in bookstore. The Grosset Dunlap Photoplay Edition advertised John Monk Saunders as having been the author of Wings and published the film as a novel rewritten from one narrative form into another by Eustace H Ball, with illustrations from the film. Ball himself was an author, his having written the mystery novel The Scarlet Fox and had previously adapted into novel form the photoplay of the Douglas Fairbanks film The Gaucho. Pola Negri during 1929 had starred in The Secret Hour (eight reels), directed by Rowland V Lee.
The death of Mauritz Stiller is more frequently encountered when discovering the reaction of Greta Garbo, whom had heard of his passing while on the set with Nils Asther. Sjostrom, who had been with Stiller the night before and had telegrammed Garbo, described his last time seeing the then ill Stiller after his release from the hospital, "Then Stiller got desperate. he grabbed my arm in despair and would not let me go. 'No,no', he cried. 'I haven't told him what I must tell him!' The nurse separated us and pushed me toward the door. I tried to quiet and comfort him, saying that he could tell me tommorow. But he go more and more desperate. His face was wet with tears. And he said, 'I want to tell you a story for a film. It will be a great film. It is about real human beings, and you are the only one who can do it.' I was so moved I didn't know what to say. 'Yes, yes, Moje,' was all I could stammer. 'I will be with you the first thing in the morning and then you can tell me.' I left him crying in the arms of the nurse. There was no morning." Close Up magazine marked the director's passing, "The death of Mauritz Stiller has been a genuine loss to the whole cinema world. The great Swedish director, poineer of the artistic film, did more for the screen than people will realize. While others were despairing the lowly medium, when it was given over exclusively to vulgarity akin to that of the penny novelellete, Stiller was froming his conception of a great art, developing its potenialities, seeing far into the future. He was a great artist, working with profound care and intensity. His intensity may have been impart responsible for his early demise."  Journalist Harriet Parsons goes beyond having written that Stiller hated John Gilbert as she added a tragic chord to her account of the silent era, much like biographer John Bainbridge, she quotes Greta Garbo by listing an unknown source. Parsons describes an anonymous woman during 1931 in Modern Screen Magazine, "She holds herself irrevocably and inexcusably accountable. One day a woman friend was visiting her at home. Garbo insisted on playing over and over a collection of melancholy, Swedish records. 'Why do you play that sad music?' asked the friend. 'It must depress you frightfully.' 'Yes,' said Garbo. 'it reminds me of the one I hurt- one I murdered. But that is good. It is right that I should remember.' No one else in the world would dreamed saying that Greta Garbo killed Mauritz Stiller. No one could possibly hold her responsible that a man died because she did not love him."
     Among the events of 1924 had been a visit by silent film stars Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks to Stockholm, Sweden. The two had that year appeared on the September cover of Motion Picture Magazine in the United States. There are accounts that while in Sweden, Pickford and Fairbanks sailed on the small vessel The Loris with Greta Garbo and Mauritz Stiller, their departing from Lilla Skuggan, and before arriving in Saltsjobaden, their passing where Charles Magnusson lived at Skarpo. As he was wont to do, biographer John Bainbridge quoted an unknown source in order to indirectly quote Garbo, possibly lifted from a fan magazine, or perhaps actually from a personal interview, "Content with her little circle of friends, Garbo resolutely refused to anything to do with the conventional social life of the film colony. When Mary Picford invited her to a dinner in honor of Lord Montbatten...Miss Garbo declined with thanks. Miss Pickford then wrote Miss garbo a long letter...This pleading missive brought no results. 'It would be the same old thing,' Garbo said to one of ther friends. 'Strangers staring at me and talking about me. I would be expected to dance and I despair dancing. I can't do it.'" Marion Davies laso gave a similar dinner for Lord Montbatten where Garbo also declined her invitation.
In the United States, Exceptional Photoplays, in an article titled The Swedish Photoplays distinguished the film of Svenska Bio for their "quality of composition" and "imaginative presentation" by introducing Mortal Clay, "Costume plays are often unconvincing on the screen because they fail to reproduce period atmosphere, but Mortal Clay (banal in nothing but its name) has succeded in creating for us the spirit of the Twelfth century...The plot is dramaticlly sound and absorbingly interesting. But the real claim to greatness which the picture posesses lies in the splendid composition of its scenes and incomparable lovliness of its lighting effects. There is a certain architectural magnificence in the picture". The magazine noted that Victor Seastrom was both actor and director and commended a "fineness of shading" in his performance. In the United States, during 1923 it was reported that the Sjostrom film Mortal Clay was screened by Little Theaters Inc, "an organization recently formed to boost the artistic standards of motion pictures." (Film Daily). That year the films Sjostrom had made in Sweden were becoming more widely reviewed in the United States- in an article that compared the no longer new art form of film to painting, Majorie Mayne, in The New Masters published in Pictures and PictureGoer, wrote, "And the director went to picture galleries for his data; Victor Seastrom reincarnated Renaisance art in his Love's Crucible, scene after scene of which remains an unforgettable memory, and in Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness, pictures of a different, thoroughly compelling type abounded." During January of 1922, Victor Sjostrom was already known in the United States as Victor Seastrom. Apparently he was then the object of the desire of the female spectator, which is reflected in the extratextual discourse of Helen Hancock, in Pantomine Magazine, who wrote, "We have kept Victor Seastrom untill the last. Because perhaps Mr. Seastrom might not like to be called a matinee idol- leaving that phrase to younger and perhaps handsomer men. But he is one, just the same...Of the heavy, rugged type, portraying men of strong emotions and virile personalities." She claims he was one of the foremost directors and a pioneer, and then compliments him on being an actor of the legitimate stage. Director Victor Sjostrom had left Sweden for Hollywood in 1922 upon the completion of the film The Hellship. Victor Seastrom Victor Seastrom The title of the book on Victor Sjostrom written by Bo Florin is fitting; the idea that Victor Sjostrom's coming to Hollywood to film would entail some type of transition and transformation was prefigured in Scenario Bulletin Digest, the Open Forum between the Writer and Studio, published by the Universal Scenario Corporation in 1923 when Sjostrom had first signed his contract with Goldwyn and the need to keep his artistic integrity was formulated by Sjostrom himself before he had toured the studio. The article illustrates the theme of Florin's book on Sjostrom by outlining the expectations of Sjostrom and Goldwyn, "The arrangement gives him a free hand in the artistic making of photodramas. The assurance that Mr. Seastrom will be unhampered in the development of his art is one of the most significant features of his connection with Goldwyn." The magazine quoted Sjostrom at a time when he had just only arrived in Hollywood and it would have been suprising that the quote had not come to the attention of Bengt Forslund, a biographer who had chronicled Sjostrom's transitions while becoming a revered, hallowed director of Swedish Silent Film and later through letters Sjostrom had sent while in Hollywood. "'No definite plans have been made as of yet,' he said, but I am to make pictures in the best way I am able, to satisfy myself as nearly as possible. That is all there is to it.'" He is again quoted,"The most striking attribute of American made motion pictures,' he continued, 'is their humanness. It is my hope that I will be able to develop this remarkable quality of humanness on the screen. It is this quality, i think that has made the popularity os so many American pictures abroad.'" It then profiled the director with, "Mr. Seastrom, who is also one of the most noted actors on the screen, has not decided, he said, whether or not he will appear in his productions in this country...Although Mr. Seastrom's fame has been more closely associated in this country with the grimmest sort of screen dramas. beautifully photographed, (some of his double exposure effects, notably in The Stroke of Midnight, never have been equalled) he has had striking success in his country with comedies." The Film Daily during January of 1923 announced that Sjostrom had signed with Metro: Victor Sjostrom had become Victor Seastrom, "Seastrom under the contract signed is understood to have the right to act in as well as direct his productions." Three months later it announced that Paul Bern was engaged to write continuity for The Master of Man. While noting that Name the Man had not been Sjostrom's Photoplay, Bo Florin records that while in Hollywood, where the techniques of Griffith and Ince had differed as to the details included in a shooting scrapt, Sjostrom created from behind the camera, Paul Bern having had drawn the storyline into its treatment. "When compRing the scrapt to the film, it becomes clear that these details consist of stylistic devices which Sjostrom in Sweden had been used to including at the scrapt stage, but which are now added afterwards. Thus, Name the Man contains a dissolve combined with a cut across the line which shows exactly the same space from the reverse angle. While the dissolve remains quite conventional in its function, bridging a spatial transition, it's combination with the violation of the 180 rule creates an interesting effect." Oddly, as the studio was using Seastrom's name before filming had completed to advertise that "Golddwyn is doing big things.", the publication added to the extratextural discourse with "Americanizing Sweden by Films, Victor Seastrom, in a recent address stated that Sweden is fast becoming Americanized by American motion pictures." Early in June of 1923, it tersely reported, "Victor Seastrom has started shooting on Master of Man and later that month, if only to allow itself to be more concise, reported, "Edith Erastoff, a popular Swedish dramatic star, and wife of Victor Seastrom is en route to the Pacific Coast to join her husband who is Master of Man for Goldwyn." Exhibitor's Trade Review in March, 1923 reported similarly, "Another recent addition was the signing of Victor Seastrom, director and actor with Swedish Biograph to come to this country and direct productions for it. hat his first picture will be is not known." In April of that year it printed that he had selected The Master of Men, "The story selected is of such unusual dramatic quality that it will be worth all of the energy and directorial genius that Mr. Seastrom brings to bear upon his productions...The leading members of the cast are now being selected and the sets are being built." The film stars Mae Busch, Bo Florin noting that Sjostrom had not wanted Mae Busch for the lead, but that she had appeared in an earlier film, The Christian, an adaptation of the novel by Sir Hall Caine by Maurice Tourner- according to the studio, Sjostrom had to relent. Film Daily had avoided speculation for months before announcing, "Nagel replaces Schildkraut. Conrad Nagel will play the leading masculine role in Master of Man, which Victor Seastrom is now making for Goldwyn. Joseph Schildkraut was originally cast for the role." It soon added that "Hobart Bosworth will have an important role" before reporting in September that Sjostrom had finished while Alan Crosland was nearing the completion of his film Three Weeks. Motion Picture Magazine had a similar, but conflicting report during 1923, "Gost Ekman, matinee hero of Stockholm is coming over for the first American picture to be made by Victor Seastrom, the famous Swedish director...He plays in stock during the winter months- in pictures every summer. Seastrom's wife, Edith Erastoff, who usually plays opposite Ekman is coming to Hollywood to be with her husband. He has not stated whether she will go in the movies."
     During 1924 Carl Sandberg reviewed the film Name the Man (eight reels), his remarking upon Sjostrom's use of lighting, which, whether or not it may have had been a use of realism or naturalism, seemed underplayed to Sandberg and based on the enviornment rather than made more elaborate or as being artificial. "He was an actor, rated as Sweden's best, and his voice leads actors into slow, certain moods." Iris Barry is timely writing in 1924, imparting to the readers of Lets Go to The Movies, "Victor Seastrom, who had made Swedish pictures before Germany had begun its work (and too good to be popular) went last and they had they idiocy to put him to turning one of Hall Caine's intensely stupid stories into moving pictures. He did the best he could and played about a bit with the Yankee studio devices." And yet rather than providing a synopsis to the film, Motion Picture Magazine in 1923 relegated the novelization of the film to Peter Andrews. "She half rose as he returned and his bathrobe which she had flung around her slipped down, perhaps farther than it needed to." It was accompanied by a table explaining the cast of the film directed by Victor Seastrom and a capition which read, "told in short story form by permission from the Goldwyn Production of the scenario by Paul Bern." In his volume The Film Till Now, author Paul Rotha resonates a tone that can be likened to other critics his contemporary, "I cannot recall any example of a European director, who, on coming to Hollywood, made film better, or even as good as he did in his own surroundings." After mentioning Murnau, Leni and Lubitsch, the opines, "Sjostrom's Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness is preferable to Name the Man."  Motion Picture News Booking Guide during 1924 provided a brief synopsis of Name the Man, directed by Victor Seastrom, "Drama showing how human passions changed the lives of four persons from low and high positions in the social strata."
During 1923, Sjostrom wrote from the United States that he thought he might be given a scrapt by Elinor Glyn to adapt into a photoplay, "I told them that I knew a film like that would succeed on her name, but that I didn't believe it was the kind of stuff I should do." He also writes that the novel Born av tiden (A Simple Life, written by Knut Hamsun, at that time could have been a possibility. 1922 had been the year during which appeared the second film directed by Gustaf Molander, Amatorfilmen, the first film in which actress Elsa Ebbengen-Thorblad was to appear, brought actress Mimi Pollack to Swedish movie audiences. Molander had made the film The King of Boda (Tyrranny of Hate, Bodakungen) in 1920. It was the first film to be photographed by Swedish cinematographer Adrian Bjurman and starred Egil Eide and Wanda Rothgardt. Karin Molander had in 1920 starred in two films by Mauritz Stiller, in When We Are Married (Erotikon) with Lars Hanson, Tora Teje, and Glucken Cederberg, and in Fiskebyn. She also that year appeared in the film Bomben, directed by Rune Carlsten. And yet Karin Molander would only later be mentioned to audiences in the United States, Photoplay Magazine noting in 1926 that she was no longer in Sweden and no longer married to Gustaf Molander, "With Lars Hanson came his wife, Karin Nolander, leading woman in the Royal State Theater of Stockholm and billed as 'Sweden's most beautiful woman' She hasn't appeared on the screen yet, but it shouldn't be long now with so many good Scandinavian directors over here." Karin Molander had been married to the Swedish director between 1910-1919, her and Lars Hanson having been paired together under the direction of Victor Sjostrom during 1917. Pictured together, a 1927 photocaption from Photoplay Magazine read, "When Mr. and Mrs. Lars Hanson worked for Swedish companies, Mrs. Hanson was popular on the European screen as Karin Nolander. But now that her husband has made a hit in this country, she has retired and decided to let his gather all the glory for the family." After their return to Sweden the Molander's were invited to a dinner party with Garbo acquaintance Knut Martin by visiting journalist Jack Cambell, who quoted Karin Molander in the article "I am the Unhappiest Girl in the World- says Greta Garbo", published by The New Movie Magazine. After Hanson related that he had lately seen very little of Greta Garbo Karin Molander described the actress, "She was always a timid girl. terribly shy. Even in the old days in Hollywood, she used to go right home from the studio and go to bed. she'd never see anybody...You must admire her for the way she has fought herself upward, all alone, since Stiller." Picture Play magazine printed the article Two Gentlemen from Sweden, which was to comparatively interview both Einar Hansen and Lars Hanson. It read, "To crush flappers hopes, I regret that I must report he is happily married to Karen Nolander, formerly an actress in Sweden.She is charming and a lovely lady, whose sparkle and quaint naïveté have intrigued Hollywood."
      Victor Sjostrom wrote an article entitled The Screen Story of the Future, published by The Story World and Photodramatist in July, 1923, in which he advised, "The screenwriter must first of all have something to say, and secondly, the vitality and the sincerity that will enable him to say it in a deeply human way. But technique is vastly essential." As an act of spectatorship, Iris Barry looked at film directors in the United States, "Seastrom, the Swedish director, is a man whom America has ruined. In Sweden, one cannot help feeling the cinema has steered its own sweet course irrespective of a desire to please the people at all costs...There has been much poetry and a great deal of fancy in Swedish films." The Film Daily advised, "Keep your eye on Seastrom. He is liable to do some things that will make him one of the most important directors in this country." Readers in Sweden can affectionately know that it added, "Incidentally, if they can prevail upon him to act in one of of his productions he will also prove suprising." Photoplay magazine featured a magnificient photo Victor Sjostrom during 1923 in which he is holding a megaphone while standing next to his camera and camera crew in a foot of water while on location, shooting a scene from the middle of a stream; it is the same photo that appeared in Screenland Magazine, which, during October of 1923, in addition to that featured cameraman Charles Van in a photograph, his having been on the set of The Master of Man. The title of the article, written by Constance Palmer Littlefield, was New Hope for the American  Photoplay. It described the film Mortal Clay directed in Sweden by Victor Sjostrom as a film that was more artistic than commercial and anticipates the director's next film as there being on the screen "food for comparision", the soon to also be an adaption of the writing of Sir Hall Caine with The Master of Man, directed in the United States by Victor Seastrom. Sir Thomas Henry Hall Caine had been secretary to Dante Gabriel Rosetti during the last year of the painter's life, his novels having been adapted to the screen by George Fitzmaurice, who filmed Barbara LaMarr in The Eternal City (1923) and by Hugh Ford, who filmed Katherine McDonald and Katherine Griffith in The Woman Thou Gavest Me (1919.) "But in Victor Seastrom lies hope. Since his coming to us from Sweden, he has been instrumental in organizing the Little Theatre movement of the screen."
      Screenland Magazine notes that Joseph Schildkraut was originally been slated for the lead role in the film untill his scenes were reshot with Conrad Nagel. Where the article is continued, to the back pages of the magazine issue, there begins an interview with Victor Sjostrom where he is asked about the size of Svenska Filmindustri, to which there is the account of his having replied, "'Well-," and this strong man actually faltered, choosing his words, so carefully, 'It is quite large." When describing the size of the studios themselves. Victor Sjostrom, the actor, almost deferentially reveals himself, Victor Seastrom, the film director while answering that not all of the studios at Rasunda were as large as Goldwyn's huge Stage Six, "'Maybe as large as this,' he waved his hand inclusively at the courtroom, which is not large as sets go".Cinematographer Charles Van Enger not only photographed the 1924 film Name the Man (Infor hogre ratt), directed by Victor Sjöstrom, but also that year photographed the films Lovers' Lane (Phil Rosen, seven reels) with actress Gertrude Olmstead, Three Women (Lubitsch, eight reels) with May McAvoy, Forbidden Paradise (Lubitsch, eight reels) with Pola Negri and Daughters of Pleasure (six reels) and Daring Youth (six reels), both directed by William Beaudine. The Film Daily reviewed the film's scrapt. "It has the usual strength of a Hall Caine story is there, and in spots where censors weild wicked shears, there may be some difficulty...It is a gripping drama, of the type of Anna Christie. As with most films, the magazine added its "Box Office Angle" and advice for the film's "Exploitation", it suggesting to rely upon the name recognition of Hall Caine in that it was the first film Victor Sjostrom had made in the United States, but promised the film would make a financially turn a profit and included one of Conrad Nagel's very best performances, "Of strong appeal to women. Love story will hold them to the very end. Unusual treatment of ratherP old theme." Filmnyheter in 1923 ran the heading "Victor Sjostroms nya film bestamd. Infor Hogre ratt av Hall Caine." It began with, "Ett telegram fran Victor Sjostrom meddlar att for vilken film han forst skall gripa sig an med hos Goldwyn." and ended with, "Som nan ser, en stark och dramatisk handling ihed det etiska innehall Victor Sjostrom alltid sokt for sinafilmer." Victor Seastrom Victor Seastrom Photoplay returned to Seastrom in 1925, "When Victor Seastrom presented his version of Hall Caine's Name the Man, we were disappointed. he failed to rise much above the level of a fourth rate novel." They reversed their position with He Who Gets Slapped, rating it superb and claiming it would lift Sjostrom to "the top rank of directors". While in the United States, Victor Sjostrom, under the name Victor Seastrom, was to direct the first feature released by Metro Goldwyn Mayer, He Who Gets Slapped (Hans som for orfilarne, 1924 seven reels), starring Jack Gilbert, Norma Shearer and Lon Chaney. Photoplay wrote, "All this is unfolded in a series of beautiful camera pictures, technically faultless. It is told clearly and directly in pantomine, as is the right function of the photoplay. True, there are subtitles, but in the main they are philosophic (and well written) comments on the action. " Motion Picture Magazine wrote, "The director has never permitted the irony of the play to touch the mark of bitterness and the result is a touching, warm and at moments, tender narrative." Of Chaney's performance, it added, "The picture is a clean-cut score for Lon Chaney, who climbed to fame as a "master of make-up" and is now justifying his place in the sun of popularity with a display of an amazing skill in the delineation of character." Film Daily also mentioned Conrad Nagel as being the second choice for the film's "masculine lead." "The Master of Men" was noted by Film Daily as having been in production during July of 1923. During August, Film Daily reported, "Victor Seastrom is now making scenes with the crowd storming the castle in "The Master of Men". It ran "Seastrom Finsihes Picture" that September, finally providing the tile of the film rather than the title of the novel Sjostrom was adapting. A photocaption during 1924 in Screenland was to read, "Victor Seastrom directing a scene of The Judge and The Woman. Seastrom has his camera mounted upon an automobile chassis while he shoots Patsy Ruth Miller and Conrad Miller out for a stroll." Pictures and Picturegoer Magazine reported in early 1924, "Goldwyn will not allow the title of Victor Seastrom's new film to be made public. It is a film version of a popular novel." Months later it added, "Victor Seastrom is working for Goldwyn now...His next film will be called The Tree in the Garden and his leading lady is Norma Shearer." It then crescendoed, "After all his big talk, Victor Seastrom is now making He Who Gets Slapped." Bo Florin admittedly agrees with Bengt Forslund that there is a parallel between the storylines of Name the Man and the earlier film The Sons of Ingmar, the two novelist thereby compared after their having had been being adapted to the screen.
Victor Seastrom-Victor Sjostrom Victor Seastrom-Silent Film Victor Seastrom-Victor Sjostrom

     During 1925 actress Vilma Banky was filming for George Fitzmaurice rather than Victor Sjostrom, who featured her in his first sound film, A Lady To Love, that being before her Hungarian accent purportedly had contributed to an unacceptance on the part of movie going audiences. The Great Goldwyn, an early biography on producer Sam Goldwyn written by Alva Johnston, gives an account of her having been brought to the United States States, "He discovered Miss Banky when he saw her picture in a photograph shop in Budapest. This was a feit, because when the photograph was sent to Hollywood, the Goldwyn executives could see no possibilites in her. She arrived in Hollywood herself a few days after her photograph. Miss Banky was bewildered on her arrival in Hollywood. 'I thought I was being tricked,' she told an interpreter, 'I didn't believe the man was Goldwyn untill he gave me two thousand dollars.'"
     During 1924 Film Daily ran the sub-headline, "Three from Seastrom, Swedish Director Signs with Metro-Goldwyn, His Next 'Kings in Exile'. It printed, "Victor Seastrom, the Swedish director borught over by Goldwyn before the merger has signed a new contract to direct three more pictures. It is understood his original arrangement was for two which were Name the Man and He Who gets Slapped. His next will be Kings in Exile, in which Alice terry will appear as the Queen. Work starts in six weeks." It again during October wrote, "Victor Seastrom signs new contract with Metro-Goldwyn to direct three more." It reported during December of 1924 that the title had been changed to Confessions of a Queen, it being one of three films from Metro-Goldwyn reported to have title changes, Henley and Vignola being the other two directors affected. During 1925, Victor Sjostrom, brought Lewis Stone and Alice Terry to the screen in the film Confessions of a Queen (Kungar i landsflykt). Photoplay wrote, According to all reports Alice Terry has knocked them dizzy with The Great Divide...It will be interesting to observe this brilliant woman under the director of Victor Seastrom." With Sjostrom was a cinematographer that became widely used on the back lots of the silent films of the decade to turn flicker into fantasy, Percy Hilburn, his having worked with several directors, notably Reginald Barker, George Melford, Fred Niblo and Monta Bell. Filming was completed in four weeks. Picturegoer Magazine reviewed the film, "Confessions of a Queen is a Ruritanian theme, with a long suffering Queen- Alice Terry, and a dissolute King- Lewis Stone; and here the acting of the principals lifts Seastrom's production shoulder-high above the ordinary." Sjostrom's film was written by Agnes Christine Johnson, adapted from The Painted Laugh a novel by Alphonse Daudet; to avoid controversy, Exhibitor's Trade Review reported the novel's title as The King's Exile, "Of course, much of Daudet's original novel is eliminated, chiefly, perhaps, because of the screen's limitations. But the plot is interesting, has a humoruous angle and despite its unpopular ending, will please the average audience...And both Alice Terry and Lewis Stone ably depict the royal character roles, which Victor Seastrom rounds out with considerable skill." Picturegoer magazine saw Sjostrom's contribution to film as being exemplary as a literate director, "You may have noticed that Seastrom has changed the titles- this however is not an example of vandalism; he changed the stories too, and, if I may say so, with all deference to the authors, has changed them for the better...Yes they have box office appeal, but they are still and sober, artistic and sombre." To the present author, it seems that this is in part due to Sjostrom having been an actor during the time of August Strindberg and in part a nod to his having worked with Selma Lagerlof, harkening back to when the reverse was true for Mauritz Stiller and his break with Lagerlof over how faithfully her writings should have beeen adapted. Bo Florin writes that, "The film in several respects is less elaborate than the director's other Hollywood films. This may partly have been due to the film being produced in such haste, but probably partly also to the previously mentioned fact that he as a director, to a large extent seems to have chosen to subordinate his wishes to the demands of the scrapt, which was, in this case, a straitforward, realist story."
In Sweden, Olaf Molander directed Lady of the Camellias (Damen med kameliorna, 1925), starring Ivan Hedqvist and Hilda Borgström and photographed by Gustav A. Gustafson. Forsyth Hardy writes, "The film derived some distinction from the delicately composed interiors and from the touching performance Tora Teje gave in response to Molander's skilled direction."
John W. Brunius in 1925 directed the film Charles XII (Karl XII), starring Gösta Ekman. Gosta Ekman had earlier been seen as leading man in the United States, as a "romantic type" In Pantomine magazine it was surveyed that, "he plays the impudent, but loveable adventurer to life and his slender blonde figure lends itself most admirably to graceful interpretations of this kind." Photoplay magazine saw Ekman in a similar way, describing him in 1923 as "the Swedish sheik" (the Swedish Valentino) and predicted his soon aquiring fame in the United States, as it did that year with Sigrid Holmqvist. Holmqvist had often been depicted as "The Swedish Mary Pickford". Photoplay reported, "Arriving with him from Stockholm was Edith Erastoff, the wife of Victor Seastrom, the Swedish director who is now working for Goldwyn. Miss Erastoff played opposite Mr. Ekman at the Stockholm Theater....'A beautiful boy,' says director Seastrom, 'Too beautiful- but he is a great actor and never hesitates to conceal his good looks for a character part which demands make-up.'" The magazine that year speculated that "in all probability" Ekman woulod appear on screen in a version of "Three Weeks", concievably opposite actress Theda Bara. It was in 1926 that Lillian Gish, while filming La Boheme (King Vidor, nine reels) with John Gilbert, had met Victor Sjöström. Lillian Gish was quoted by an early biographer as having said that it was on the set of La Boheme that she began working with Frances Marion on the continuity behind The Scarlet Letter. Photoplay Magazine in 1926 added a photocaption to a still from Victor Sjostrom's film, for they had trouble getting Lillian to put torrid temperature into her La Boheme scenes. Here is Lillian sending hot looks to Lars Hanson. Motion Picture Magazine included the character Pearl from the film adaptation with a portrait of Lillian Gish taken by Ruth Harriet Louise entitled "Lillian's Protoge". Quoted by Liberty Magazine during 1927, Lillian Gish said, "King Vidor directed La Boheme, and one of the best cameramen in my experience, Hendrik Sartov, lent his aid?..We finished it on a Saturday, and without waiting for my weeks holiday, we began The Scarlet Letter on Monday."
There is an account of Victor Sjostrom's shooting the exterior scenes to the film The Scarlet Letter in which during the film he climbed down from a platform after Swedish silent film director Mauritz Stiller had announce that he was there, Stiller then saying, "This is Garbo." Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller had met in Stockholm the day before the shooting of the 1912 film The Gardner/The Broken Spring Rose was to begin at the studio in Lindingo, Bengt Forslund later chronicling that "Sjostrom didn't know Stiller before they became associated at Svenska Bio, but he was aware of his reputation." Bo Florin, in Victor Sjostrom and the Golden Age, quotes Victor Sjostrom, "Both Stiller and I had the great fortune to stumble upon directing careers at a time that was so suitable for us. Suitable to break away from the muck, to question the assumptions behind what I was so often to hear in Hollywood later on-'give the public what it wants'. We also had the good fortune to work for a studio whose president, Charles Magnusson was an intelligent man. So intelligent, in fact, that he eventually discovered the best way to deal with us was to leave us alone." John Bainbridge quotes Victor Sjosrom as having said, "We were great, very great friends. But in spite of our sincere friendship, I am not sure that I knew him profoundly, got deep under his skin. I don't think anybody did. So many different kinds of men were gathered within him." Photoplay reviewed the 1926 film version of The Scarlet Letter, "Hawthorne's classic and somber study of the New England conscience has just been somberly translated to the screen. Lillian Gish wears the red letter of sin with her stock virginal sweetness failing to grasp the force of Hester Prynne's will power and intelligence...The camerawork has been perfectly handled but the puritans have been seen with a slightly Swedish eye by director Victor Seastrom. They are dour rather than high minded fanatics....Take your handkerchiefs and the older children". Decades before Lillian Gish published her autobiography The Movies, Mr. Griffith and Me, she had layered some its preliminary by laying out its chronicle during conversations to biographer Albert Bigelow Paine, author of Life and Lillian Gish. Paine quotes her discussing her having been on the set with Victor Sjostrom, "He got the spirit of the story exactly, and was hinself a fine actor, the finest that ever directed me. I never worked with anyone I liked better than Seastrom. He was Scandinavian- thorough and prompt. If Mr. Seastrom said we would start at eight, or half past, the camera was ready at that time, and so were we." Gish connects this to an illness in her family while filming The Scarlett Letter, "At the studio, Seastrom said that by working day and night we could do the remaining two weeks on the picture in the three days I had left...We didn't waste a moment and during those three days there was very little sleep for anyone." Sidney Sutherland, author of the several installments of Lillian Gish, The Incomparable Being: The Story of Great Tragedienne that appeared in Liberty Magazine during 1927 quoted the silent film actress, "We finished The Scarlet Letter on schedule. eight weeks having been allotted to it by Mr. Thalberg, but we found we would require about two weeks for certain retakes and changes. Just as we began this added work, I received word from London my mother was dying...That would give me just to finish up the fourteen days necessary for the retakes. I told Mr Thalberg and Victor Seastrom, my director, and we worked forty eight hours, without more than two hours sleep. Interiors were made all night and outdoor scenes every moment of sunlight." The Film Daily magazine reviewed the work of actress Lillian Gish, "Another very credible performance. At times Miss Gish reaches real heights." It reviewed the film favorably, "Metro Goldwyn Mayer and Victor Seastrom are to be congratulated for their courage in telling this dramatic without any extraneous and unnecessary flourishes", but also advice as to its "Exploitation". "No ballyhoo for this. It isn't that type of a picture. The import of the letter A which Lillian Gish carries like a cross might be used to arouse interest." It was a set where "Lillian Gish is gelatinizing the famous Scarlet Letter" as seen by Photoplay of that year. Motion Picture Classic published stills of Lillian Gish taken by Milton Brown. It reviewed the film with "Miss Gish's Hester should be an interesting addition to her gallery of suffering heroines." Before beginning his chapter An Aesthetics of Light, Bo Florin lays an emphasis to the "cinematic language" used by Victor Sjostrom in the film, particularly superimposures and the metaphoric function of their metrynomy, and the use of off-screen space. a language which "emphasizes the presence of the spectator"(Florin). The chapter title ultimately leads to an analysis of the film's mise-en-scene by author Orjan Roth-Lindberg, and then continues to a look at stylistic devices, summarized in Florin having written, "Thus continuity may be traced on a general thematic level as well as stylistically, in the handling of light and landscape, and down to the smallest details, such as the use of one specific device, the dissolve, which perhaps, more than any other, has characterized Sjostrom as a director." November 1926, Motion Picture announced "Seastrom Returns". Victor Sjostrom had sailed to to United States on the Gripsholm from Sweden, where he and his family had been vacationing.
Victor Seastrom Silent Film Victor Seastrom Victor Seastrom Victor Seastrom Victor Seastrom-Silent Film

Silent Film: Lost Film, Found Magazines

Victor Seastrom Mauritz Stiller, after having met cameraman Julius Jaenzon, had begun directing for Svenska Bio in 1912, one film that he directed that year for Svenska Biografteatern having been The Black Masks (Den Svarta Maskerna), a circus movie in regard to its subject. It has been noted that the films is exceptionally edited, its numerous, various scenes, " a constantly changing combination of interiors and exteriors, closeups and panoramic shots." (Forsyth Hardy) It has also been reported that the film starring Victor Sjostrom and Lili Bech is lost. It has been described as a melodrama dealing with espionage with an exciting action sequence as its climax. Begnt Forslund exuberantly remarks upon the discovery of a hitherto unknown copy of Predators of the Sea (Sea Vultures, Havsgama, 1914), starring Richard Lund, Greta Almoth and John Ekman, and not so exhuberantly on the unlikelihood of a copy of Victor Sjostrom"s film The Divine Woman ever being found in the future. There were 478 silent films made in Sweden; of them only 192 still exist, although there are copies of fragments from a number of them. Although preserved and restored by the Swedish Film Institute, the film Nar karleken dodar (1913), a two act drama (with a prologue) photographed by Julius Jaenzon in which Mauritz Stiller directed Victor Sjostrom and George af Klerker, exists only in incomplete form as fragmentary, as does Par livets odesvager from that same year, again photographed by Julius Jaenzon with Mauritz Stiller directing from a scrapt written by Peter Lykke-Seest. More perfunctory was the author Aleksander Kwaiatowski, writing in the latter fourth of the twentieth century about the remnants of Mauritz Stiller at Swedish Biograph, "Of the thirty two pictures he made between 1912 and 1916, prints of only one are available, Love and Journalism...Contemporaries thought Love and Journalism a Danish-inspired film, the presentation of society life meant only to entertain audiences, with no attention to social problems. Added to the missing Swedish catalog, countless Danish silent films produced by Ole Olsen for Nordisk Films Kompagni are "presumably lost": the Danish Film Institute notes that approximately 1600 silent short and feature films were made whereas only 250 films presently exist, Not the only webpage concerned with the preservation of Silent Film, the lost films webpage from Berlin show clips and stills from fifty silent film that it claims are "unknown or unidentified". One clue in finding them, or realigning their photo play subject matter and story lines may be that Leif Furhammar has written that after Swedish director George af Klerker left the studio to conceivably film with Pathe and director Paul Garbagni, Producer Charles Magnusson shifted his attention to Denmark, securing the rights to Danish melodramas while exporting Swedish films through Copenhagen rather than Paris. "Several of the movies produced in the Swedish studios were pure imitations of Danish popular films." From the magazines that were circulated at the time period, there can be found a more detailed view of the films that are now lost. In Close Up magazine, essayist Robert Herring allows a fragment where there would otherwise be none. In the article Film Imagery :Seastrom, he quotes the now deteriorated intertitles while describing a scene, "When the great actress breaks down she cries, 'I can't go on. Oh God, I'm done for. I hate it all.'" It was the author's sentiment that this scene be placed nearer toward the end of the film, and yet what is certain is that there aren't enough remaining stills from the film to piece together how the scene appeared on the screen visually. When the magazine reviewed the film as a new release it advised, "The Divine Woman. If you must see Garbo, see her under Seastrom." Bengt Forslund penned a brief paragraph about the silent film The Divine Woman (En Gudomlig Kvinna, 1928), directed by Victor Sjostrom under the name Victor Seastrom, "This was written 35 years ago and even at that stage all prints seem to have vanished. There is not much hope of finding one today since Garbo's films have been the subject of more research than those of most other stars.". Lon Chaney is quoted as having said, "I told Garbo that mystery served me well and it would do as much for her." Forslund reflected upon the existing early silent film of the Swedish director, "Even more regrettable is that out of the 31 films directed by Sjostrom during this period, only three have survived, and out of the other 8 films in which he acted, not a single one remains."
      It was Norma Shearer who was to star opposite Lon Chaney in the other M.G.M directed by Victor Sjostrom under the name Seastrom of which there are no existant copies, that film being Tower of Lies (1924, seven reels). The Tower of Lies was photographed by Percy Hilburn. Photoplay Magazine reviewed the film in a way that doesn't discourage the viewer but only makes us want to screen the film more, "If the director had been as concerned with telling the story as he was with thinking up symbolic scenes, this would have been a great picture. As it is, Victor Seastrom was so busy being artistic, he forgot to be human. The emotions are those of the theater, not of life, in spite of the fact that both Lon Chaney and Nora Shearer might have made them real." After providing a brief synopsis, Exhibitor's Trade Review summarized the film and its tone, "A heart-gripping photoplay well produced and full of fine characterization. It's audience appeal is nevertheless in doubt because of the sombre futility of the story. It is replete with bitterness. Scarce a ray of sunshine penetrates the gloom. When the clouds do part it is for a brief instant. It is depressing...It is full of a rare symbolism. people will not forget it...Get the best people in town to see this one. Tell them about Lon Chaney's latest effort. Stress the book tie-up."  A press notice from the studio included, "Another of Lon Chaney's remarkable character portrayals will be seen in 'The Tower of Lies' and the catch lines provided to theater owners were, "LIfe was cruel to him, but he held Truth and Honor to the end- and when the Tower of Lies crashed, he was ready to meet it." Motion PIcture News reviewed the film, "Victor Seastrom approaches more nearly to the artistic masterpieces which he produced abroad than in anything he has made here. Not that it is finer than 'He Who Gets Slapped' but that it approaches his Swedish pictures more nearly in theme and mood. This is partly due no doubt to the fact that it is based upon Selma Lagerlof's Swedish novel." The plot theme of the "story of Scandinavian peasant life" and "scenes of rural life" was given in outline by the magazine, "Intimate drama of a farmer who awakens to the beauty of life through his daughter, and who loses his reason when she goes astray. His death brings the girl back to herself."
     During 1925, Lon Chaney, in an article entitled My Own Story and published by Movie Magazine, while pointing to the themes of "self-sacrifice and renunciation" in his films wrote, "The picture I have just completed, Tower of Lies, is the story of a father's enduring love and sacrifice, even to death, for his wayward daughter. I do not know that it is my favorite of all roles that I have portrayed, but certainly it is one of them and I consider Victor Seastrom, who directed it, the greatest director in the motion picture profession." Also in 1925, The Reel Journal, a sister publication to the magazine New England Film News, reviewed the films of Lon Chaney with the article "Lon Chaney Turns to Less Grotesque Roles". The article initially began by noting that, in regard to depiction of thematic character, "Lon Chaney, who has attracted stardom by playing roles of a weird and grotesque character, is turning to portrayals depending on more deeply human qualities for their interest.", the professionalism as a make-up artist on the part of Lon Chaney is not without having been noticed, "In his first Metro-Goldwyn Mayer picture, Victor Seastrom's production of Leonid Andreyev's He Who Gets Slapped...Chaney donned two make-ups, one as a European scientist, and the other as a clown. It was said by critics of the latter that this portrayal was the first circus clown interpretation to express the humanity which lies behind the painted mask of a mountebank...In The Tower of Lies, his make-up demonstrates a transition from middle age to old age." Both films The Tower of Lies and The Unholy Three were unreleased at the time of the review. Robert Herring, who published Film Imagery: Seastrom in Close Up magazine, wrote, "When Seastrom made Tower of Lies in Hollywood, and his landscapes were reduced to softened orchards, and smooth hills, life in the house was still as living, still almost as Swedish, in the very details exteriorized the main theme as much as ever, even though to my taste, the theme was poor."
      Victor Sjostrom would exchange his place behind the camera to play the character he filmed as Victor Seastrom: director Gustav Molander remade Tower of Lies in Sweden during 1944, Victor Sjostrom himself taking Lon Chaney's character in the cast with Swedish actress Gunn Walgren filling in for Norma Shearer. Forsyth Hardy wrote, "Although Sjostrom"s intense acting made the film moving, it was curiously out of sympathy with the new atmosphere of production." A year earlier, Gustaf Molander had directed Sjostrom in Det Brinner en Eld, Forsyth Hardy having written that, "The acting in these parts of Victor Sjostrom, Lars Hanson and Inga Tiblad gave the film a strong human appeal and from the war setting Molander resourcefully drew a nervous tension to sharpen his drama."
     Made before Tower of Lies, an earlier film starring John Gilbert and Norma Shearer, The Wolfman, directed by Edmund Mortimer in 1924, is also among the myriad of films now thought to be lost, included among them Four Devils, filmed in the United States by F. W Murnau in 1928 and starring Janet Gaynor and Nacy Drexel. Photoplay, while providing a still from the film, saw The Four Devils as the "long awaited successor" to Murnau's Sunrise and as a source of a plot summary to the film, it alludes to the film's tone, "the final shot implies a happy ending. The film will probably be cut to eliminate the over drawn scenes before it is released." One film thought to be non-existent before preservation attempts is a film which introduced actor Nils Asther in his first appearance onscreen, a Lars Hanson film directed by Mauritz Stiller in 1916, The Wings (Vingarne)- it was remade, or re-adapted rather, as a silent by Carl Theodore Dreyer. Maurtiz Stiller had directed Lars Hanson in his first film, Dolken, photographed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Lili Bech, a year earlier. Another recent discovery led to the restoration of the "previously thought lost" (Svenska Filminstitutet) 1913 film Gransfolken also directed by Mauritz Stiller. The Svenska Filminsitutet reported the finding of a tinted nitrate print of the film of which black and white negatives were made, thereby allowing recreated intertitles to be added to a Desmet print. The film stars Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson, Lily Jacobsson, Edith Erastoff and Stina Berg and was photographed by Julius Jaenzon and Hugo Edlund. Loves of An Actress (Rowland Lee,1928) in which Nils Asther starred with Pola Negri and Mary McAllister, as a matter of fact, is a lost film.
     Bo Florin has noted, "Sjostrom's career as a film director in Sweden before he went to Hollywood is usually divided into two parts: before and after A Man There Was (1917)...much of the earlier material is lost. The rediscovery of Dodskyssen (The Kiss of Death) from 1916, however, calls for a nuancing of this; in its complex stylistic effects, this films stands much closer to Korkarlen (The Phantom Carriage) 1921, his internationally most famous and stylistically most elaborated film, than to A Man There Was." And yet, Florin also compares The Phantom Carriage with Name the Man in an examination of the style of Victor Sjostrom, "The dissolve in Name the Man might serve the particular purpose of softening the spatial reversal...a comparision to The Phantom Carriage might illustrate the function of the dissolve. The whole narrative development in the film could be said to be condensed within one constrasting device...In The Phantom Carriage as in Name the Man, the clear structural parallel between two images adds a new dimension to the interpretation of the film's meaning. These examples of style clearly indicate continuity between Sweden and Hollywood, where Sjostrom has preserved his characteristic signature in spite of the shift between to production cultures." In regard to spatial reversal, Florin chronicles that there are eighteen seperate instances of Victor Sjostrom "cutting across the 180 degree line to a completely reversed camera position" in the film The phantom Carriage. Interestingly, David Bordwell has written, "Sjostrom is perhaps the model for a fast learner, having created one of the masterpieces in Ingeborg Holm, and only a few years later making The Girl from Stormycroft (1917) and The Outlaw and His Wife, assured excercises in continuity editing." To which can be added a quote from Jon Wengstrom of the Swedish Film Institute, "The pictorial compostitions in Sea Vultures (Havsgamar, 1916) and the complex narrative structure in the recently rediscovered Kiss of Death (Dodskyssen, 1916) show a director in full command of the medium." Maximillan Schmige quotes author Hans Pensel, "By 1920 Sjostrom had learned to employ a faster editing of his pictures and began to understand the enormous importance of the visual elements in cinema." The Phantom Carriage (Korkarlen/The Phantom Chariot, 1920, also listed as 1921), when shown in the United States during 1922 under the title The Stroke of Midnight, was reviewed by Photoplay Magazine as being, "Drama from the Swedish- so drab and grim in its realism that one longs, almost, for a bit of unassuming splapstick to liven it up...Impressive, but depressing." Picture-play Magazine in 1922 reviewed the film, "It is a Swedish film and full of gloom. But the strong point of 'Midnight' is not the gloom, but its ghost story." it continued to note that the film "will send shivers up your spine" the reviewer conceded that they "had to sit through reels of endless dreary moralizing." On the acting performance of Victor Sjostrom in front of the camera during The Phantom Carriage, Forsyth Hardy wrote, "The exaggerated gestures of some of the earlier films had gone, but the intensity of feeling was still there." Hardy summarizes his impression of Sjostrom with the premise that Sjostrom inevitably preferred acting, and the theater, to directing and staging camerawork. When asked about Victor Sjostrom, Ingmar Bergman had told Torsten Manns, "His films meant a tremendous lot to me, particularly The Phantom Carriage and Ingeborg Holm." In his autobiography Images, Ingmar Bergman writes, "He made the movie that, to me, was the first film of all films. I saw it for the first time when I was fifteen; to this day I see it at least once every summer, either alone or in the company of young people. I clearly see how The Phantom Carriage influenced my work." Birgitta steene in fact writes,"The aim of both The Phantom carriage and Wild strawberries is moral; they tell of a change of character in an egotistical old man and his integration into a community of love." The recently married editor of the online journal Scandinavian Cinema, Australian Emma Vestrheim has expressed a similar common sentiment of film buffs, "Wild Strawberries is a road trip through the Swedish countryside, where the protagonist played by Victor Sjostrom comes to terms with his own life and death, after he dreams that he dies. The trip through nature represents his own inner conflicts and battles, and it fits perfect that Sjostrom is both one of Bergman's inspirations and the director of The Phantom Carriage, one of the first Scandinavian films about death." Emma, with whom I had been taking an online class on Scandinavian Cinema, was extremely polite while I was being considered as a contributor to her fist issue. Bergman has written that while filming "Wild Strawberries" ("Simultronstallet" 1957) that it seemed to him that it soon became "Victor's film", the film belonging more to the actor than to the director, and yet after "Wild Strawberries", Bergman would begin to write films in which "dialogue and characteristizations would take precedence over scenery and locations." (Cowie) In part, what may account for Berman's feeling that the film had become more of a contribution that Sjostrom had made rather than one of his own, Bergman an auteur if anything, may have been its use of the protagonist as narrative address rather than the omniscient, time-traveling third person authorial camera as an unnown lyrical "I"; the character imparts storyline rather than a construct of the director known as observer. During an interview with Stig Bjorkman, Torsten Manns and Jonas Sima, Bergman had said, "Many of my films are about journeys, people going from one place to another." Narrative space seems character centered- a throne from subjectivity. Sima had noted shortly before that "Wild Strawberries" centers around the character portrayed by Victor Sjostrom and his "relationship to himself". But is the clock ticking differently in the two films, both of which star Sjostrom; are the deadlines and exigencies oblique to each other when films are compared? Victor Sjostrom was in fact not in the best health while filming for Ingmar Bergman and reportedly had difficulty remembering lines of dialogue. There were scenes that had been filmed on interior sets using back screen projection to accommodate Sjostrom.
In regard to narrative linearity, it could be said that there are structural parallels between the two films, beginning with the placement of flashbacks and scene segmentation. Adapted from the novel Thy Soul Shall Bear Witness by Selma Lagerlof and directed by Victor Sjostrom from his own screenplay, the film was photographed by Julius Jaenzon. In the United States, Exceptional Photoplays reviewed the film during 1922, "In this picture is present to a very marked degree the inclination toward the supernatural, toward the the eerie forces beyond the bounds of reason, which is characteristic of nearly all Swedish productions. Obviously any attempt to transpose the works of Selma Lagerlof to the screen would necessitate careful handling of the suggestion of the supernatural nowhere more strikingly present than in her novel Stroke of Midnight is a picturization." Einar Lauritzen wrote, "The double exposures in the graveyard scenes and in the scenes with the phantom chariot are beautifully executed, and, as always in Julius Jaenzon's photography, the interplay of light and shadow is superb. Peter Cowie has noted that during the scene, "Occaisionaly as many as four images are superimposed on a single frame." Francis Taylor Patterson of Exceptional Photoplays reviewed the film, "Here a strong dramatic interest is built upon the legend of the Gray Driver, who drives his grim cart over the moors, through the cities, to the floor of the sea itself, collecting the souls of the dead...There is a wealth of imagery in the play, a freshness both of in conception and execution, which combined with the admirable acting, again, of Victor Seastrom, place the play well forward among screen excellencies." In Remapping Lagerlof:performance, Intermediality and European transmissions; Selma Lagerlof in the Goden Age of Swedish Film, author Anna Nordlund writes, "Sjostrom's ethical and aesthetic ideals coincided with the visual dimensions of Lagerlof's narrative technique, as well as with the drama and growing emotional tension of her narrative content." She highlights that Sjostrom was to "experiment in depth with the cinematic possibilities of depicting more than one level of place and time and of visualizing a complex plot rather than chronological story. During April of 1921, Educational film Magazine reviewed the film with, "The actual story passes in a period of not more than fifteen minutes, during which time a man's soul is completely regenerated...The spiritual wandering a of (the character), as he lies unconscious, and as he believes, dead in a churchyard, after a midnight orgy, convey to the spectator, episode by episode, his complete life history. These retrospective scenes are introduced unite deftly. the thesis of the story is essentially a morality tale...The picture is inspird throughout by the highest ethical motives, although it is in no sense religious or Salvationalist propaganda." Victor Sjostrom appears as Victor Seastrom in Film Daily magazine during 1920. During 1920, audiences in the United States were asked to flock to A Man There Was, a full page advertisement with To Our Critics scrolled across the top appearing in The Film Dauly on March 14. beneath the picture of Victor Sjostrom was the caption ,"the Great American artists acclaimed in Europe as "Prince of the Screen", who overwhelmed the American Press as a Grat Actor and still a greater director." quoting reviewers from Moving Picture World, Motion Picture News, Exhibitor!s trade Review and Wids's Daily, in which the ad appeared, it claimed to impart "WhT the leading critics of the motion picture press said about A Man There Was after it's first (imperfect) Picture Projection arranged for the press." Sjostrom's film, one that had been filmed before the merger of studios in Sweden, has followed him to the United States, finally screened not only four years after it was made, but in a country that Sjostrom would not direct in until four years after that- he was not yet Victor Seastrom. Summarizing the film A Man There was not a moving picture but a moving painting, Victor Seastrom, not a movie star but a screen luminary of the first magnitude. and both combined are the treat of the season." The photo caption identifies the director as Victor Seastrom Motion Picture News introduced Victor Sjostrom to American readers during 1920 with The review Actor-Director plays role By Proxy., "Victor Sjostrom, the actor director of the Swedish Biograph Company employs a double to his own role during rehearsals of film plays, only portraying the part himself when the actual photographing of the events is going on. By viewing his own role from being the camera, Sjostrom derives a better understanding, declared Ernest Mattsson, American manager of the Swedish Biograph Company.
 

     The films of Sjostrom and Stiller can be compared while relating their influence upon the silent film of Finland, but it can be allowed that, "Victor Sjostrom delved deeper into the mysteries of landscape"(Annetti Alanen). Venerated film historian Forsyth Hardy compared the two silent film directors by writing, "Both turned instinctively for materials from the works of Selma Lagerlof with their combination of ardent puritainism and passionate love of nature. And both were sensitively aware of the virtue which the cameraq could draw out of inanimate objects."  Director Mauritz Stiller had in 1921 used the Swedish part of Lapland to film the beautiful actress Jenny Hasselquist in the film "Johan" ("Troubled Waters"), an adaptation of the 1911 novel written by Juhani Aho. As well as being an author, Aho had translated the work of Selma Lagerlof into the Finnish language. Like Selma Lagerlof, Juhani Aho complained that if the novel had not been translated exactly to film by Stiller, it had certainly not been translated to the screen literally, but his objections seem less strongly put and Stiller's poetic liscence seems less flagrant. Aho had been promised he could review the film scrapt before it had been filmed, which was apparently passed by at the time. Juhani Aho wrote from Helsinki to Mauritz Stiller in Stockholm with the announcement that he has translated the intertitles to Stiller's Photoplay into Finnish. "The Swedish actors," wrote Aho, "are above all criticism. They are faultless. I don't know who I should praise most." Once considered a lost film "Johan", directed by Mauritz Stiller has since been restored. It was photographed by Swedish cinematographer Henrik Jaenzon.  The scholar Antii Alanen has written, "The composition is based on the elements of light and the stream. The characters radiate in the enchanted light and night never falls. The ever-present stream rushes forth as an image of life and even time itself." As an "ode to light", Antii compares Stiller's film to Murnau's "Faust", but in doing so it would seem that he was thinking more about "The Wind", directed by Victor Sjostrom.
     Birgitta Steene noted that, "it was Sjostrom and Stiller (as well as Griffith) who began to shoot pictures outdoors." Peter Cowie has noted that Swedish films were often shot on location and that Sjostrom had "revelled in location shooting and embarked on the most perilous of stunts for the sake of realism." Often in the films of Sjostrom, like in those of Bergman, "the landscape in which his journeys take place are part of the journey." (Simon)  During 1920, Victor Sjostrom had veered from Selma Lagerlof and had adapted, that is to say wrote and directed, a story by Franz Grillparzer, his relying upon Swedish camerman Henrik Jaenzon behind the lens to film The Monastery of Sendomir (Klosteret i Sendomir/The Secret of the Monastery, starring Tora Teje, Renee Bjorling, Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson and Erik A Petschler. Francis Taylor Patterson reviewed the film for the magazine Exceptional Photoplays, "The Secret of the Monastery has used for dramatic purposes an interior setting just as 'Sir Arne' used an exterior." The magazine felt that as there were only two exterior shots employed in the film in shifted  the interest from setting to characterization at the expense of depicting the splendor of the Scandinavian landscape. There is a beauty to film criticism if it is not a separate art form and if it is not a separate form of extratextural discourse in its being a specificity if not in its being personal that is reflected in a quote from Francis Taylor Patterson in his Swedish Photoplays published in Exceptional Photoplays magazine during 1922, "This is an impression of quietude, of dramatic repose. There is a smoothness in the flow of the scene sequence. There does not seem to be that constant urge to speed up the action, which mars some of our pictures. A slowness of movement, a dignity, sits well upon the tragic mood which most of these pictures sustain." There is an appreciation of film for what it is, the viewer experience- yet in comparing Sjostrom before he came to the United States to Griffith or Ince, the author has alighted upon film theory and just that; the principle that montage should acclerate, that it is necessary that it should, that cross cutting inordinately should become more rapid.
     Forsyth Hardy brackets the film with Masterman with the observation, "Sjostrom never lost his interest in the film as a medium for the expression of inner conflicts and for the revelation of character from within." While providing a synopsis-analysis of the film, Bo Florin writes that Sjostrom uses the dissolve in Monastery of Sendomir as a transformatory device, "In addition to the cuts [across the line cutting, reverse angle], the dissolve plays a particularly central role among other optical transitions in Sjostrom's films. Moreover, it is often used as a transformatory device creeating analogies between two images- sometimes also in connection with superimposures...The dissolve works, as an independent device which does not in this context recieve any clarifying support from any other narrative patterns. In this single changing of images through motion in reverse direction (is) the whole drama". Florin continues to note a series of five transformatory dissolves in the film Love's Crucible (Vem Domer, 1922).
During August of 1919, Motion Picture News ran two full pages of illustrated advertisement for the Swedish Biograph Company, reminiscient of the advertisements for Nordisk film that had Untill then been placed in magazines during most of the decade. It, along with a page devoted to the films Love the Only Law, a Man There Was, Flame of Life and Dawn of Love, announced its first feature that had been brought to the United States, the Girl from Marshcroft, which "was run at Tremont Temple, Boston, Mass. For two record breaking weeks. During 1920, Film Daily reported that Fine Arts Pictures had acquired for distribution in the United States the film "The Woman He Chose, which is The Girl Of Marshcroft renamed." To Bengt Forslund, Sjostrom had found a "descraptive visual language" which accounts for his collaboration with Selma Lagerlof and her novels being particularly suited for adaptation. John Fullerton, in his article Notes on the Cultural Context of Reception: The Girl from Marsh Croft 1917, includes novelist Selma Lagerlof in his assessment of how the film interpellated audiences to identify with its subjects in the triad of unseen-observer/authorial camera, viewing subject as objectification-embodiment of the look and the spectator-in-the-public-sphere; Fullerton enters the extra-textural deigesis of flanneur/commodity by pointing to a fourpage advertisement or "publicity newsheet" that appeared in Film Nyheter prior to the film's release that primarily details a screening of the film that author Selma Lagerlof and director Victor Sjostrom attended together, a sneak preview in effect, in Gothenburg where Lagerlof publicly approves of the content of the film, "we are told that she believes Sjostrom has given of his best in this production and the he has not compromised his intentions." Fullerton mentions that Lagerlof criticises the number of intertitles in one particular scene and then quotes her as having said that despite of this she was in tears like everyone else who had seen the ending of the scene. Fullerton continues, "Lagerlof is reported as saying that '[f]ilm is much better and stronger that drama...Never before have the different roles in a dialogue scene been so thoroughly or excellantly realized." After analyzing a pivotal scene of the film, Fullerton writes, "In conjunction with an unusually high number of medium shots and medium close shots, intertitles promote character-centered narration. In do so, the film recasts the conventions of the dramatic tableau whose origin in nineteenth centuring staging [proscenium arch], genre painting and museum display had been so central to the formal development of the medium before the mid-1910's. The Girl from Marshcroft redefined earlier nodes of investment in the folk body as nostalgic object." The Girl From Marshcroft, which begins with a panning exterior establishing long shot and then reverses the screen direction to repeat it in a second shot before cutting to an interior with Greta Almroth after an introductory expository intertitle. It advances the scene with an over-the shoulder mirror shot of her readying to leave. Anna Nordlund, in Selma Lagerlof in the Golden Age of Swedish Cinema chronicles that "Sjostrom made no attempt to capture cinematically Lagerlof's flashback technique and the complex shifts in time and place in the opening sequence of her story. on the contrary, while remaining faithful to the events portrayed in Lagerlof's story, Sjostrom rearranged the sequence of events chronologically throughout the film." Forsyth Hardy compares The Girl from the Marshcroft (Tosen fran Stormytorpet to the film The Outlaw and his Wife (Berg-Ejvind och frans Hustru. "Both films showed a marked advance on anything previously achieved in the Swedish cinema. There was greater freedom of movement, an assured sense of rhythm and a fine feeling for composition." In order to arrive at the premise that Sjostrom's productions in Hollywood were far removed from those made in Sweden, Bo Florin, in Transition and Transformation, begins his chapter Lyrical Intimacy as Authorial Style, with a look at the technique and cutting used in The Girl from the Marshcroft, The Monstery of Sendomir and The Outlaw and His Wife, "Sjostrom's preserved films from the Swedish years, which have formed the overall picture of the director, are perhaps above all characterized by their lyrical intimacy, created through downplayed acting, through a mise-en-scene and montage privileging a circular space with a clear center, towards which movements converge." The Girl From Marshcroft was produced by Charles Magnusson and was co-written with Victor Sjostrom by Esther Julin. Bo Florin notes that Sjostrom made modifications in the margins of the scrapt of the film The Girl From Marshcroft while collaborating with Esther Julin, particularly one specific instance of cutting across the 180-degree line, a photographic device that Florin returns to while discussing the film Name the Man. On the silent film of Victor Sjostrom, Bo Florin has previously written, "In his review of The Outlaw and His Wife, french filmmaker and critic Louis Delluc has already mentioned "a third interpreter, particularly eloquent: landscape'- which echoes several other comments from this period. Henri Agel repeats the same point, talking about a fascinating "fusion between man and landscape.'" It is central to Florin's appreciation of Sjostrom that as a director, the journey to the United States was one where Sjostrom wasn't entirely out of his element, and that the camerawork was to be used to deepen the thematic content and symbolic characterizations in his films. "In my own analysis of The Outlaw and his Wife I have shown in detail how man's exposure to the overwhelmingly powerful forces of nature seem to make the latter more and more hostile. This, the shape of the landscape in the film functions as a series of visual presages, which to the spectators forebode the dark conclusion of the narrative. In quite a similar manner, the central element in The Wind appears an ever-present overwhelming force in the film that makes all attempts at human resistance appear futile and ineffectual." Florin also notes, "The film had been distributed in the United States with the title You and I, with the addition of a prologue and epilogue providing the original film with a frame which made it appear as a film within a film." Love the Only Law has also been listed as an alternative title to the film. Anne Bachmann, in Locating Inter-Scandinavian Silent Film Culture: Connections, Contentions, Configurations summarizes the view of critics toward the film, "In the reception of Berg-Ejvind och hans hustru, the most reiterated statements were comments on how the film engaged with nature: 'Natur och naturlighet helt igenom dew ar denna films stora sturka' (Nature and naturalness all through- that is the great strength of this film) was the phrase in Stockholms Dagblad. In several aspects Berg Ejvind was an offshoot from Terje Vigen, the first specimen of the Swedish wave of nature-focused films...In the reception of Berg-Ejvind, the nature discourse conversely fully overshadowed the mentions of the both popular and recent theater production of the play." Bachmann happened to find a quote from the author of the play, whom has seen the film, regarding the use of landscape as the veracity of the "nature-shot" when filming for an authenticity of location, "Johann Sigurjonsson stepped forward as a guarantor of the location's felt authenticity when declaring Lapland had the 'same' mountains, views, and clean air as Iceland.... 'I have wandered on foot through ther most desolate areas of Iceland, he said, and now [in the film] it was as if I recognized every spot. But, above all, it was the inner, invisible likeness [metaphysical aspect]- that which lives in the soil itself.' Photographed by Julius Jaenzon, it is Victor Sjostrom's scrrenplay, co-written by Swedish screenwriter Sam Ask, as the first scrapt Ask had written, and was adapted from a novel by Johann Sigurjonsson that had already been brought to the theater. Victor sjostrom had performed the four act play quickly after it had been published; Eyvind of the Hills had been printed in Danish in 1911 and only later published in Icelandic. Sjostrom had performed the play in Goteborg that same year. The playwright, Johann Sigurjonsson explained it was built around the two principal characters by writing, "Halla's nature is moulded on a Danish woman's soul," but oddly he adds something more thematic by writing, "In my little garret in Copenhagen, i learned by my own experience the agony of lonliness." Sigurjohansson relates that it had been his correspondence with Bjornstjerne Bjornson that had helped him publish his first play, Dr. Rung, in 1905. He followed in 1908 with the play The Hraun Farm (Bondinn a Hrauni). Before the screening of Victor Sjostrom's The Outlaw and His Wife, Sigurjonsson also published the play The Wish (Onsket), which was printed in 1915. Anne Bachmann of Stockholm Universityl lends an insight into Victor Sjostrom the actor and director, "Hand in hand with the the discourse of 'nature and naturalness' went tales of danger encountered while filming, particularly by Victor Sjostrom himself. For Berg-Ejvid he allegedly risked a fatal accident, and for Terje Vigen, his health in cold dips." Later in her essay, Bachmann identifies the scene as a stunt displaying "the anecdotal trope of danger of slipping down a rope and falling down a precipice to a certain death".  
During 1926, Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius directed his first film, which he also scrapted, Flickorna Gyurkovics, starring Betty Balfour, Karin Swanstrom, Stina Berg and Lydia Potechina. Contemporary to Victor Sjostrom's use of symbolic narrative, Swedish poet Birger Sjoberg during 1926 published the volume Cries and Wreaths (Kriser och kransar in which scandinavian landscape is used within mood images to envelope its symbolism. Landscape to thematicly depict emotion that needed to be expressed through the symbolic had been used earlier in the poetry of Vilhelm Ekelund.  In Sweden, during 1926 author Selma Lagerlof watched filmstrips of the adaptation to the screen of her novel by Victor Sjostrom as Seastrom in the United States, the scenario having been drawn up by Agnes Christine Johnston. All seven reels of the film are presently considered to be lost. There are seventeen dissolves in the film, the lowest incidence in the films directed by Sjostrom, but that nevertheless contributing to his "authorial imprint" (Florin). Norma Shearer, who had starred under Victor Sjostrom's direction in Tower of Lies with William Haines had said that Sjostrom "was more concerned with the moods he was creating than the shadings he would have injected into my performance." When reviewed by Photoplay Magazine, the film was seen as "a worthwhile picture spoiled by a too conscious effort to achieve art. Consequently, a human story suffers from artificiality." When further reviewed by Photoplay, it was added that, "If the director had been as concerned with telling the story as he was thinking of symbolic scenes, this would have been a great picture. As it is, Victor Seastrom was so busy being artistic that he forgot to be human. The emotions are of those of the theater, not of life." Actor William Haines later was to tell Photoplay Magazine, "But then it is strange, too, that I have worked here for several years on the same lot with Greta Garbo and have never met her." On Sjostrom, Author Iris Barry observed, "He has a genius for the rural. In Tower of Lies he has redeemed himself on exactly these lines. Also witness the love scene in He Who Gets Slapped, the only really attractive part in that rather tedious picture."
Motion Picture News during early 1927 printed the announcement "Swedish Film Actress Signed by M.G.M.", which read, "Swedish distributors of M.G.M. pictures and announcements in Swedish trade papers state that Mona Martenson, a well known and beautiful actress of that country, has been signed by Metro Goldwyn Mayer and will come to America this summer."
     In Sweden, the 1928 film Erik XIV was written and directed by Sam Ask, it having starred Sophus von Rosen, Eva Munck af Rosenchold, Lisa Ryden Prytz and Gösta Werner. 
     Apparently some of the scenes in which Eva von Berne had appeared were refilmed after the shooting of the film Masks of the Devil (Victor Seastrom, 1928, eight reels) had concluded. New to film, Eva von Berne was to star opposite John Gilbert under the direction of Victor Sjostrom. The assistant director to the film was Harold S. Bucquet. Photoplay magazine lent acclaim to the film with, "A creditable effort to delve into the minds of a group of strange, Continental characters. The fans may not like John Gilbert as a sinister character, but he is always a great actor. She (Eva von Berne) has a difficult role even for an experienced actress". The Film Spectator echo the sentiment with, "She is far too inexperienced to be given a part which required as much ability as the one in this picture. She wasn't good, nor was she very bad." In another review Photoplay touted, "John Gilbert is great in a weird and sinister story." In its section, "Last Minute News", Motion Picture Magazine during 1928 announced, "Production has just started on The Devil's Mask, John Gilbert's next for Metro-Goldwyn. Mary Nolan has been borrowed from Universal to play opposite him. Victor Seastrom will direct." Later, in its Celluloid Critic section, Motion Picture Magazine recanted, "If the tone of Masks of the Devil mean anything, it would seem that John Gilbert is beginning to take up acting in a serious way...under the skillfull and intelligent direction of Victor Seastrom, it becomes an effect gracefully achieved and telling. The story of Masks of the Devil is hardly one that can be denominated cheery. It is a trifle sombre, after the fashion of all Seastrom's pictures...And if the romantic scenes are a trifle conventional and the symbolism driven home as if with a sledgehammer, the other merits of the photoplay more than compensate...His leading woman, Eva von Berne, disclosed in the picture some other reasons for her being returned to Germany, although, this may be said, that inexperience could have accounted for a good measure of her shortcomings." During 1934 a writer for New Movie Magazine noted, "My melancholia was dispersed by the recollection of what Greta Garbo had said to Eva von Bern, the young German girl imported as a triumphant discovery only to be shipped back in tears of humiliation, 'My dear, said Miss Garbo, pressing the girl's hand in farewell, "You don't know how fortunate yo are to be going home and leaving all this.'" Film Spectator also returned with, "The story, which was taken form Jacob Wasserman's Masks of Erwin Reiner, was unique and powerful and allowed Gilbert an oppurtunity for the first characterization he has given since The Big Parade." Bengt Forslund surmises that the use of double exposures to depict interior monolouge was Victor Sjostrom's interest in directing the film. Sven Gade was asked to revise Frances Marion's adaptation of the novel before it went to Monte Katterjohn, the former having been credited with the treatment, the latter with the continuity. "I have the feeling that Sjostrom took the assignment for almost the same reason he had done Kiss of Death; the plot gave him an excuse to play around with the technical side again.", Forslund wrote. The Film Spectator in its review included, "There is one shot where he shows the man and girl walking across an observatory. The big telescope and its shadows dwarf the figures of the humans and the whole thing has a background of twinkling stars. I have never seen anything like it...Another...was in the cathedral...It was used in the opening and closing shots and the handling of lights was masterly." It added, "He has a great way of shooting thoughts...Behind Gilbert's smiling face Seastrom shows the various evil thoughts which he has."  Norbert Lusk of Picture Play Magazine, in a review titled Mr. Gilbert at His Best, first applauded the acting of John Gilbert, "commended for his courage in playing a role which is palpably unsympathetic, but the acting he reveals is indeed sympathetic to those who look for more than sentimental flubdub." In regard to the prescience on screen of Eva Berne, Picture Play felt, "She is not a riot as an actress, but she is well cast, and is so far removed from any one of a hundread ingenues  that I found her refreshing and lovely." The reviewer then connected the film's content and its use of technique, it's unusual good-evil theme and its novelty in presentation, "This significant direction includes a technical innovation seen for the first time on the screen....I think Mr. Seastrom should be duly credited. The innovation consists of showing a character in the act of doing something conventional, while at the same time his entirely opposite thoughts are visualized. True, this is used in the play 'Strange Interlude'...without attempting the same process on screen...additional honor belongs to Mr. Seastrom for doing it first."
     Important to modern authors, Movie Makers magazine, a journal for semi-professional or amateur cameramen, published in 1929 the shot structure from a scene from Masks of the Devil in Central Focusing, Technical Reviews to Aid the Amateur, it putting the film making of Victor Sjostrom on to paper as one of the forerunners to modern film criticism and theory, "Cinematics: In several instances, the camera is used to depict a character's inner thought or impulse in addition to thought and action which he conventionally expresses. In those cases the cinema becomes the all seeing eye of a narrator who penetrates the minds of the characters as well as show their surface reactions, In this case the technique used is as follows: first a medium shot or semi-close shot of two characters in conversation, then a close up of the face of one of them which dissolves into a scene showing him reacting as he really feels. This scene then dissolves back to a semi-closeup of the two characters talking together, fitting in smoothly," As a magazine article from a publication swamped with advertisements for "home projectors", it comes a half-century before the study of semiotics and film narrative. Interestingly, the same issue reviewed the film Uneasy Money (Berthold Vietral) in regard to plot complications, inanimate objects and story-line as the expression of human emotions. In a later issue it looks at the moving camera, flashback narrative and double exposed titles, the use of an image with inter-title, in the film Night Watch (Lajos Biros) looks at the overuse of the moving camera in The Street of Illusion (Kenton), "the camera pauses before a door, opens it, goes through a hall, enters a curtained arch, then another curtained arch, passes to a man and then gives a close up of him." It almost reevaluates the criticism of Stiller's and Dreyer's use of the moving camera from the perspective of 1929. Also, a double exposure of a seance scene is pointed out in the film Unholy Night. In regard to the art of Victor Sjostrom, its is of interest to glance at the article Magic Shadows-what double exposure is doing for the art of the screen, an article written by Edwin Shallert for Picture Play magazine in 1923. While discussing double exposure and "higher artistic imagination" he discusses the narrative use of "dual roles", superimposing one actor on to a split screen and looks at trick photography in the photplay Earthbound (1920, T Hayes Hunter), starring actress Caroline Desborough, along with the later film All Soul's Eve, both belonging to "spiritistic pictures". "Double exposure in its attempt to suggest to the mind some new and yet unseen dream or actuality, may delight with novel humor, may charm with a visible poetry or perhaps even for a second or two inspire thoughts of the sublime." During 1928 Lon Chaney had told Photoplay Magazine, "I've had good directors. Tod Browning and I have worked so much together he's called the Chaney director. I like his work. I think Victor Seastrom and Benjamin Christenson are great directors. Their values are finer." In a Photoplay article entitled, "They Think Alike, both "Sphinxes" Greta Garbo were drawn into parallel by Cal York. In the article Garbo and Chaney are both quoted as they were to trade complimentary remarks. "Of Chaney, Garbo has said, 'His work intrigues me. He is an artist, a creator of illusions. I think he is a magnificent character actor." Chaney is quoted as having returned with a compliment for Greta Garbo, "Garbo is the Bernhardt of the screen" and there is the quotation, "Chaney recently declared, 'She is the greatest feminine personality I have ever seen in the theater and film.'" Photoplay Magazine in an article published in 1932 by Ruth Beiry alluded to Lon Chaney and Greta Garbo having known each other, "He spent many hours with her while she was making her first pictures. And he gave her his opinion on this weird unparalled buisness...'If you let them know much about you, they will lose interest,' he admonished her again and again.'" Greta Garbo, as had Lillian Gish, had asked that Sjostrom direct. Of Greta Garbo, Sjostrom had said, "She thinks above her eyes. Certain great actors posses what seems to be an uncanny ability to register thought- Lon Chaney was one- Garbo is another. They seem to literally absorb impressions...Garbo is more sensitive to emotions than film is to light, (and) you see it through her eyes." The Divine Woman (En Gudomlig Kvinnaeight reels), one of the three films directed by Victor Sjostrom in 1928, was photographed by Oliver T. Marsh, who had photographed the silent film Camille using panchromatic film. The earlier films of Greta Garbo had been filmed on orthochromatic film. Austin Lescarboura, author of Behind the Motion-Picture Screen seems timely in divulging, "Scenery is no longer painted in the prevailing tones of blue and brown, but in full real life values. Costumes are quite as colorful. As a result, orthochromatic registry is correct." The Divine Woman, starring Greta Garbo directed by Victor Sjostrom as Seastrom was based on the play starlight by Gladys Unger, who had also written an early revision of the screenplay. The final rewrite of the screenplay was given to Dorothy Farnum, the titles written by John Colton. The film took six weeks to shoot. Silent film director Victor Sjostrom had remarked after filming, "I and Metro's own scraptwriter, Frances Marion, wrote the story eight times before it was accepted. By that time, nothing remained of the original material." While there are several accounts that would keep the researcher on tenterhooks written by biographers in regard to a synopsis of the film, and each of those only adding to the mysterious eroticism belonging to the silent films of Greta Garbo, this film in particular displaying her in a more girlish promiscuity with a playfullness rather than an the more distant Garbo, the scrapt itself now lingers as a ghost or phantom as Garbo flirts with the movement of onscreen shadows; to this Bengt Forslund adds that there were further revisions after the completed scrapt was approved and the ending was made more tragic. John Bainbridge wrote that the film had been "well recieved", that Sjostrom spoke "glowingly" of Garbo's work in the film and also of Stiller's having had an interest in directing it. Bengt Forslund hints that the scrapt itself had been Stiller's idea as a way for him to return from directing at Paramount. Forslund, in his book Victor Sjostrom: His Life and Work writes, "One recogzines that the story could not be helped, but clearly Sjostrom was trying to do something different with Garbo, to make her a softer, more easy-going woman than she appeared in her earlier films." This premonition was echoed by Paul Rotha, writing in his volume The Film Till Now, but with a different sentiment, "But Seastrom had ceased to develop. He remains stationary in his outlook, thinking in terms of his early Swedish imagery. He has recently made little use of the progress of the cinema itself. The Divine Woman, although it had Greta Garbo of The Atonement of Gosta Berling, had none of the lyricism, the poetic imagery of the earlier film. It is true, however, he rendered the Scandinavian less of a star and more of a woman than in any other of her American film." Biographer and actor Fritiof Billquist quotes Sjostrom as having said, "She never once came to the set without having prepared herself thoroughly down to the last detail, and if one gave her directions, she accepted them, gladly, even though she was a big star even then." Dorothy Farnum was quoted on Greta Garbo by Movies, a magazine which featured Greta Garbo on the cover of its first issue in 1930; it was also one of the many magazines that gave Mauritz Stiller posthumous publicity for having discovered Greta Garbo, it too featuring a photograph of the late Swedish director, "Dorothy Farnum, scenario writer who adapted several of Miss Garbo's stories remarked of the actress, 'She has been a puzzle in Hollywood. She is looked upon as a sophisticated type, yet she has the naivette of a child, the same reactions to simple diversions. She likes to take long walks alone. She is melodramatic, nervous, but at the same time placid and reserved.'" Bo Florin chronicles, "When it comes to set design however, Sjostrom, just as in Sweden, worked with only one designer, Cedric Gibbons, on all productions without exception, though in some cases (Confessions of a Queen, The Scarlet Letter, The Wind and The Divine Woman) Gibbons was assisted by different designers. As concerns editiing- as indicated earlier, this task was accomplished by Sjostrom himself during the Swedish years- he was almost as consistent. Thus Huge Wynn did all the editing work on the first Hollywood films, The Scarlet Letter included. J. Hayden replaced him on The Tower of Lies, but then Wynn (with Conrad Nevig) resumed working as editor on the remaining four films." The fragment of Greta Garbo in The Divine Woman showcases the interior editing of Victor Sjostrom. Garbo and Lars Hanson are filmed from behind a dining table in a stationary medium full shot, a brief insert shot included in the sequence. The insert shot of the clock acquires the qualities of a similie and trope as it is repeated, much like the isolated metaphors in Wild Strawberries(Bergman) and Cries and Whispers (Bergman). They are filmed in a series of alternating closeups while seated at the table. On Garbo's later delivering the line of dialouge, "I'd give up the whole world for you, ". Sjostrom dissolves to another insert shot of a clock, using the object, and the motion of an inanimate object within the image, to punctuate the events driven by the characters, spatial-temporality illustrated through leitmotif, narrative continuity using the symbolic as a relationship to emotion, or the inner landscape of character study. The film The Divine Woman "according to the cutting continuity scrapt" (Florin) included 54 dissolves. For film detectives that look to piece together the scrapt details from magazine articles, the clock also appears in the 1928 review of the film in the bi-weekly The Film Spectator and it is put into relation with Lars Hanson's dialog as he relates to Garbo that his time with her could be limited, but it then chides the actor and actress for their not seeing the seriousness of their existential engagement and involvement with their circumstances. In a second later review it pointed out, "Greta Garbo establishes the fact that in The Divine Woman that it is all right for young Parisian washerwomen to have plucked eyebrows." For Greta Garbo, in the role of Marianne, it is not a choice between Lucien (Lars Hanson) and Legrande (Lowell Sherman); her mother's lover, brings her to acclaim on the stage when Lucien has to return to his conscraption. Despondent, she leaves the theater, but then Lucien finds her again. He takes her to South America where they can begin again. (One rewrite of the continuity scrapt has the character's names as being 'Marah', who is introduced by a dollyshot, her apparently coming to Paris from the province of Auverone)." In regard to the revisions of the film being followed by the press, Motion Picture News during 1927 was one magazine that had happenned to announce the film as being in production, "The role of 'Aurelic', the French actress in The Divine Woman is Greta Garbo's next starring role for Metro Goldwyn." It claimed Gladys Unger was "a member of the Metrod Goldwyn Mayer scenario staff." When reviewed in the United States, it was deemed that, "Mr. Seastrom reveals in sharp contrasts...When the actress tries to end her life because of her love for Lucien, Mr. Seastrom introduces the idea of having a group of sympathizers, some with a bouquet of flowers, filling a doorway while Marianne is unconscious on her bed." Photoplay reviewed the storyline, "Marianne, as they have called the Divine Sarah is brought to Paris as a suprise present to a wordly wise mother who does not wish to openly acknowledge an eighteen year old daughter. She is gawky, untutored, ugly. Thrown upon her own resources she falls in love with a soldier. Chance introduces her to the stage. The conflict between her and her love for the stage and the man is the theme of the story. Watching Marianne make love; watching her suffer in poverty; glory in applause;rage at the unkindness of Fate-makes it well worth your while to see this picture." It continues, "How an ugly duckling becomes a great actress." It is interesting that when Photoplay reviewed the reissue of The Saga of Gosta Berling a year later. it claimed that, with Greta Garbo, "Hollywood had turned an ugly duckling into a swan." As there are no copies of the film, I have added the entire review of The Divine Woman as it appeared in National Board of Review magazine, "Paris is the backdrop for this romantic drama. Scorned by her pleasure loving mother, a young girl is brought up in the home of a Briton peasant. Later she reenters the realm of the theater winning fame and recognition, all of which she gives up for the love of a poor peasant. The story holds the interest and the acting of the two Swedish stars is excellent." Robert Herring, writing for Close Up magazine in the article Film Imagery: Seastrom, looked at the film's storyline, "The first thing that you get from The Divine Woman is cynicism. At first it has seemed and ordinary film (and it never becomes a very extraordinary one) of a girl who loved a soldier, became an actress; became the mistress of a producer to go on being an actress; and gave up both in order to settle down with the soldier...Then the way the girl got what she wanted, and as the action swung between actress and love, the director's emphasis swung between "divine" and "woman". Was it by mistake that the divinity was so very tinsel?" Herring was keenly aware that Sjostrom used the landscape to find metaphoric and synedochic images, "The furs and chrysanthemums are there, but they're not insisted on, not even stressed dramaticly, certainly not realized visually. They are BACKGROUND. Miss Arzener brings her backstages to life, but here Seastrom suddenly concentrates on the woman. He concentrates on the effect of the furs and flowers on the woman." By examining the symbols used in the film, Close Up magazine divulges more of the missing fragments of its plot along with the interaction of plot and image, "There was good technique in The Phantom Carriage, but The Divine Woman shows very little use of recent improvements...Now, Seastrom uses old tricks, but not new ones. he uses ones that were new when he was developing. Now he's quite capable of outdated clumsy visions in The Divine Woman and emphasizes the new lover treading on the cap of a former that has fallen on the floor..there's not much imagery in it. Plenty of symbols. The most clear image is the soldier's cap, which runs through. It is through his first dropping it that he met Garbo, and when he is arrested it is left behind. It is an image different from the clothes he steals for her while she is trying on better one's for the theater. There are more symbols than images because the film progresses dramaticly, but the use of the cap has interest, because as an image, it links the past and present and the past scenes in a film are the horizon...Seastrom's images do this. They carry on." The author likens the soldier's cap in The Divine Woman to the cup used as a symbol to connect scenes in The Wind, his almost arriving at the conception of "thematic temporality", perhaps images linked into a spatial continuity and only then a symbolic objects or objectifications. The Film Spectator provided its brief summary, "Victor Sjostrom, who directed The Divine Woman used close-ups here, there and everywhere, for little or no reason. There is no story to speak of, there may have been originally, but by the time it was translated into the screen's language, it was most uninteresting. The hero of the story was a soldier who deserted because the girl he loved did not want him to leave her...Besides, any woman whose love couldn't stand a seperation is not worth worrying about. A story based on two unsympathetic characters is bound to make a poor picture. Greta Gabo and Lars Hanson headed the cast of The Divine Woman and both gave adequate perfomances. However, the acting honors all went to Lowell Sherman, who gave another of his brilliant heavy chaacters."  Motion Picture News Booking Guide during 1929 provided a brief synopsis of The Divine Woman, directed by Victor SeStrom, "Theme: Romantic drama of misguided girl who after worshipping a shrine of wealth and fame realizes that love can only be won through trust and honesty."
     As a lost silent film, Christopher Natzen of Stockholm Cinema Studies at Stockholm University provides valuable insight in regard to the theme of the film The Divine Woman by looking at its soundtrack, which was a signature waltz, a recurrent mood provided by the background music, or non-diegetic music. He writes, "Music played an important role in the conversion of integrating the audience into the sieges is- in fact equal to other aspects of the medium, like camera angles, lighting and editing. The 'labelled' musical suggestions designed to integrate the audience could be very detailed." The subtitled text "Now then wipe tears" appeared that was used as a cue to switch the musical theme as were stage instructions, proxemics positions, of Madame Latour when she was with her daughter and when Lars Hanson on screen runs after Greta Garbo. "The sequence begins with the title melody 'A Divine Woman' being played in its entirety before the film starts. Then follow shorter and longer parts of musical pieces assembled by the conductor to give an unfolding sense of musical coherence. In no instance is the music interrupted with silence, as it flows from scene change to scene change...the conductor sets up the film musically in relation to the images."
     Picture Play magazine devoted a full page with three photos during 1928 which reveals more of the pictures storyline entitled A Toy of Fate, "Greta Garbo, as Marah in The Divine Woman again loves not wisely, but too well. Above she is seen with Polly Moran and Lans Hanson, who befriends her before she becomes a great actress. Marah, above is so fascinating over the supper table that she ruins the career of her soldier lover. Though she's only a laundress, her possibilities her possible as a stage star are discovered by Lowell Sherman." In its actual review of the film Picture Play magazine lent a synopsis, "Not so divine. Greta Garbo miscast as an actress who will not acknowledge her soldier- sweetheart after she becomes a star, attempts suicide, and, is saved, of course, by the hero. They live happily, et cetera." exhibitor's Herald and Moving Picture World, during February of 1928 saw Greta Garbo as having emerged, "I've lived to learn the amazing fact that Greta Garbo can act...Miss Garbo really acts in The Divine Woman...It's possible while watching the actress to forget that she's going again through the course of the second or third oldest story in the valut. And even as the age of the yarn is noted, the actresses' direct, on-the-set and nothing-up-the sleeve performace staqnds up on its own feet and demands attention...It is the story of the boyfriend who comes back to create a not too spectacular scene, and therefore gets a little close to Camille, but veers off finally to nice happy domesticity with everything except the knitted shoes for a finish. I believe this is the sort of thing for Miss Garbo. I was never able to steam up about her vampires. I have always felt, in viewing her Gilbertian vehicles, that it just won't happen." The author admonished that Garbo, Sjostrom and Hanson should continue on to film together again in a subsequent endeavor. The magazine later advised, "This is really the first Garbo subject that we feel can be put across with a bang in a small town. Although it is no picture for youngsters, you need not be afraid of it." When Motion Picture News in 1927 announced that John Mack Brown and Lars Hanson were to be included in the cast of The Divine Woman, it added, "The director is coaching Hanson and Miss Garbo in Swedish, his and their native tongue." In an article entitled Love Stories, Photoplay during 1928 used a still photo from The Divine Woman that the present author was unfamiliar with as having had been published elsewhere,but added a photocaption to a still of Lars Hanson on the floor with Garbo putting her cheek next to his while nearly laying on top of him during an embrace that read, "By nature we are polygamous or polyandrous. Such love scenes between Greta Garbo and Lars Hanson are a pretty safe way of satisfying that desire to philander." There is another movie still later that only add to whether the photocaption is incorrectly, or hurriedly, used, "Because we are curious about love, because we are always seeking the perfect love affair, the screen romances of Vilma Banky and Ronald Colman have a constant fascination for us. John Bainbridge devotes no more than a page to The Divine Woman, briefly chronicling that its title had been changed from Starlight, the play from which it was only "loosely adapted" without mentioning that it had been through numerous revisions by several screenwriters, his quickly advancing to the death of Mauritz Stiller, which occurred during the winter of 1928, after Stiller had returned to Sweden, Victor Sjostrom having returned as well to visit him while ill. Garbo by then was on the set of Wild Orchids, her planning to visit Sweden after the film was completed and Sjostrom, while there having related to Stiller that she had completed the films A Woman of Affairs,at that time still unreleased, and A Woman of Affairs, which was met by the public with indifference according to Sjostrom. Garbo had written to Stiller in the interval between the when the two directors had been together and Sjostrom had been assigned The Divine Woman only after Stiller, who wholeheartedly wanted to direct Garbo and Hanson, had excerted every influence he could to be selected. Garbo and Stiller had been together when Stiller, dismissed from both Paramount and M.G.M., left for Sweden. "Both she and Stiller wept when he kisses her goodbye. 'I will see you soon, Moje', she called as Stiller waved farewell from the departing train. That was the last time she saw her mentor." If the fan magazines in the United States that year had intimated that there was an unfilmed or perhaps unfinished film scrapt that Stiller had in mind, one interviewer having asked Garbo, it could either have been a reworking of a scrapt written by Esther Juhlin, whom with Stiller had considered returning to Hollywood, or a project he had already begun planning that was to be filmed in England. "If I live, it will be thanks to you." Stiller told Sjostrom. "What did she think about the newly found Mauritz Stiller manuscrapt? This was the play that the late, great Swedish director (and her discoverer) had wanted to film with Garbo as star upon his first arrival in Hollywood. 'How can I make any statement about that off hand? It is entirely too important-maybe- and near my heart.'" Gunnilla Bjelke had directly quoted Greta Garbo in Movie Classic Magazine during 1935 in regard to a brief interview granted in Gothenberg, Sweden before the actor Sven Garbo politely concluded it, taking Garbo on his arm.
Victor Seastrom "A director, Clarence Brown, was highly enthusiastic over the possiblities of "Wind" on the screen, but a favorable decision might have been less quickly reached had all the conditions been seen...They had waited a long time for Brown- untill they could wait no longer." Biographer Albert Bigelow Paine relates that Clarence Brown had been on location and was unavailable to film Lillian Gish in The Wind, which brought her under the direction of Victor Sjostrom again, paired with actor Lars Hanson. Motion Picture News during 1926 had sported an earlier account by running the headline, "Victor Seastrom to Direct Lillian Gish in The Enemy, "An important directorial assignment made as the Metro-Golwyn-Mayer studio recently is the announcement that Victor Seastrom is to direct Lillian Gish in The Enemy. When the Swedish director finished directing The Scarlett Letter last spring he returned to his native country for several months and has only been back at the studio for a short time. Work on The Enemy will be started soon as The Wind, originally scheduled as the next Lillian Gish vehicle has been postponed because Clarence Badger, who will direct the film, is now occupied." During early 1927, Motion Picture News reported, "The male lead opposite Lillian Gish in the latter's starring vehicle for Metro Goldwyn Mayer, The Enemy, has been given to Lars Hanson, the Swedish stage and screen actor who was seen in The Scarlet Letter. Victor Seastrom, director of the Hawthorne tale will again direct the Hanson-Gish combination in this screen version of the Channing Pollock stageplay...June Mathis has prepared the scenario." Bo Florin, Stockholm University, when writing on The Wind saw the need to ask about landscape as being metaphorical, it not only designating man confronting a force of nature, but ,without overlooking the 'phantasms of origins that mystically inhabit the Swedish landscape and render it iconographic, landscape also reflecting internal conflicts experienced by the characters, as new emotions, as protean emotions, as well as it representing relations dynamic between characters from which conflicts might arise. As the reader begins to ask if the symbolic is not always static but works within narrative context, fluid within the relationship between man and enviornment just as the spatial and temporal are brought into relation with narrative, what makes Florin enjoyable to read is his recognition content-form, of the relation of a specific image to the particular shot structure within which it is used; he connects the abstract to the concrete by examining the construction of space and distinguishing between subjective space and objective. "Film historians have particularly pointed out that Sjostrom in this film succeeded in rendering the invisible- the wind- visible through its effect: the sandstorm, which plays an important role in the film." Robert Herring eloquently writing for Close-Up magazine in the article Film Imagery:Seastrom reviewed the film, "What is Seastrom's is the lyricism which makes his landscapes lyrical landscapes... The wind is an image, the fields of snow are images, the roads and the woods of The Scarlet Letter are images. Landscape is image in Seastrom....the landscape is not only a mauve to throw up a blue. It is a darker blue itself. It is of the same colour, it is of the same mood, as that colour or mood which brings it into prominence." When Photoplay magazine first announced that Lillian Gish would be filming in The Wind for Victor Sjostrom it gave the prediction that Lars Hanson would leave after its completion, "Lars Hanson will next go to Germany to appear in From Nine to Nine, a special production to be made by F.W. Murnau." In The Film Answers Back, An Historical Appreciation of the Cinema, authors E.W. and M.M. Robson summarzie the work of Victor Sjostrom to align with a consensus of authors that had written about his directing, "The work of Berthold Viertel on the whole is less subjectivist than the work of the average German director working abroad. He had perhaps a little more in common with the Scandinavian Victor Sjostrom, whose productions in America were of the contemplative rather than subjective type. In Hollywood, Victor Sjostrom continued the Scandinavian tradition of reflecting upon the elements, the wind and the sky, as symbolizations of the shifting nature of social life." Film Daily during 1923 ran the notice, "Goldwyn signs Hjalmer Bergman". It read,"Hjalmer Bergman, one of the most discussed of the younger writers of Europe, has arrived on his way to California, where he is contracted with Goldwyn to write, and adapt stories for the screen. The arrangement was made at the suggestion of Victor Seastrom, for whom Bergman will concentrate his efforts. Bergman is little known in the United States, one one of his novels having been translated into English. It is "God's Orchid." Three is of his stories Mortal Clay, The Hellship and The Headsman were produced by Seastrom in Sweden." Goldwyn had initially planned to film an adaptation of Sir Hall Caine's novel The Bondman: a New Saga, directed by Victor Seastrom from a scrapt written by Hjalmer Bergman, the project collapsing financially. Among the unrealized scrapts written in Hollywood by Hjalmer Bergman was a synopsis for an adaptation of Henrik Ibsen's work Bygmester Solness, to be directed by Victor Sjostrom. Before Bergman had returned to Sweden, Sjostrom had decided against filming an adaptation of the novel The Tree of Knowledge, written by Edwin C. Booth. The scrapts of Tancred Ibsen in Hollywood were left unrealized while he worked on set construction during 1924, his not only having worked on the set design of Victor Sjostrom's film Tower of Lies, but on the set of silent film director King Vidor. Ibsen unsucessfully went to Thalberg after copyrighting a scrapt titled Viking Hero, often reputedly an adaptation of the novel The Last Viking written by Johan Bojer. Anne Bachmann looks to Tancred Ibsen's autobiography as well as his letters for an account of his writing the screenplay to The Last Viking from the novel by Bojer, the former providing only a cursory glance at an afternoon spent writing in Denmark, whereas the former show more toiling over the scrapt and its possiblities, "Den Siste Viking is perhaps easily confused with another, though fundamentally different Tancred Tancred project that likewise came to nought. This was A Viking Hero, which brought together the figures of Leif Erikson and Christopher Columbus in one film. Ibsen tried to sell the scrapt to M.G.M. when he worked in their story department." Ibsen had hoped to be assigned assistant director to the film, directors that had been discussed, if not enlisted having included Carl Th. Dreyer, John Brunius, Jacques Feyder and Leif Sinding. Ibsen would rejoin Sjostrom in Sweden, directing him in the 1934 film Synnove Solbakken. Bengt Forslund writes about Victor Sjostrom, no longer Victor Seastrom, "His final films in the United States had not been successful. However much they valued him at M.G.M. they were not eager for him to return." According to Paul Rotha, "For sometime Sweden tried gallantly to make films of good quality, but again financial failure was the result. One by one her best directors and players drifted across to Hollywood, where their work steadily deteriorated...Perhaps these directors, when given carte blanche and the wonderful technical resources of Hollywood, lost her sense of values...Or perhaps, and this is probably nearer to the mark, it was impossible to produce, let alone conceive any work of real aesthetic value when surrounded by the Hollywood atmosphere." Specifically in response to Bordwell and Thompson, Bo Florin in his publication Transition and Transformation writes, "The general remaining impression is that Sjostrom, perhaps being too austere, didn't really succeed in adapting, neither to the Hollywood style, nor to the demands of the time: that is sound cinema." Florin adds a tint of sincerity on the part of Sjostrom as a director when looking at Bordwell's assessment of actor from Sweden as a director in Hollywood. Author Casper Tyberg quotes Carl Theodor Dreyer on the film of Victor Sjostrom, "Through Sjostrom's work, film was led into a promised land of art, nor was he dissapointed in his conviction that sound literature should prevail over the pennydreadful, good dramatic acting over the puppetshow, atmosphere over technique." It is extremely commendable that young  British novelist Christian Hayes,author of The Glass Book, mentions the volume Victor Sjostrom: His Life and Work by Bengt Forsluund, along with his citing the authors Bent Idestam-Almquist, the Swedish film critic known to readers as Robin Hood, Hans Pensel, John Fullerton, Astrid Soderbergh Widding, Jan Olssen and Bo Florin, to begin his dissertation on Cinema's First Master? Reviewing the Cinema of Victor Sjostrom. It is also quite quotable how he begins to review the director's film. "Having seen every extant film of Sjostrom's (with the exception of his 1930 talkie A Lady to Love), I will firstly provide an overview and reaaessment of his films and career. The footnote does in fact read that, "All extant films were screened apart from Sjostrom's American talkie A Lady to Love (1930) with Edmund G. Robinson and Vilma Banky. Graham Petrie in Hollywood Destinies states that the film no longer survives, but i have been told that a print exists in the USA Turner archives.". The film was photographed by Merrit B. Gerstad, cinematographer to one of the lost films to leave its wake in found magazines, London After Midnight. And yet Bo Florin definitively answers the readers of Bengt Forslund resoundingly by writing during 2012 that "considered lost for a long time" Sjostrom's film "has recently been discovered.", the author analyzing the film to examine the transition of the director to sound, and if Sjostrom did not direct extensively in Sweden during the sound era, the present author sees this as being a component of the direct transition brought by Gustav Molander and the several cameramen leading up to Gunnar Fischer that reversed intertitle-lanscape with interior-dialougue. Photoplay Magazine described the film by Victor Seastrom as being the play penned by playwright Sidney Howard "made censor-proof". Motion Picture magazine in 1930 had noted that the characterizations were drawn so "thickly" that the "plot is almost drained out", but added, "Yet above the babel, Vilma Banky, in a perfectly intelligible Hungarian accent, gives one of her most sympathetic performances. You remember the tired waitress who accepts an offer of marriage from an unknown man because she falls in love with his picture, and arrives on the farm to find it was all a dirty trick and her husband is not what he seemed." Photoplay reported, "But not so Miss Banky. She brought along a lot of manners to the M. G. M. lot, refused to see interviewers and to pose for publicity pictures, and made herself otherwise unpleasant." Author Robert Dance, in his biography of Ruth Harriet Louise from the perspective of Hollywood Glamour Photography notes that Louise had only photographed at M.G.M during years 1925-1930, "Louise's last documented portrait session at M.G.M. seems to have been with Vilma Banky on December 2, 1929, during the filming of the actress's last American (and only M.G.M) film, A Lady to Love, directed by Seastrom. Banky had been Louise's first published Hollywood subject and now would be virtually her last." The portrait of Banky published in Photoplay has no photocredit beneath it and the caption reads, "Vilma Banky-yes its Vilma, sleek hair and all. Vilma's voice will be heard for the first time in Sunkissed, the photoplay version of Sidney Howard's unusual play." The portrait of Greta Garbo during the following month also has no photo credit, and also seems as it could have been taken by either Louise or Hurrell. Ruth Harriet Louise earlier that year had photographed Hedda Hopper for Photoplay. Although photographed by Swedish cinematographer Julius Jaenzon, The Markurrel family in Wodkoping  (Markurells I Wadkopping) was filmed in Sweden after the departure of Charles Magnusson from Svenska Filmindustri. It having been also filmed as a silent and sound film, Bengt Forslund sees the film as one that Sjostrom directed mostly out of friendship, its scrapt having been based on a novel written by Swedish playwright Hjalmer Bergman first considered by Svensk Filmindustri shortly after its publication in 1919. And yet author Forsyth Hardy's opinion of the film was that it was "adult and mature". Hardy writes, "it gave Sjostrom, who played the leading part an oppurtunity for one of his strongly developed character studies. With Julius Jaenzon as his cameraman he succeeded in giving the film a refreshing freedom of movement and showed no tendency to be overawed by the prescence of the microphone." Writing in 1929, the Mourdant Hall added, "There is no longer any Swedish coterie in hollywood, for Victor Seastrom is no longer there. Lars Hanson is back in his native land, to which lesser lights have flown." After returning to Sweden in hope that it was there that his daughters would be raised, Sjostrom appeared with Lars Hanson and Karin Molander in a short 1931 beauty contesst film, Froken, Ni linkar Greta Garbo, where Eivor Nordstrom was chosen to be most like Greta Garbo. Its photographer was Ake Dahlquist. With Per-Axel Branner for an assistant director and actress Karin Granberg in the first film in which sshe was to appear,Juilius Jaenzon photographed and directed the fil Ulla, My Ulla, during 1930, while Victor Sjostrom returned to the screen with Brokiga Blad, in which he cast Lili Ziedner. The Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers during 1930 printed, "According to reports sound motion pictures have met with the approval of the Swedish cinema goer, and several additional theaters will be wired in the near future. Sound pictures have been shown in Stockholm since May 2, 1929. While there is considerable adverse criticism regarding the talking picture, there are strong indications, at least in Stockholm, that the public prefers the sound film to the silent." Forsyth Hardy chronicles the use of sound-on-track for films made at Rasunda, "In Charlotte Lowenskold, Gustaf Molander turned again to a Selma Lagerlof novel describing the spiritual conflict of a young priest and his struggle between loyalty to a fiancee and loyalty to the Christian faith. Made in the style of a silent film, it included only a brief passsage of dialouge." Hardy later chronicles that Molander had filmed The Word (Ordet) written by slain playwright Kaj Munk. "Molander recreated the theme in the setting of a small Swedish coastal community and gave it an atmosphere so realistic that there was no hint of a stage or studio. Victor Sjostrom played the tyrannical old farmer...and Rune Lindstrom, who collaborated in the treatment, played one of the sons, who studying for the church, loses first his faith...The supreme test for director and players came in the final scene of the half-demented youth's miraculous act of faith after tragedy had overtaken his family...Molander had succeeded because he was able to create and sustain an atmosphere in which the events he described seemed natural and convincing." John W. Brunius directed two films during 1930, The Doctor's Secret (Docktorns Hemlighet) and The Two of Us (Vi Tva), in which Edvin Adolphson appeared as an actor with Margit Manstad, Marta Ekstrom and Anna-Lisa Froberg, the film having been the first in which the actress was to appear. Swedish cinematographer Harald Berglund in 1930 began filming under the direction of Ragnar Ring on the film Lyckobreven. Danish film director George Schneevoigt continued the beginning of early Danish sound film the following year with the film Pastor of Vejlby (Praesten i Vejlby). The first Norwegian sound film, The Big Chirstening (Den store Barnedapen) was also the first film directed by Tancred Ibsen. Two actors that have now become legendary for their having worked together with Sjöström in his film The Wind (eight reels), silent film actress Lillian Gish and Montague Love, were teamed together for the early sound film His Double Life, under the direction of Arthur Hopkins. Two actors that were paired together after the beginning of the use of sound in film were Nils Asther and Fay Wray, their appearing in Madame Spy, directed by Karl Fruend in 1934. Victor Seastrom-Silent Film

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Danish Silent Film

Danish Silent Film: Sherlock Holmes at Elsinore/Sherlock Holmes pa Marienlyst; Asta Nielsen, Ebba Thompsen, Betty Nansen, Valda Valkyrien and the Nordisk Film Kompagni, Great Northern Film and Carl Th. Dreyer: News Flash- missing Lost Silent Sherlock Holmes Films found and restored!!


                        


Scott Lord-Silent Film Swedish Silent Film
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Sherlock Holmes pa Marienlyst/Sherlock Holmes at Elsinore

In regard to The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, written by William Shakespeare being compared to a lost film, there are elements to the characterization that lend themselves to the methods of the armchair detective, no matter how readily: ostensibly that the line "How all occasions do inform against me" appears in the First Quatro of Hamlet but is omitted from the First Folio printed posthumously by the Shakespearean acting company, the Kingsmen, and playwright Ben Jonson- it remains a fragment The pith of its events were designed by Shakespeare from the Danish legend Amlet that seems to not have had a character named Ophelia, nor a ghost- the Ghost first appeared in what is now a lost manuscrapt mentioned in Lodge's Wif's Miseries, and the allusion is to a ghost that cries like an oyster wife, "Hamlet Revenge" and, earlier than Shakespeare's Hamlet, is attributed to Thomas Kydd. While we wait for a filmmaker to add the play in its entirety despite its length, any production of Hamlet must confront that there are in fact three versions written by William Shakespeare. Notwithstanding, the history of silent film might at any time bring in not only the play as performed on stage, but the indefatigable Sherlock Holmes.
Basil Phillip St. John Rathbone, who portrayed the fictional character Sherlock Holmes, had also appeared in silent films- Trouping with Ellen (T. Hayes Hunter, seven reels) in 1924, The Masked Bride (Christy Cabanne, six reels), starring Mae Murray, in 1925 and The Great Deception (Howard Higgin, six reels) in 1926. Rathbone and his wife had been present at the premiere of Flesh and the Devil. Anna Karenina (1914), filmed by J. Gordon Edwards, had starred Betty Nansen. On learning that Greta Garbo had already had the film Mata Hari in production, Pola Negri deciding between scrapts that were in her studio's story department chose A Woman Commands as her first sound film, in which she starred with Basil Rathbone. Of Rathbone she wrote in her autobiography, 'As an actor, I suspected Rathbone might be a little stiff and unromantic for the role, but he made a test that was suprisingly good.' Directed by Paul L.Stein, the film also stars Reginald Owen and Roland Young.
And like Rathbone, another Sherlock Holmes, Clive Brook who appeared in the 1929 film The Return of Sherlock Holmes (Basil Dean) and in the title role of Sherlock Holmes (Howard) in the film of 1930, was appearing in silent films during the early 1920's, including Woman to Woman (Cutts 1923) and Out to Win (Clift, 1923). As part of an interesting study, Clive Brook had appeared in the mysteries Trent's Last Case (1920), directed by Richard Garrick and based on the novel by E.C. Bentley and The Loudwater Mystery (1921), based on the novel by Edgar Jepson, before his appearing with Isobel Elsom in the 1923 film A Debt of Honor directed by Maurice Elvey. One of the most sought after lost, or missing films, listed by the British Film Institute as having been filmed but not surviving today in an existing print is The Mystery of the Red Barn (Maria Marton) dircted by Maurice Elvey in 1913. The following year Elvey was to direct the mysteries The Cup Final Mystery and Her Luck in London. One of the first directors Philip St John Basil Rathbone had appeared in front of the camera for had been Maurice Elvey, who had directed the 1921 film, The Fruitful Vine, adapted for the screen from the novel.
     Motography, the motion picture trade journal, reviewed the Sherlock Holme sof 1916, "Much of the photography is very good. A number of bog scenes standout prominently, in which the suspense is cleverly managed. But as a whole, seven reels seems too lengthy. The play drags in the first part and some of the story is vague. The acting is in keeping with the melodramatic situations. Gillette shows himself a clever screen actor in the title role."  Motion Picture World noted that William Gillette was over sixty years of age at the time of its review and at the time of the release of the film. It reviewed "the Photoplay adaptation of his famous play in seven parts" in which he used members of Essanay and of his own stage company, "theater goers will never tire of looking at his characterization of Conan Doyle's Greta detective.. And leave in comparatively permanent form, his Sherlock Holmes for the delight of future generations. Mr. Gillette acts like an old-timer before the camera...The seeming lapses into sleepiness of manner and action suddenly resolve into a display of imperiousness and overwhelming mentality and wit." Sherlock Holmes (Arthur Berthelet, 1916) starring William Gillette, for nearly a century a silent film that if found in magazines has been reported as a lost film in regard to being seen on the movie projection screen, according to Photoplay magazine although not remade was the basis for the film Sherlock Holmes (nine reels) of 1922, starring John Barrymore, John Barrymore not only in the title role but also in a dual role as Moriarty. Photoplay magazine claimed that it was Barrymore's acting ability that was worth seeing, not so much the character itself being portrayed, but added that followers of the Arthur Conan Doyles stories were recommended to see the film, "You should see this film if you are a devotee of John the Barrymore...Albert Parker, the director, has not been afraid to follow his imaginative impulses, with interesting results." As the stories of Edgar Wallace were beginning to appear serialized in The Stand Magazine, alongside  a Sherlock Holmes rejuvenated by its creator after the death of illustrator Sidney Paget, a Sherlock Holmes created by John Barrymore appeared in The Strand Magazine in the interview The Youth of Sherlock Holmes, conducted by Hayden Church during 1922. A photocaption read, "A well known incident from 'A Scandal in Bohemia', the first of the famous Sherlock Holmes stories. John Barrymore's wonderful makeup as the old clergyman is seen to better advantage in the small photograph." Jounalist Hayden church divulged to The Strand, "It was in a bedroom of the Ritz that I discovered Mr. Barrymore, who arrayed in flowered silk pajamas was at that very moment engaged in making up as the great Sherlock." The article explained that there was a prolouge to the film that provided biographical information on the fictional character and his youth that had been left out in the cannon. In the interview, Barrymore explains that the film was shot on location not in Baker Street or Gower Street, but in Torrington Square, for authenticity. "Our film will bring out the romantic side of Holmes...'At the beginning of the hour,'Holmes in our scrapt, 'I met love and it passed me  by. At the end of the hour, I met mysterious evil'" Film Daily magazine during 1922 described the film favorably with the provision, "It is too long and it is not easy to follow the story. In an effort to clarify matters numerous long titles and used that often confuse more than try to explain. The result is a 'talks' picture and if you happen in after the first half reel you are about lost because it's not the kind of story that you can pick up readily." The magazine described the lighting as "sometimes too dark on interiors" and the exteriors as "views of England and Switzerland; splendid". The scenario is listed as having been written by Earle Brown and Marion Fairfax, the cameraman as having been being J. Roy Hunt. In the film, Holmes is seen smoking a pipe in his armchair at 221 B Baker Street with a human skull on the end table where the Conan Doyle often kept his Stradivarius violin, his being seen reading a letter, the later shown in an intercut insert shot. Watson, now married, enters as Holmes reads a newspaper account of his having solved the Darton Mystery, the newspaper also shown in insert shot. There is a globe visible in the far corner of the room, a teapot diagnally in the foreground, and yet, the bust, remaining unidentified, but presumably Roman, can only be espied as a shadow, the light seeming to fall from a window that is blocked by its silhouette. The Persian slipper is on the mantle, ready for when Holmes' is in need of filling his pipe. It is there that Holmes attributes to Moriarty over fourth as of then unsolved mysteries. The film quickly concludes, first by Holmes disguising himself as Moriarty, then as he is removing the greasepaint he apprehended Moriarty, who in turn is in disguise, at that moment his announcing that he is embarking upon his honeymoon.
While deciding whether Stoll and Ellie Norwoord could film the Adventures of Sherlock Holmes with Arthur Conan Doyle's remonstrance not to use the name Sherlock Holmes as it more properly belonged to William Gillette, Film Daily printed during 1922, "The author said he saw the film version in which John Barrymore appeared and stated that there was one act which was not authorized, nor in accordance worth his plots. 'That was the act in which Sherlock Homes goes to college', said Doyle." It added, without intimating that today an owner of a ouigi board would be more favored to acquire an interview with Doyle than a trade magazines from the twenties, "Doyle said that Gillette wired him for permission to make changes in the original theme in order to 'work in a romance' and that Gillette cabled,'May I marry Holmes?' Doyle replied,'Marry him, murder him or do anything you like with him.'"
Sherlock Holmes as a film shot at the Essanay Studios in 1916 was lost, presumed nonexistent, found as a copy of a French print and restored in 2014. Edward Fielding essays as Doctor Watson in a scenario written by H.S.Sheldon. Actress Majorie Kay stars in references to "the woman". A nitrate dupe negative was found in the Cinemateque Francaise with French intertitles and color annotations which having had been being restored for its premiere in the United States, will be seen for the first time during May of 2015 at the San Francisco Silent Film Festival. The film, and the film version starring John Barrymore in which Roland Young appears as Dr. John H. Watson have not been seen in what appears to be more than three quarters of a century- the director of the 1922 film, Albert Parker assisted William K. Everson and Kevin Brownlow in restoring the Barrymore version during 2001.
In regard to Sherlock Holmes at Elsinore, actor Jens Fredrick Sigfrid Dorph-Petersen brought an unauthorized four act version of the play Sherlock Holmes written by William Gillette to the Folkteatret for Christmas in 1901, sixteen years before Gillette himself had adapted the stage performance for the cinema. The play was performed in Stockholm, Sweden with actor Emil Bergendorff onstage as Sherlock Holmes during April of 1902. That same year, the play was staged in Kristiana, Norway with actor Ingolf Schanche as Gillette's Sherlock Holmes.

     Maurice Elvey in 1921 directed actor Eille Norwood in the first 15 of 45 shorts in which he would star as Sherlock Holmes to begin with The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. Published in The Strand Magazine by  Hayden Church was his perception, "Almost simultaneously we have had a Sherlock Holmes in the person of Mr. Ellie Norwood, who, in "movie versions" of some of the most renown of the Adventures has revealed a genius of disguise worthy to rank with that possessed by Holmes himself."  
     Motion Picture News gave advanced notice of fifteen completed subjects, each two reels in length to begin release during January, 1922. "All the advantages in casts, appointments and elaborate direction types in the various stage enterprises of the Stoll concern were brought to the picturization of the Doyle tales, a feature said to be specially notable in this connection being the erection for Stoll in London a studio built after the most modern American manner, appointed with the latest doings in American lighting and other advances made in this country to bring screen adaptation to their finest interpretations of life itself. The exteriors fro the Sherlock series are said to have been taken for the most part at the actual scenes employed by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in recounting the Holmes adventures, these involving at times magnificent estates."
      The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes would  include The Empty House, which was reviewed by Film Daily Magazine, "This time the criminal takes a pot shot at the famous detective and for a moment you think all is lost. The suspense is great...While no women enter into the story it is well up to the standard of the series and holds the attention throghout." Elvey would also direct Norwood in the film The Man With The Twisted Lip, "Instead of opening in the usual manner of these stories in Holmes's office with a visitor describing the case in question, The Man With the Twisted Lip opens in an opium den with the well known detective is nowhere in evidence. However after a little while, you will begin to see him through his disguise. How the case is unravelled with a most unexpected kick at the end makes very good entertainment." The Beryl Coronet was reviewed with, "How Sherlock Holmes, the great detective, very well played by Ellie Norwood, unravels the mystery makes very good entertainment. The suspense is well held and though you are comparatively sure of the villian, the way in which the case is slowly drawn around him by the detective holds the interest closely.". Of The Priory School it was esteemed by Film Daily that "Ellie Norwood who plays the part of the famous detective has a most pleasing personality and gives an enjoyable performance.". To Film Daily, "The Resident Patient follows closely the Conan Doyle story of the same name." Also included in the series were A Scandal in Bohemia, The Red Headed League, The Yellow Face, The Copper Beeches, The Solitary Cyclist and The Dying Detective. Seperate from the two reel adventures, Maurice Elvey that year directed Norwood in the feature films The Sign of the Four and in the silent Sherlock Holmes film The Hound of the Baskervilles. Of Maurice Elvey's direction of The Hound of the Baskervilles Film Daily wrote that there was an exingency of "telling the story rather than in production values; some good effects." It continued, "Ellie Norwood looks the part of Holmes but has little to do" and noted that he was "not given much prominence as Holmes...Betty Cambell is a poor choice of leading lady." Photoplay Magazine in 1922 reviewed the work of Ellie Norwood as "the real Sherlock Holmes", declaring, "There is no sticky love interest to be upheld-this is the cool detective of the test tubes and the many clues- who walks, step by step, toward a solution." Exhibitor's Trade Review described the work of Ellie Norwood, "Ellie Norwood, famous English actor, portrays the role of ShePrlock Holmes the detective in all of the adventures. His quiet repressed acting adds immensely to the power of these stories of mystery...The release of The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes begins at a paticularly opportune time, since the author of these famous stories is now in the United States on a lecture tour, which will attract added interest to his work, by far the most popular of which have always been the Sherlock Holmes Stories."  After his having directed Matheson Long in the Stoll Film Company's 1919 production of the film Mr. Wu, Maurice Elvey had been earlier teamed with Eille Norwood in 1920 for two silent films before their having entered into the Sherlock Holmes series, The Hundreth Chance, adapted from the novel, and The Tavern Knight, also adapted from the novel. George Ridgewell would direct Eille Norwood in 30 short films in which he would star as the consulting detective, The Further Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1922) and The Last Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1923), among them being The Boscome Valley Mystery (1922), The Six Napoleons (1922), The Golden Pince-Nez (1922), The Reigate Squires (1922), The Musgrave Ritual (1922), Black Peter, The Norwood Builder, The Red Circle, The Stockbrokers Clerk, The Abbey Grange, The Engineer's Thumb (1923), The Dancing Men (1923), The Mystery of Thor Bridge (1923) , The Cardboard Box, Silver Blaze  (1923) , Lady Frances Carfax, The Gloria Scott, The Crooked Man, The Mazarin Stone and The Final Problem (1923). George Ridgewell during 1922 also directed the mystery The Crimson Circle with Clifton Boyne. In regard to Maurice Elvey, there still lies the possibility that modern detective of lost film could find any conceivable treasure; in 1926 the director filmed several films in a series entitled Haunted Houses and Castles of Great Britain. Like Holmes, counterpart Nyland Smith, portrayed Fred Paul, was extended into a second series of films, the British studio and director A. E. Coleby, after having completed The Mystery of Dr. Fu Man Chu (1923), which when completed ran to fifteen individual short stories, having added The Further Mysteries of Dr. Fu Man Chu to make the number of adventures twenty two. During 1924, the studio added a series of silent adventures entitled Thrilling Stories from the Strand Magazine. During 1923, Pathe had ran an advertsiement asking, "Is Spiritualism Fake? See Is Conan Doyle Right? Two Parts by Cullom Holmes Ferrell. A sensational picture with a sensational pull." A second ad for the film read, "Can the dead talk with the living? It is reported that Sir Author Conan Doyle has said that in case of necessity the spirit of the great and good man for whom the nation mourns could communicate with his successor. Scientists are interested in studying spiritualism. See Is Conan Doyle Right? Two Parts by Cullom Holmes Ferrell. A real big oppurtunity for exhibitors if there ever was one. A third advertisement read, "Did you ever see a spirit? Do you know what "ectoplasm" and the aura are? See Is Conan Doyle Right? Sensational, startling, a miraculous money maker." "A sensation in two reel featrues", Exhibitor's Trade Review introduced the film, "It is said that the picture is in no way offensive to those who believe in spirit control, mediumship, or manifestations of the return of the departed. In fact, a portion of the picture deals with this phase and proceeds to sound its warning in a seance climax of unmistakable power."
Danish Silent Film
     
     By all sccounts, Sherlock Holmes at Elsinore Sherlock Holmes pa Marienlyst, written by Danish author Carl Muusmann during 1906 and republished by the Baker Street Irregulars on the fiftieth anniversay of its first appearance, has not been translated into filmic form and on to the screen, it detailing the pariculars to a visit Holmes made to a seaside hotel. Nor has The Vanished Footman, published in the Danish magazine Maaneds-Magisinet in 1910 by Severin Christensen. Sherlock Holmes in a New Light, an anthology of short stories published in Sweden by Sture Stig and the New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, which he followed with two years later, also seem missing. What Carl Muusmann had in fact written in 1903 that was to find its way into Danish cinema was a novel that Carl Th Dreyer had adapted while a scraptwriter for Nordisk, Fange no 113, directed by Holger-Madsen in 1917 and he had contributed to a scrapt Dreyer had been involved with in 1917 entitled Herregaards Mysteriet. Carl Muusmann had written the background material that went to three films directed by Hjalmer Davidson during 1915 and 1916, Manegens Born, Grevide Clara and Filmens Datter (The Films Datter, adapted from a novel published in 1914. Denmark had had its own early silent cinema with the Nordisk Film Kompagni, founded in 1906, and Swedish film historian Forsyth Hardy can be quoted as having written, "The Danes claim to have made the first dramatic film, in 1903." Most of its early narrative films having had been being directed by Viggo Larsen, they were for the most part "thrillers, tragedies and love stories" (Astrid Soderberg Widding) or "the social melodarama and dime novel that made a hit from 1910 onwards" (Bengt Forslund). Lisabeth Richter Larsen, writing on the internet about the films The Candle and the Moth, The Great Circus Catastrophe and Temptations of a Great City, looks specifically to actor Valdemar Psilander, and quite frankly, his daring, as bringing a wider international audience to Danish silent films, "The film is one of the first in a long row of 'erotic melodramas'- a genre that almost became the trademark of Danish film abroad- and Psilander was born for this type of film with his masculine charm and elegant poise..worth noting. Maybe not so much for Psilander's acting, but for the sensational, action packed story lines that he was in." Anne Bachmann, author of Locating Inter-Scandinavian Silent Film Culture: Connections, Contentions, Configurations, at first quotes a "caustic" Charles Magnusson, "In 1913, the head of Svenska Bio, Charles Magnusson disparingly used a Danish term to express his regret that Stockholm audiences statistically preferred "thrilling" dramas to nature films. Magnusson even contrasted it with overtones of the Romantic sublime associated with breathtaking nature, 'It is sad that I need to state that natural scenery as a rule is not appreciated at its full value. It is not sufficiently thrilling for our restless kind to stop in admiration before Swiss Alps and banal things like that.'" Whether or not Magnusson had adapted his choice of scrapts to the Danish vogue, or had added scenes to Scandinavian literature to compensate for a lack of action-centered scrapts, the quote displays "a covert critique of the sensationalism of Danish melodrama." Bachmann fittingly adds a quote from the Norwegian director Peter Lykke-Seest (Unge Hjerter, 1917; De Foraeldrevrelose, 1917), who had scrapted six films for Nordisk during 1912-1916, "I think the public will soon have had enough of crime films, sensations and empty decorations. It will demand beauty. Beauty and atmosphere. And in that respect, nature will provide more than humans." Author Anna Strauss, while examining Danish silent film as an international cinema, cinema that was exported, writes that, "Danish film was associated with 'social drama' and 'erotic melodrama', so much so that she examines the alternative endings that were filmed in order to export narrative films (not films that are lost, but seperately filmed final acts to conclude their respective feature films). Isak Thorson also writes of the Russian endings to Nordisk films, "It is not easy to say exactly how widely these alternative endings were used. More than half the scrips of over 1100 Nordisk films made between 1911 and 1928 have survived in the NordPisk Special Collection, amid them we find various indications that some at least had alternative endings....On the basis of surviving films, letters and scrapts, we know that at least 56 alternative endings were made from 1911 to 1928. Curiously enough, however, there are no indications that alternative endings were created for the five films in which we still have the actual endings. This demonstrates that Nordisk produced alternative endings for more films than the 56 which we know have double endings because they survive." The author notes in particular the American film Flesh and the Devil, with Greta Garbo and Lars Hanson as being a film that had an alternative international ending. More can be learned about the nature of early Danish narrative film as Isak Thosen titles his paper, "We had to Be Careful, the Self-Imposed Regulations, Alternations and Censorship Strategies of Nordisk Films Kompagni 1911-1928". It is taken from a quote from Ole Olsen, "We had to be careful and make films in such a way that the could be understood everywhere. As an example, I might mention that a film could not be sold in England if a man walked through a bedroom and no one else was in the room." Thorsen begins his premise about the Danish erotic melodrama and sensational film by writing, "What's striking about Olsen's recollection is that in his mind there is little distinction between making a film "understood everywhere" and getting it past the often obscure and culturally contingent censorship regulations- in this case the eyes of the British censors and their monitoring of sexual morality." Bo Florin gives an account of there being similar difficulty for Victor Sjostrom in Sweden, in that the censorship board, "continued to irritate producers by cutting out sequences or, worse still, banning entire films." What is in agreement with the Danish concept or necessarily leaving part of the erotic melodrama to the imagination is the later writing of director Peter Urban Gad. If only to characterize Gad as an artist or intellectual, Thomas J. Sanders writes, "Most emphatic was the prominent Danish author Urban Gad, who in early 1919 identified monumentalism, brutality and sentimentality as America's dominant film traits and advised German producers to focus on consistency and substance." Bela Belaz introduces the new subjects and the new characters of the "form language" with a discussion of Urban Gad, "Urban Gad, the famous Danish film producer, wrote a book on film as far back as 1918...According to him, every film should be placed in some specific natural enviornment which must affect the human being living in it and plays a part in directing their lives and destinies." Belaz, in Theory of Film-character and growth of a new art, looks at "photographed theater", and that including Scandinavian film, sees it as no longer being only the "photographed play", that nature itself could be included in the cast of players by the "dramatic features through the present action of the immediate effect of nature on the moods of human beings which sometimes excersise a decisive influence on their fate." While providing an analysis of the grammar of film, including the internal framing (proscenium arch, foreground figures, receding planes) of the shot within the temporal-spatiality of continuity, as well as the "tableau plus insert", Bordwell refers to Filmen:Dens Midler Og Maal, written by Peter Urban Gad, "Gad recommends recording a scene in long shot then replacing part of it for a closer view...Gad explicitly declares that one should not 'cut a scene into small bits'." Marguerite Engberg quotes Gad's volume in that there is an entire chapter on the tinting and toning of film, "He tells us that in the early years of cinema it was common to use loud colors such as scarlet, bright yellow, grass-green and purple in a jumble regardless of style and action and he continues, 'It is still important to pay attention to the use of light colors.'"Since then, as many as 19 films have been listed as lost and as having been directed by Peter Urban Gad, including Die Flasche Asta Nielsen (1915) in which Nielsen plays both her double, Boulette, and herself; after Gad's publication director, as the use of tint and toning was in decline Benjamin Christensen decided to change the color plan, using only three colors: light brown, dark brown and blue. Film historian Mark B. Sandberg, using the advent of the multi-reel film between 1910-1912 as a point of departure, adds, "Although Danish films often framed the most aggressive of female sexuality with diegetic performance situations or punished such transgressions with token strategies of narrative closure, the powerful female desire in the course of the erotic melodrama seems to have trumped any onscreen tactics of containment, at least judging from contemporary reactions. Danish films were not famous for their narrative frames, in other words, and the main force of their gender poetics was anything but recuperative." Amanda Elaine Doxtater, in Pathos, Performance, Voliton, a dissertation written for Mark Sandberg, after citing authors that view erotic melodrama itself as a reaction to gendered spectatorship and the need for the emerging Scandinavian female audience to find the sensational, explains, "The Kunst Film, as these mulit-reel features were called, played a key role in Nordisk's phenomenal success in the teens, both financial and artistic. Although literally meaning "art film", kunstfilm was originally used to designate all multi-reel films...for in contrast to the one-reel films...the longer format allowed Nordisk to develop characters and experiment with complex narrative structure. This would lay the ground work for Nordisk's great combination of humanistic stories, psychologically interesting drama and sensational spectacles." Kirsten Drotner, in Asta Nielsen, A Modern Woman Before Her Time summarizes, "The downfall of the female protagonist is a standard element in early film melodrama", but adds that the "first modern sensational drama" belonged to Fotora and that by 1914, there were 24 film studios in Denmark. "The phenomenal economic success of Nordisk Films rested largely on its export of multi-reel films, intiated in 1910 by a rival company, Fotorama...Longer films set new technical standards and demanded novel forms of narration. while it was Nordisk Films that first reaped the profits of these innovations, it neither invented the feature-length film nor initiated its form of narration." And yet the newsreel-like "life-fact" filming of Ole Olsen and Charles Magnusson had crossed into fiction and fantasy as the one-reel film, in summary, had begun to legnthen after the cinema of attractions- while awaiting the pastoral narrative films of Robert Olsson in Sweden, simultaneous to the release of Danish erotic melodrama, mysteries like Pat Corner (Masterdetektiven) and Nat Pinkerton, The Anarchists Plot (Det Mislykkede attentat), both in which the director Viggo Larsen appeared on screen with Elith Pio, had appeared in Denmark, not as early as 1909 but earlier, the Danish photographer Axel Graatjaer Sorensen having begun filming for Larsen in 1906 and having had continued solely for Larsen untill 1911, when he then began photographing first for Danish silent film director August Blom and then for danish silent film director Urban Gad under the name Axel Graatjkjae. Viggo Larsen by 1910, was in Germany, where he directed and starred with Wanda Treumann in Arsene Lupin Against Sherlock Holmes (Arsene Lupin contra Sherlock Holmes), which appears to have been a series consisting of The Old Secretaire, The Blue Diamond, The Fake Rembrandts, Arsene Lupin Escapes, and The Finish of Arsene Lupin.  In 1911 he directed the more successful Sherlock Holmes contra Professor Moriarty, which having been filmed by Vitascope, was two reels in length. It has been reported from Norway that Viggo Larsen had resigned from Nordisk Film in 1909 due to a financial disagreement with Ole Olsen that had also include concerns about his artistic integrity.   During 1908 Great Northern, The Nordisk Film Company, advertised "Next Issue: Sherlock Holmes the Noted Detective's Capture of the King of Criminals. An Absorbing Subject, the interest of which is enhanced by novel stage effects. The fight in the moving train is the Perfection of Realism. Undoubtedly this season's biggest feature." Moving Picture World wrote about the film, "a detective story by Great Northern Film Co. to be issued next week is a masterly production in every respect. The plot in itself is interesting and well worked out. The staging is splendid and introduces some novel effects, not claptrap contraptions, but very realistic in all details. The action throughout is natural and spirited in some parts."  In Denmark, Larsen had played Holmesin one reel films to Holger-Madsen's Raffles in both Sherlock Holmes Risks His Life (Sherlock Holmes in Danger of His Life/ Sherlock Holmes i livsfare,1908), a film running seventeen minutes on screen in which Otto Dethefsen appeared as Moriarty and Sherlock Holmes Two, both films photographed by Axel Sorensen, the latter having a running time of ten minutes. Great Northern during 1909 advertised, "Among Many Headliners to go on the market in the very near future is Sherlock Holmes: Series II and III. Series I issued recently is crowding every theater in which it is exhibited." Moving Picture World reviewed the film, "It is quite as much of a thriller as the first. The audience will watch with the most intense interest as they see Raffles escape and afterward see Holmes enticed into a lonely place and into a sewer. But he escapes and captures Raffles in the act of shooting at an image in Holmes' window which Raffles takes to be Holmes himself...The cleverness of the film and the success of Holmes compensates for any shortcomings in other directions." Moving Picture World, surrounding with its text a photograph from the film caption, "The Capture of Raffles by Sherlock Holmes", wrote, "Once free, Raffles' first thought is to revenge himself on Sherlock Holmes and for this he enlists the services of a pretty, but depraved girl to decoy the detective to an old house, where he is met by Raffles under the disguise of an old woman. Sherlock Holmes, taken by suprise is thrown through a masked opening in the wall into an old sewer. When Raffles and his associates discover that Sherlock Holmes has been rescued they plan a second attempt on his life. Raffles takes lodgings opposite the detective's home and watches for a good chance to fire his gun...Sherlock Holmes guessing the intention of the criminal, pulls down the window blinds and arranges a dummy at the window." Raffles shoots, only to "find himself face to face with Sherlock Holmes in the flesh....In Sherlock Holmes II, you will find the same quiet, cool and possessed detective."   Einar Zangenberg played the armchair detective in Larsen's Sherlock Holmes Three (The Secret Document/Det Hemmelige), a film with a running time of fourteen mintues, and in Hotel Thieves (Hotelmystierne/Sherlock Holme's Last Exploit) in 1911. Hotel Theives was screened that year in the United States as a Great Northern Film, its advertisement reading, "Another of our celebrated detective productions. A brimful of of exciting and sensational incidents." It shared its advertising space with the "exceedingly well-staged drama" Ghost of the Vaults. Which in Denmark, was seen as Spogelset i Garvkaeldern, directed by August Blom and starring Otto Langoni, Thilde Fonss and Ingeborg Larsen. One of those productions from Great Northern that year was The Conspirators, " A sensational drama of the Sherlock Holmes type." Rather than a detective, Einar Zanberg was to play a journalist in the 1911 film The Disappearance of the Mona Lisa (Den forms under Mona Lisa), directed bu Eduardo Schnedler-Sorensen and starring Carl Alstrup and Zanny Petersen;Einar Zangerberg then stepped behind the camera as director in 1912 to bring the photography of Poul Eibye to the screen in the films Kvindhjerter and Efter Dodsspriset, both with Edith Psilander, The Last Hurdle (Den Sidste Hurdle), in which he appeared on screen with Edith Psilander, and The Marconi-Operater (The Marconi Telegrafisten). Viggo Larsen would also direct the Sherlock Holmes films The Singer's Diamond (Sangerindens daiamanter (1908), starring Holger Madsen with Aage Brandt as the singer:  int the case of Margaret Hayes, Sherlock Holmes returns the necklace after having climbed to the roof and then on to a balcony for a duel with revolvers near the chimney. Along with the synopsis of the film, Moving Picture World explained that it was often invited to visit Mr. Oes for advanced screenings of forthcoming releases and praised his for their photographic quality and variety of subject matter. It reviewed Theft of Diamonds, "This firm has made an attraction feature of films of this type in the past, its Sherlock Holmes series being graphic representations of this fact. In this film some very dramatic situations are reproduced and the acting is so sympathetic, and the actors develop so much capability in developing their parts that the audience becomes absorbed in the picture and regrets when it closes." The running time of the film was seventeen minutes. The Great Northern Film Company incidently would during 1910 run an advertisement for a film titled The Theft of the Diamonds crediting it  only as "a stirring detective story" without identifying it as a Sherlock Holmes mystery. To follow were the films The Gray Lady (Den Graa Dame, 1909) with a running time of seventeen minutes and Cab Number 519 (Drokes 519), in which Larsen would play the consulting detective with co-star August Blom.  Moving Picture World described Sherlock Holmes in the film, "Holmes, after all, is only a clever man of the world with highly developed reasoning powers. he is not a mere stage detective looking preternaturally wise and relying only upon time-worn expedients. No, he goes about his work in an ordinary matter of fact style, plus, of course, a little permissible exaggeration of acumen...The picture is full of excitement from start to finish...Melodrama such as Cab Number 519 does not call for subtlety of dramatic interpretation; it all has to be plain, decisive and incisive...Holmes works on very slender materials; he also works rationally."  The Baker Street Journal mentions that the Nordisk Film The Gray Lady is often held to be the first film version of The Hound of the Baskervilles despite that it "does not feature a hound at all, but rather a phantom lady used for much the same purpose." Great Northern advetised the film in 1909 as "From Sherlock Holmes' Memoirs" while it was reviewed mostly as a synopsis outline, "There is a legend in a noble English family that when the Gray Dame, a respectable family ghost, appears then the eldest son of the house dies...In this dilemma, Sherlock Holmes is sent for and he discovers the secret doors...Disguising himself as the son of the house he awaits the next appearance of the Gray Dame...The story is full of exciting movements and the plot is worked out with decision. There is not a lingering moment in the story, which moves rapidly, tensely and convincingly, as all detective stories should". In Cab Number 519, "The only clue in the case is the number of the cab but this is quite sufficient to the intelligent detective. In less than an hour the cab is found and Sherlock Holmes is on the box dressed as a driver." Great Northern included "Cab Number 519" in its regular magazines advertisements by claiming it to be "A meritorious subject in every respect. One of the finest detective stories. Holding the interest continuously fro start to finish." Before becoming one of the finest, and most prolific, of Danish silent film directors, August Blom also starred as an actor with Viggo Larsen in front of the camera of Axel Sorensen in the film A Father's Grief (Fadern (1909), directed by Larsen. Ole Olsen in 1910 produced Sherlock Holmes in the Claws of the Confidence Men (Sherlock Holmes i Bondefangerkler) for Nordisk Films Kompagni, in which Otto Langoni starred as Holmes with the actress Ellen Kornbech. Langoni appeared as Holmes in the 1911 films Den Sorte A Haand (Mordet id Bakerstreet with the actress Ingeborg Rasmussen and in The Bogus Governess Den forklaedete Barnepige, both listed by the Danish Film Institute as being photographed by an unknown director-a pastiche titled Den Sorte Haand was filmed by William Augustinus. Great Northern advertised the film The Bogus Governess  in Motion Picture World magazine with "One of the best Sherlock Holmes detective films ever produced...Secure a booking of this attraction at once...Don't delay in booking this headliner." It shared advertising space with The Love of a Gypsy Girl, "feature drama" and consequently Love Never Dies. Translators had added the titles Night of Terror and Who is She to the films produced by Nordisk Film chronicling the adventures Sherlock Holmes.
      During 1911 magazine readers in the United States were introduced to Alwin Nuess- Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, the film, directed by August Blom co-starring  Emilie Sannom and Einar Zangenberg, who plays Laertes. Produced in the grounds of the original Castle Cronenberg (Elsinore) Denmark,  the Great Northern film, "surpasses any previous Shakespearean productionin acting,  natural scenery and ensemble. Although a classical subject appeals forcibly to every class of audience." Author Astrid Soderberg Widding recently noted that August Blom had Concieved Hamlet as a three act stage play but that the company had abridged the work to a one-reel play. In the article Hamlet of the Film, published in Motion Picture World during 1911 the author declined evaluating the actor Alvin Nuess by comparing him specifically to the elder Southern, Keanu and Irving with, "The pleasure of comparing many great Hamlets will belong to the critics of the following generations. But the Great Northern Film Company is to be congratulated on having the photograph of so interesting a Hamlet as Herr Neuss...Herr Neuss' Hamlet of the film vividly accents the heart qualities of character, when he first comes out on the castle's platform- it is the actual Castle Cronsberg (Elsinore)..Again, when he advises Ophelia (Fraulien Sannom) to enter a nunnery, his guest urges convey so deep a tenderness that the scene is poignantly affecting. Fraulien Sannom makes a very beautiful Northland Ophelia...she wasn't as pathetic as she might have been." Of interest to Skakespearian actors, underneath an advertisement for the 1910 detective film The Diamond Swindler, Great Northern proclaimed the release of the film Kean or The Prince and the Actor, based on the life of "Edward Kean, the famous tragedian, who was not only a great actor, but an intense self human man." The advertisement praised the film for its actors having originated from the Royal Theater at Copenhagen, the film an adaptation of a play by Dumas. The film had been directed by Holger Rasmussen, and it's actor were in fact Einar Zangenberg and August Bloom paired on screen with Agnes Nyrop Christensen, Thilda Fonss and Otto Langoni. Underneath the advertisement for Hamlet was mystery: A Confidence Trick, "A detective story full of exciting situations" and The Stolen Legacy, "a feature detective film of thrilling character." Motion Picture News reviewed The Stolen Legacy without naming its leading actor, "This is an exceedingly powerful detective story. Sherlock Holmes is in make up a life-like presentiment of Conan Doyle's famous character." A synopsis of the film was provided, there having had been being a Countess who was captured in an automobile chase by Dr. Morse, who instructed his assistant, a hunchback to kill her at midnight should he not return. Morse then goes to Baker Street and makes a "forcible entry" to find Holmes and bring him to his awaiting hostage, the Countess, whom Holmes saves." Great Northern advertised The Stolen Legacy alongside The Cossack and the Duke; in its place were in turn advertisements for The Nun and The Voice of Conscience. Alwin Nuess would portray Sherlock Holmes in the films The One Million Dollar Bond (Millionobilgationen) in 1911 and in The Hound of the Baskervilles (Rudolf Meinert) in 1914. The Baker Street Journal attributes the photography of The Hound of The Baskervilles to Karl Fruend; it also adds a sequel that was sped off under the title The Isolated House (Das einsarne Haus),  Alwin Nuess continued playing Holmes in in the 1915 films William Voss and A Scream in the Night., reviewed in Motion Picture World during 1916. "A Sherlock Holmes drama, was written by Paul Rosenhayn and arranged by Alwin Nuess, who has won great popularity through his numerous interpretations of the world famous detective, chief among which as Holmes in Hound of the Baskerville...Contrary to a recent American criticism of the European depiction of the famous detective, thisSherlock Holmes neglected appearing at a soiree in his checkered cap with the inevitable pipe in mouth...That Mr. Nuess has made a careful study of American films is plainly evident in A Scream in the Night. Alwin Nuess had in fact preceded John Barrymore twice; Nuess also appearred in the with Emilie Sannon, portraying the title role in Den Skaebnesvagngre Opfindelse (August Blom, 1910), known to readers of British literature as The Strange Case of Dr, Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Great Northern Film advertised the film in Moving Picture World, "This artistic and beautiful film admirably illustrates Stevenson's remarkable word renowned story. It is a production of genuine and thrilling interest and will hold every audience spellbound to the very finish. Splendidly enacted and reproduced in magnificient photographic sequence. Season's Biggest Headliner" Without mentioning the director August Blom in its advertisement, it very often billing films by title and synopsis only, it was next to advertise another film directed by August Blom, Necklace of the Dead (Dodes Halsband), "Enacted by Actors of the Royal Theater Copenhagen, a magnificient production of intense thrilling interest." The cast of the film includes Otto Langoni, Rasmussen Otteson and Ingeborg Middlebo Larsen. Moving Picture World carried an advertisement for the Great Northern Film Necklace of the Dead during 1910 claiming it was the "Biggest and Strongest Headliner of the Year, squeezing it into a half page with the films The Christmas Letter and the comedy Dickey's Courtship. During 1910 Great Northern Films also advertised the film The Diamond Swindler, "A detective story of the highest type. Adapted from the Adventures of Harry Taxon, the cleverest pupil of the celebrated Sherlock Holmes. A snappy production which will prove itself popular."
     Valdemar Psilander appearred as the fictional detective Otto Berg during 1913 in At the Eleventh Hour (Hven var Forbryderen) with Otto Langoni and Alma Hinding, the film being directed by August Blom. During 1913, Robert Dinesen directed both Otto Langoni and August Blom, together with Agnes Blom, in the mystery horror film, The Man With the Cloak (Manden med Kappen), which uses blue tint to create mood and stmosphere for a double exposure of a ghost-like character, one predating, but reminiscient of, Victor Sjostrom And his use of the device in The Phantom Carriage- the double exposure continues from shot to shot; while the spatio-temporality of the continuity trails behind the two characters in a follow-shot, the camera cuts from interior to exterior to show the progress of both the protagonist and the double-exposed spectre, who then suddenly disappears during the shot as though there had been a stop-motion. In turn, August Blom during that year of 1913 returned behind the camera to direct both Robert Dinesen and Otto Langoni with actress Emma Thomsen in the film The Stolen Treaty (Det Tredie Magt), adapted from a scrapt written by Peter Lykke Seest.
Sherlock Holmes in the Great Murder Mystery, a film produced by Crescent, was reviewed during 1908 as having a plot similar to The Murders in the Rue Morgue, Holmes returning to his study to play violin before proving his client innocent, but overall it seems like the film Miss Sherlock Holmes commanded just as much if not more publicity.There is in fact a film made in Hungary during 1908 and starring Bauman Karoly that is purportedly a synchronized sound film listed as Sherlock Hochmes, which is astonishingly early when compared to the Swedish Biophon synchronized sound film of that year He Who Catches a Crook (Hans som Klara Boven), a film which under the title He Who Takes Care of a Villian, produced by Franz G Wiberg in Kristianstad Sweden, is thought by film historians to be a film that was never released theatrically. More sensational may seem the Hungarian silent filming of Dracula, Dracula's Death (Drakula halala), which is believed to be a lost film of which there are no existant copies. More of a comedy than pastiche, Den firbende Sherlock Holmes directed by Lau Lauritzen for Nordisk in 1918 and starring Rasmus Christiansen, from its posters would seem to lack mystery, despite its being compared to the films made in the United States by Benjamin Christensen.
The one reel film The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes or Held for Ransom directed in the United States by Stuart Blackton in 1905 and drawn from The Sign of Four, is thought to be a lost film. Harry Benham would later play Sherlock Holmes in in the two reeler Sherlock Holmes Solves the Sign of the Four, written and directed in the United States by Lloyd Lonergan. Thanhouser, during 1913 tucked away its advertisement for The Sign of the Four on the same page as its advertisement for the film The Ghost in Uniform as part of their Three-A-Week full page that seems to have relented after its mere brief announcement while Eclair had ran a full page advertisement with oval portraits of Conan Doyle, Longfellow, Poe and Washington Irving claiming that it had acquired the exclusive rights to film the Holmes stories, several of them having been filmed previously in England. The film listed by the Library of Congress as being from 1912 and titled The Stolen Papers, while being listed as being from the Adventures of Sherlock Holmes by Arthur C. Doyle and having no director was in all probability directed by George Treville, with he himself starring in the role of Holmes. During 1913, Motion Picture World magazine carried an advertisement that read, "There was never but One Sherlock Holmes and that one Originated in the mastermind of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who personally supervised the only authorized Sherlock Holmes series of motion pictures on the market. This wonderful series consists of eight complete stories, each featuring the inimitable Sherlock Holmes." The Dead Man's Child was unmistakably a "sensational three reel detective drama", the full page advertisement ran by Great Northern in Moving Picture World Magazine showing stills of the detective Newton "on the trail" and his "daring leap from the bridge", as well as three players in the drama and "Edith in the family vault". It was later that year advertised as "a detective drama that will start them all talking." A second advertisement for the film claimed "The Most Thrilling Detective Drama Ever Staged, a wonderfully exciting film." During 1913 while in the United States a diamond necklace had been the center of The Great Taxicab Mystery, among Nordisk Films that were being shown by Great Northern were The Man in the White Cloak, a "spectral and supernatural interest blend with Heart Throbs and thoroughly human thrills" and A Victim of Intrigue. Motography magazine in 1914 reviewed another Nordisk mystery, "a three-reel detective drama entitled The Charlotte Street Mystery. It is said to contain some novel and startling effects. The story deals with the interesting adventures of an exceptionally clever woman who seeks to elude the law and succeeds in baffling a detective for some time, but is finally captured after several thrilling escapes. The role of the woman is in the hands of Elsie Frolich, the capable Greta Northern leading woman, who gives a very vivid characterization. "In the United States during 1914 The Mystery of the Fatal Pearl with a plot premise reminiscent of The Moonstone was reviewed, of interest to the film detective being the mysteries of the photoplay, the secrets kept by the scenario. "It has been a generally accepted theory that the screen story must be told in chronological order-that events must be shown in a sequence- as opposed to the freedom of relation obtained in literature...there is a departure from the usual custom. The story is told in two sections, the first consisting of three parts, the second of two. The climax is reached at the end of the third part. We are deeply in doubt as to the situation of affairs-it is one that would give occasion for the consumption of many pipefuls of real strong tobbacco on the part of a most competent Sherlock Holmes." Sherlock Holmes-Danish Silent Film 

One could begin looking for The Rivals of Sherlock Holmes in the United States with the 1911 film King, the Detective, "introducing the scientific methods of the modern detective and weaving in a love story to maintain the love interest". Denmark and Great Northern during 1910 offered The Diamond Swindler, "This great feature is another of our famous detective stories. It is adapted from the adventures of Henry Taxon, a clever pupil of the celebrated Sherlock Holmes." Great Northern that year also offered the film The Somnambulist, "a well told and thrilling story that will strongly interest any audience." A synopsis was provided when reviewed, the film centering around a museum director that carried off valuable objects of art, bringing them back to his room. "The acting of the principal character is good and gives a good determination of what a person will do under such circumstances." The film was to be of interest to those audiences that  had never seen examples of sleepwalking. Great Northern also that year distributed an adventure film titled The Hidden Treasure, the films The Jump to Death, The Duel, and The Captain's Wife, bringing audiences up to the midyear of summer. The film that is most haunting is the The Trunk Mystery- it seems unlisted as a Danish film and as a lost film, as though it disappeared, but there is also no mention of who the director or actor pictured in its advertisement was. There is only a photo of an actor smoking a pipe and wearing a plaid, or checkered, Scolley cap and underneath its the caption "The Trunk Mystery Detective". The advertisement from Great Northern during 1911 reviews the film as "A more thrilling, sensational and intensely interesting detective feature has never been released." while another line reads, "A sensational and intesensely interesting story of impersonation to secure an inheritance. The fraud is brought to light by a clever detective who will win the admiration of every spectator- Get busy at once in getting booking for this big feature." The film was accompanied by the advertisement for "a well acted dramatic production" entitled The Homeless Boy. Moving Picture World described the film as a detective story where a love story ensues, "The hiding of the man in the trunk is not novel. It is the keeping him alive after he has been hidden there that introduces a new element in a common enough story." Great Northern at the time had named itself "the 'king pin' of quality films". In Denmark, Valdemar Psilander portrayed the detective Otto Berg during 1913 in the film At the Eleventh Hour (Hvem Var Forbryderen, directed by August Blom. Fictional detective Donald Brice, courtesy of Selig Polyscope in the United States, appeared in the two reel The Cipher Message during 1913. Motography magazine, whom provided an at length synopsis, wrote, "It must not be assumed that the detective tale is one of lurid or sensational type for such is far fromn being the case. The detective hero of the drama is a deliberate, methodical sort of chap, who goes steadily about solving the mystery without any bloodshed or pistol practice." In the film Brice outspeeds a locomotive in his automobile in an attempt to recover a stolen necklace. In the United States, Edison during 1913 ran a full page adverstisement for The Mystery of West Sedgwick with the announcement that there now would be "a two reel Edison feature released every Friday." During 1914, Edison featured Octavius the Amateur Detective, in The Adventure of the Actress' Jewels. It was not only a year in which Betty Harte in the United States was appearing in The Mystery of the Poison Pool, or Who Stole the Kimberley Diamond, but also during which appeared the heavily advertised The Million Dollar Mystery, filmed by Thanhauser Film Corporation as a serial of 42 reels in length and starring Florence la Badie and Marguerite Snow as Countess Olga.Cleek of Scotland Yard, filmed by Edison is certainly a lost film, of which there are no existant copies, but the film was part of a series entitled Chronicles of Cleek, therefore not all the films are necessarily lost, one installment having been titled The Mystery of the Octagonal Room. The Eclipse-Urban Film Company in the United States that year had introduced the fictional detective Barnet Parker in The Mystery of Green Park from a series of "dramas of unusual interest and mystery after the famous novel by Arnold Galopin" while Apex Film that year advertised the film The Dare-Devil Detective along with the mysteries The Devil's Eye, The Secret Seven and The Clue of the Scarab. Feature Photoplay that year took out a full page ad for the film The Mysterious Mr. Wu Chung Foo. And yet as popular as the serial, cliffhanger if you will, had become, the multi-reel film was beginning to come into its own in regard to literary adaptation; during the following year Thomas A Edison produced Vanity Fair, directed by Eugene Norland with a running time of 72 minutes, Shirley Mason having starred as Becky Sharp. Still, Kalem would have an interesting entry during 1915, The False Clue, "A certain star of the legitimate stage, famous for his work in detective dramas, registered at the Hotel, San Fransisco. That night the actor reported the theft of his wife's rings and declared his determination to capture the thief by psychological deduction. It never occurred to this man that someday his adventures would be made the basis of a Photoplay! This is just what happened and the story as told to Kalem by hotel officials." One of the most intriguing Rivals of Sherlock Holmes, The Mystery of Orcival (1916, MacDonald), a three reel film from Biograph, was advertised as "Perhaps the most celebrated of all detective mysteries- Emile Gaboriau's masterpiece." Motion Picture World reviewed the photoplay, "When the Biograph scenario editor came to adapting Emile Gaboriau's novel he encountered an over abundance of plot material for a three part picture and had the difficult task of making the story reasonably complete and at the same time clear. Altogether he succeeded very well by using the topsy turvy method of construction popular with writers of mystery tales...Gretchen Hartman plays a countess who poisons her husband and soon tastes the bitterness of disillusionment in her love for the man who inspired the crime."

Danish Silent Film
During 1914, The Great Northern Special Feature Film Company advertised, "The Must Baffling Mystery Ever Filmed", By Whose Hand? which promised "Interest and Thrills from Beginning to End". The Great Northern Film Company released "Preferred Feature Attractions". Nordisk Film decidedly advertised the film The Stolen Treaty in 1913, and Great Northern that year distributed the silent film The Stolen Secret (three reels); Great Northern in fact ran more than a dozen full page advertisements accompanied by numerous one or two inch "coming attraction" notices for Nordisk films during 1913 in the magazine Motion Picture World. The Stolent Treaty was advertised as "A Photo Drama that Deals with Dramatic Intrigue and Interational Plotting. In three parts, with 90 Powerful and Thrilling Scenes." Great Northern also included a full page for Theresa the Adventuress, "a startling feature photodrama in three parts having in it a strong blending of detective cleverness and criminal cunning; a thrilling and gripping dramatic subject with a tremendous final scene; a sensational feature throughout; how fate overtakes the transgression." That year it also announced the film The White Ghost (Den Hivide Dame, 1913) directed by Holger-Madsen and starring Rita Sacchetto. The cameraman to the film had been Maurius Clausen, who with Holger Madsen was particularly noted for continuing the lighting effects that were singular to early Danish Silent Film. Although Ingvald Oes, the director of Great Northern was quoted as having said that three fourths of the films shown in Scandinavia were filmed in the United States, despite whether his film had been widely seen in the United States as a Great Northern Film Company silent film, Forest Holger Madsen not only directed The White Ghost that year, but also directed the films The Mechanical Saw and During the Plauge (Men's Pesten raster) or Nordisk Film.  Actress Rita Sacchetto also that year appeared in the film The Gambler's Wife (Fran Fyrste till Knejpevart) under the direction of Holger-Madsen. It was a year that Danish audiences were present while Vilhelm Gluckstadt brought the film The Black Music Hall (Ven Sorte Variete), starring Gudrun Houlberg to the screen.  Author Anne Bachman explains the contriving of a metafilm while describing the film The Woman Who Tempted Me (Holger Madsen, 1916) a mystery, "set during a film and features a murder which the film diva realizes is inspired by the detail of the plot of a film-in-the-film. The film-in-the-film provokes the murder's confession when screened in the courtroom in is thus the title's feels ends (redeeming) film for the innocent suspect. in this way the film's diva's inside knowledge of film production solves the mystery. "  The photoplay to the film was scrapted by Marius Clausen. Ebba Thomsen stars as the silent film actress. Anne Bachman contrasts the use of location shooting in Sweden to the Danish technique, method, perhaps, of filming, "The Danish film industry's predominant reliance on artificial sets was in particular Nordisk's recipe for success: Nordisk used their studio in Valby for both in and outdoor shots and had an extensive array of backgrounds ('master') for outdoors. "
     As Nordisk Films was waiting for its brief, although high-gear history to slide over the the precipice of the Great War, Thanhouser during 1917 went directly to the novel by Wilkie Collins, filming The Woman in White (Ernest C. Warde) with Florence LaBadie playing the dual role of Laura Fairlie and Ann Catherine in a film particularly noted for its lighting effects. Thanhouser, as a film studio would shortly thereafter fold its production and the film star, LaBadie would unexpectedly die in an automobile accident. Author Ron Mottram recently published the article The Great Northern Film Company: Nordisk Film in the American Motion Picture Market, out lining the transactions between Ole Olsen and Oes, president of Great Northern, that transpired between 1908-1917. Olsen had originally agreed to send more than one hundred silent films to the United States. During 1913, Great Northern advertising in the United States promised, "One Feature Every Week Hereafter, All of Incomparable Superiority." During a week in 1913 when Motion Picture World had also visited the studios of Famous Players, Motion Picture World chronicled Ivan C Ocs and The Great Northern Film Company having moved into a new office in the United States, "The feat was accomplished on Saturday last and was marked by no more serious incident than the breaking of a couple inkwell covers....we may expect to have flashlight photo of the new offices and a descraption of the interior of the new home of the 'Polar Bear' brand moving pictures." The Great Northern Special Feature Film Co. That week placed an advertisement that week in the magazine for the coming film "The Grain Speculator", one without photographs or the names of its cast. 143 fiction films were filmed by Nordisk Film during 1914 according to the present company, one that as its continuous existence reached into the 21st century had celebrated 100 years of filmmaking in its present location, Valby, Denmark. Olsen took the position of managing director of Nordisk in 1911, a I'm year during which Denmark had become the first country to make multi-reel films, bringing the running-time up to three quarters of an hour. It was for Nordisk Films Kompani that year that August Blom had directed Asta Neilsen in the film The Ballet Dancer (Balletdanserinden)., she would return to Denmark to make the film Toward the Light (Mod Lyset) for Nordisk Film in 1919. Olsen had in fact entertained the view that the demand for film exceeded its production rate, which led him to export. Olsen required that alternative endings be fimed so that fims could be sent to foreign audiences, one of these being a different ending of August Blom's film Atlantis (1913) and another being Holger-Madsen's film Evangeliemanders Liv, the ending of both films having been changed suit Russian audiences. Ron Mottram writes that specifically, there were two films, His Most Difficult Part (Hans Vanskeligeste Rolle, 1912) and Paradise Lost (Bristet Lykke, 1913), for which two endings were filmed and sent to Oes, who had written that censorship had plight edx the business of distributing Great Northern Films in the United States, and Olsen designated that it would be for him to decide which version would be screened, the dramatic effect of one ending weighed against a happier one. Ole Olsen had appeared as an actor in the film Isbjornejagt, directed in 1907 by Viggo Larsen- Professor Ib Bondebjerg, University of Denmark, recently noted that as many as five hundred and sixty films were produced by Nordisk Film between 1907-1910. While briefly summarizing the history of Danish Silent Film, Professor Bondebjerg has attributed Gad's film The Abyss with not only being a steeping stone for Asta Nielsen's career, but as having "formed the basis of the golden age of Danish Silent Film", although it is not infrequent that Bondebjerg interestingly places Dreyer's Danish silent film, beginning with The President, belonging separate from the films of Nordisk and establishing a cinema of passion, "films that follow both some of the standards of classical Filmaking and at the same time in their expressive style and use of miss en scene, space, lighting and facial expressions refine and transcend the norms of classical cinema and style." Undoubtedly, classical narrative has gone from its brief period of newsreel like short films photographed by Peter Elfelt and Ole Olsen's first film, which lasted two minutes on the screen to more sensational films lasting between 10-15 minutes, much like they had in other international cinemas: Ole Olsen in 1911 would adapt the multi-reel film to a running length of 45 minutes only after purportedly having been given the idea from Fotorama and a year earlier having copied the scrapt treatment of one of their first multi-reel films. The film The Little Hornblowing (Den Lille horn laser) produced in Arhaus by Fotorama, directed by Eduard Schnedler-Sorensen during 1909, had had a running length on screen of approximately up to 20 minutes.

David Bordwell sees the second decade of the twentieth century as one where Danish filmmakers produced both classic masterpieces and excitement packed melodrama, but in any event, film had emerged from mere photodocumentary and travel films to photoplays within a very brief interval- while pointing to Ron Mottram's observation that Danish director's used mirrors to create spatial depth,Bordwell adds that author Kristin Thompsen views the use of mirror to convey the spatial depth of the scene as inextricable from narrative technique. Bordwell when writing on The Cinematic Text and poetics  likens stylistic and narrative devices when contrasting them to systems, such as spatial continuity or narrative causality. Author Yuri Tsivan is specific when describing the director August Blom's 1911 film Ved Farenglets Port and a mirror that intercepts the gendered gaze of a female who the spectator can view, but not the male character in the interplay of her entrance, or theatrical blocking and a doorway used in the scene.
While advancing that Afgrunden was the most influential early Danish silent film by virtue of its subject matter and it's treatment of sexuality onscreen, author Ron Mottram tersely describes its link the chronology of the period,"After the making of Afgrunden, Kosmorama soon went out of business and it's managing director, Hjalmar Davidsen, was soon hired by Olsen." It has been written that Asta Nielsen was one of the first actresses to have commodified sexuality, endorsements for products soon appearing under  her name, the spectator entering into a relation of purchasing the sexually desired on screen subject and that subject positioned in order to delineate the view of the male viewer to the look of the female glance. In his volume Scandinavian Film, Forsythe Hardy writes about the film The Abyss, "It was an immediate success and audiences everywhere responded to the sensitive, expressive style of acting which contrasted sharply with the grimacing antics of her contemporaries. Even as a girl, we are told, her face was already a tragic mask."  Astrid Soderberg Widding has remarked upon the film, "It contained some innovative devices, for example the lack of intertitles, but achieved its reputation mainly as an erotic film with a touch of dark fatalism."  Danish screenwriter Harriet Bloch years later explained that it had been the film "The Abyss" that had compelled her to write for the movies. Bloch, who wrote for Nordisk Films between 1911-1920 was purportedly Ole Olsen's favorite screenwriter, although, admittedly, they had never met.
     The actress Asta Nielsen also during 1911 appeared with Valdemar Psilander in The Black Dream (Dem Sorte Drom), thought to be remarkable for the the use of silhouette, by  Asta Neilsen's husband, Peter Urban Gad, the film's director. Even more startling to audiences that year was the Norwegian silent The Demon (Daemonen), directed by Jens Christian Gunderson, a film that quickly followed the subject matter of Nielsen's film The Abyss by including erotic dances between Per Krough and actress Carla Rasmussen. Photographed by Alfred Lind and starring Ellen Tenger, the film was almost responsible for an early rating system that would allow only adults into theaters. In Denmark, Urban Gad also directed actresses Emilie Sannom and Ellen Kornbeck, among the film's Gad directed for Nordisk Films in 1911 having been "When Passion Blinds Honest" ("Dyrekobt Glimmer") in which both actresses appeared with Johannesburg Poulsen, Otto Langoni and Elna From, "An Aviator's Generosity" ("Den Store Flyver", 3 reels) which, photographed by Axel Graatkjaer, starred Christel Holck with Einar Zangenberg, and "Gennom Kamp Fil Sejv" written by Harriet Bloch and starring Edith Bremann Psilander with Augusta Blad.
During 1912, an entire page of Moving Picture World magazine was devoted to the review of Gypsy Blood, "The First of a Series of Feature Films in which Miss Asta Nielsen appears. It in detail provides a synopsis to the film and on the opposite page there was a portrait of the actress with the caption "Miss Asta Nielsen Supreme Dramatic Artists 'Asta Nielsen Features'". The magazine briefly noted that they had reviewed her earlier- later that year there were advertisements for The Traitoress, "a Stupendous Military Drama". Great Northern during her absence from Denmark advertised the film Those Eyes, "a strong dramatic story enacted with an intensity which gives to every scene a semblence of reality. One of the most powerful stories which could be chosen for a moving picture drama." it adding that it was a Novel and Thrilling Drama full of Spirited Action". In Denmark, the film had been seen as Inbruddet Hos Skuespillerinden, directed by Eduard-Scnedler-Sorensen and starring Edith Psilander." The Great Northern Film Company that year also advertised Painter and Peasant, "a clever love story" and How to Make a Reputation, "a clever subject in which an artist 'dies' in order to live'. Great Northern also advertised the films Revenge is Blind, "a Splendid Dramtic Production and A Dream of Death, "a story certain to attract considerable attention." In the United States Asta Nielsen Features in 1912, after releasing Gypsy Blood and the Traitoress, announced in Motion Picture Magazine "Our next release featuring the 'German Bernhardt', The Course of True Love.
Danish Silent Film
Before her having appeared in several films directed by August Blom, exceptionally pretty Danish film actress Ebba Thomsen first appeared on the screen under the direction of Robert Dinesen in two films, When Bacchus Reigns (Den glade Lojtnant) and Lystrallan. Ebba Thomsen was brought to the screen by director Robert Dinesen for two films during 1913, Under the Lighthouse Beam (Under Blinkfyrets Straaler/Out on the Deep) and Dovstymmelegatet.

In the United States, it was unavoidable noticing that Ebba Thomsen was appearing in several films carrying full page magazine avertisements from Great Northern, one having been The Bank Run, another The Airship Fugatives in which she starred with Valdemar Psilander. This is indicative of how A Shot in the Dark, in which she was again paired with Psilander was reviewed, "This a dramatic offering has an appealing touch and in it are seen Miss Thompsen and Mr. Psilander in roles which are entirely suited to their personalities." Robert Dinsen directed Ebba Thomssn in the 1914 film Cupid's Devious Ways (Amor pa Krogveje).
Danish Silent Film Danish Silent Film
Betty Nansen, before leaving Denmark to film in the United States, made two films advertised heavily in the United States as being from The Great Northern Film Company during 1913,  A Paradise Lost (Bristet Lykke, August Blom) and Princess Elena (The Princesses' Dilema, Holger Madsen, her being introduced in the latter with "featuring the distinguished tragedienne Miss Betty Nansen in the title role." Not only was Paradise Lost advertised in the United States, it was fictionalized- early film magazines during the silent era centered less on the lives of the stars and more on the stories of the films themselves, many having been adaptations, the narrative of the film in magazine form serving the purpose of a short story. Illustrated Films Monthly published four pages of fiction, A Paradise Lost-Nordisk Film- featuring Betty Nansen, in chapters, a photograph inhabiting three quarters of a page being included with the paragraphs that concluded the story. Later during 1913 it added, "Miss Betty Nansen, the great Danish tragedienne, is now to be seen in a film entitled A Paradise Lost. This is her first appearance before the camera for cinema purposes; and her acting, her facial expressions, are perfect. One may realize a little of her talents when it is recalled that her performances on the legitimate stage called forth the highest praise from Ibsen and Bjornsen. 'Nansen' films prove equally as popular as the 'Nielsen' films." Author Ron Mottram points to "an unusual plot twist involving the husband's death" in the film By Love's Mercy/Was She Justified (Elskova Naade/Af Elskous Naade) in which Betty Nansen starred under the direction of August Blom during 1914.
In Great Britain, the London weekly Pictures and the Picturegoer ran advertisements during 1915 Nordisk Exlclusives, one of which read, "Don't on any account fail to see charming Betty Nansen in the marvellous four part drama A Revolution Marriage. This wonderful picture is a dramatic and photographic masterpiece. It cannot fail to thrill you through and through with sheer delight." During 1915 Motion Picture News printed "Great Northern Brings Out Betty Nansen Subject", which ran, "The vast number of admirers of Betty Nansen are afforded an unusual treat in seeing this star in a masterwork produced by the Great Northern Film Company entitled A Revolutionary Wedding by the famous Danish author Sophus Michaelis, which under the title A Son of the People had a long successful run. With the superb acting of Betty Nansen as Alaine de l'Etiole...the rich and beautiful settings of the Great Northern Film Company, the production is justly meriting the enthusiasm of all who view." Great Northern advertised the film as The Heart of Lady Alaine, "The new four part Betty Nansen photoplay has been unanimously proclaimed by critics to be a supreme accomplishment. It is genuinely perfect in every respect. The exquisite interiors, magnificent exteriors, unexcelled acting, strong and fascinating story challenge comparision." While Betty Nansen was starring in a version of Tolstoy's novel Resurrection filmed in the United States directed by J. Gordon Edwards, Ebba Thomsen was starring in a version of the same novel, En Opstandelse, directed in Denmark by Holger-Madsen. The first filming of the novel, Opstandelse filmed by Nordisk had been produced by Ole Olsen in 1907 and had starred Viggo Larsen. Robert Dinesen during 1913 brought Ellen Aggerholm to the screen with Lili Beck in the film The Last of the Old Mill (Dramet iden Gamle Molle). Moving Picture World magazine during 1913 reported, "One of the latest additions to the Great Northern acting forces is Ellen Aggerholm, a talented young actress who has won fame for herself along the lines of versatility. She has played many important parts in her profession...Her father is a prominent artist in Norway and the Great Northern Company is having prepared a splendid on sheet poster of the woman in a characteristic pose." Aggerholm appeared under the direction of Eduard Schnedler-Sorensen in the 1912 film A Drama on the Ocean (Dodsangstens makespil) and in the 1913 film Nelly's Forlovelse, in which she played the title character. During 1913 Great Northern found acknowledgement of its trade name as having commercial value with its advertisement of In the Bonds of Passion, "A sterling feature abounding in thrilling dramatic situations entwining a tale heart interest out of the ordinary. An unusual feature with an unusual theme and cast."; and yet in the United States the cast itself could still occasionally remain unidentified. The half page add for the 1913 film Lost Memory or At the Mercy of Fate, "our latest non pareil feature" after claiming that in the film "Thrills and Heart Interest Are cleverly intertwined in this out of the ordinary production" it below listed four seperate scenes, "Storm in the Forest", "Rescue by Gypsies", Lightning Works Havoc" and "Wild ride on train top". Lithographed sheets and "exceptionally large photos" were offered for lobby display.

Great Northern utilized a full page advertisement during 1916 to announce it had the release of the First Complete Episode of a "series" or "Chapter Play", The Man With the Missing Finger with actor Alfred Hertel in the installment The Tragedy in the Villa Falcon A Detective Story of Unusual Enthralling Interest and Baffling Mystery. Nordisk Film was often screened and reviewed in London. Pictures and the Picturegoer ran an add for the first film of the two, The Mystery of the Villa Falcon with the exhortation, "Enquire at your favourite cinema when the will be show The Man With the Missing Finger No. 1. This great picture is the first of the wonderfully thrilling new Nordisk Detective Dramas." adding a second ad for The Man with the Missing Finger No. 2, The Mystery of the Midnight Express. "Full of thrilling, exciting, absorbing, heart-throbbing interest." The British publication followed with ads for The Cigarette Maker, "full of absorbing, heart-throbbing interest". It also that year claimed, "You must see From Forge to Footlights, this great Nordisk Drama will keep you a throb with tense eager excitement from start to finish. Ask the manager when it is coming. Then- see it."  One thing characteristic about Nordisk Films, already recognized for their enthusiasm toward exporting films abroad, is their not being entirely reluctant to film sequels and yet there seems to be no Danish listing with the Danish Film Institute for the second film of The Man with the Missing Finger. "The Stolen Invention", written and directed by A.W. Sandberg appears as "Manden med de nl Fingre III", filmed in 1916, and as with the two films to follow, "Mysteriet I Citybanken" or "Manden med de nl Fingre IV", filmed in 1916, and "Manden med de nl Fingre V", filmed in 1917, the film's star Aage Hertel and Henry Seemen as the two lead characters, the difference being that Sandberg had changed cameramen and the films were photographed by Karl Storm Petersen.
    1917 was invested with a review for a new Sherlock Holmes film, "Sherlock Holmes again makes his appearance in the latest A. Conan Doyle's detective story The Valley of Fear...Sir A, Conan Doyle, the author, displayed the keenest interest in the scenario, and personally gave his attention to the cast and brought forth the Sherlock Holmes as he pictures and understands him to be." Howver accurate or misleading, Motography magazine, "the motion picture trade journal", announced Conan Doyle Writes Scenario. Reviewing The Valley of Fear, it wrote "The film, a six reel feature, like the story is full of action, mystery and deductions, and holds the audience tense from beginning to end. Sir A. Conan Doyle, the author, personally gave his attention to the cast." Whether the credit to the film's director Alexander Butler can be disputed or not, there are no existing copies of the seven reel  film "Valley of Fear" starring H.A Saintsbury as Sherlock Holmes and Booth Conway as Professor Moriarity, and to entertain the inductive reasoning that uses the premise that The Final Problem was the only Adventure in which the character of Moriarty appears, then Sherlockians can only consult Lost printed material, like magazines, to reconstruct the encounter between Holmes and Moriarty that took place during 1917. If only a footnote, Vitagraph in 1917 had brought the novel Arsen Lupin (Paul Scardon, five reels) to the screen with Earle Williams as the titular character; a year earlier George Loan Tucker had filmed a British rendering of the drama; far from being a footnote is the fact that there no existing print of what seems to be the first feature filming of Doyle's armchair detective, A Study in Scarlet, directed by George Pearson in 1914 being among one of the most sought after films listed as missing by the British Film Institute. Whether it's existence after more than a century is credible, or whether the film has eroded and the like hood of its being found only marginal, The Liverpool Film Office has recently expressed a desire in finding the derive story, reason being that it was shot partly in Southport, and Southport Seas was employed to substitute for the Mormon areas of Utah, it's other scenes having been filmed in Worton hall Studios using a non-actor, James Braginton in his only onscreen performance. Less of being a footnote, if found as reviewed in magazines as The Valley of Fear, the film by that name, the second film with Sherlock Holmes directed by George Pearson is also lost, there being at present no known existing copies known to the British Film Institute.  There had been two film adaptations of "A Study in Scarlet" filmed during 1914, the other in which its director, Frances Ford, had appeared on screen in the role of Sherlock Holmes.
     W. Scott Darling, a favorite of the present author, was certainly writing mystery scrapts in Hollywood during 1920, his scenario to 813 (Scott Sidney-Charles Christie), based on an Arsene Lupin story written by Maurice Leblanc, was reviewed under the title Mystery Novel Loses interest In Screen Adaptation. It purportedly lost "some of its excitement and suspense in the pictorization...There is a morbid element to the tale which becomes unneccesarily vivid in the picture form." Apparently, "Lupin falls in love with Delores Castlebank, widow of the murdered man." At the bottom of the page, the magazine offerred a "box office analysis for the exhibitor" with "The Name of Arsene Lupin and A Promise of Mystery, Your Best Bets" and prompted, "If you want a catchline, this will do: Added, subtracted, divided, the mysterious numbers gave the answer 813. What does it mean?" Perplexing to the readers of the present author is that. although there is no reason to qualify the film as being "lost" the fact that the title of the film is a number, 813 makes it missing from catalogues of film that are not lost as well as those that are.
Danish Silent Film

Sherlock Holmes as an Ordinary Vicar, Danish Silent Filmmakers Viggo Larsen and August Blom

Were I a projectionist in Denmark, due to the scarcity of early film available today and how seminal early Danish silent film may be to the study of the origins of the mystery and detective film, I would enthusiasticly arrange a screening of the silent film Dr Nicholson and the Blue Diamond (Dr. Nicholson og den blaa Diamant, starring Edith Psilander, recently donated by the Danish Film Institute for public internet screening. What seems remarkable about the film is its running time, which is an hour.  During 1910, Great Northern advertised the "Magnificent Feature Production, The Season's Biggest Hit", The Mystery of the Lama Convent or Dr. Nicola in Tibet. It was reviewed in Moving Picture World, "Dr. Nicola, a man of great determination who knows no obstacles in his desire to intrude into the secrets of nature has made up his mind to discover, and make known to the world what is hidden behind the walls of the Lama Monastery."  
During 1909, the Sherlock Holmes film "The Gray Dame" seemed part of double feature, in that the half- page advertisement by Great Northern only afforded half the advertisement in regard to space and that week the other feature also listed had been "How Dr. Nicola Procured the Chinese Cane"
     All three films made in Denmark during 1909 featuring August Blom in the title role of Dr. Nikola were directed by Viggo Larsen. Blom was responsible in part for all three screenplays, the series beginning with "Dr. Nikola I" ("Den skule Skat"), followed by "Dr. Nikola II" ("Hvoriedes Dr. Nikola erhvervede den kinesiske Stoek"), starring Maggi Zinn and "Dr. Nikola III" ("Lamaklosterets Hemmeligheder"), starring Aage Brandt. Among the early danish narrative films of Viggo Larsen were The Black Mask (Den Sorte Maske (1906), Revenge (1906), Anarkistens svigermor (1907), with actress Margrethe Jespersen, The Lion Hunt (Lovejaten (1906), The Bankruptcy (Falliten, 1907), Mordet para fyn (1907) and, The Magic Bed (Tryllesaekken (1907); it is thought that Viggo Larsen was quite possibly the first director to cut from one long shot of a scene to its reverse angle, a long shot of the scene from an opposite angle during the film The Robber's Sweetie (Rovens Brod, 1907), starring Clara Nebelong. Clara Neblong has also been listed as appearing in the 1907 film Vikngeblod, directed by Larsen and photographed by Axel Sorenson, in "Rocco Times" ("Rosen"), also directed by Viggo Larsen and photographed by Axel Sorensen during 1907 and in with actress Oda Alstrup in the film "Fyrtojet", directed by Laren and photographed by Sorenson in 1907.
Viggo Larsen directed and starred in the 1910 film Konflikter (Dodsspringet) with Edith Buemann Psilander and Sofus Wonder, the cinematographer to the film Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen.
In 1907, actress Oda Astrup was directed by Viggo Larsen and photographed by Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen for Nordisk Films in Camille (Kameliadamen), Den glade Enke, Trilby (Little Trilby) and in Aeren Tabt-alt tabt and Handen (Haanden), both of which she starred in with Thora Nathansen. Viggo Larsen in 1908 directed actress Lili Jansen in several films photographed by Axel Graatkjaer Sorensen, including Lille Hanne, Peters Held, Urmagerns Bryllup and The School of Life (Gennom Livets Skole), which had also starred Thora Nathansen. Viggo Larsen also that year directed Mathiade  Nielsen and Ptrine Sonne in the film Capricious Moment (Capriciosa). Nordisk Film during 1909 took out a full page advertisement for the film The Red Domino proclaiming it was "a high class production. Artistically tinted and colored throughout" and that it was its length was 900 ft. Motion Picture World provided a synopsis review of the film without attributing its director or actress. it read, "The countess X receives during a party a young man who brings her a message who she believed to be in exile asking her to come and see him the same evening in order to arrange with him how they can revenge themselves on their mutual enemy, the prince." In Denmark, the film was known as Grevinde X, directed by Viggo Larsen, who appeared in the film as well, it also starring August Blom and Gudrun Kjerulf. Great Northern in the United States has advertised previous tinted film, there having been "Neptune's Daughter" earlier during 1909, which claimed to be "beautifully colored and tinted" and "The Farmer's Grandson", "Beautifully toned and double-tinted", it making note that "we are the originator's of this new method of tinting which has proved a pronounced success throughout the world." Viggo Larsen had directed nearly a dozen films during the year 1909, including  "Syndens Sold" and "Child as Benefactor" (Barnet som Velgorer) and yet several are listed by the Danish Film Institute as having an unattributed director as Larsen, if the director, had also starred in front of the camera as actor in the films, much as Swedish Silent film director Victor Sjostrom later would.
Interstingly, Julius Jaenzon had filmed The Dangers of a Fisherman's Life, An Ocean Drama (Fiskarliv ets farer et Drama paa havet as an early Norwegian silent film under the direction of Hugo Hermansen. Salsvinnapolttajet (The Moonshiners, directed in Finland during 1907 by Teuro Puro and Louis Sparre, is presently considered a lost film. The photographer is listed as having been Frans Engstrom. Interestingly enough, author Marguerite Engberg writes that photoplay dramatists were instructed to limit the use of inter-titles and thereby depict narrative as visual whenever possible. To parallel this, a steady number of guides on creative writing that can be found in the category of Photodrama or photodramatist appeared in the United State between 1912 and 1920, whether or not many seem more lurid than the films themselves- to arbitrarily look at them, to find a sense of meaning as to what early photo-drama plot was, there is Photodrama: the philosophy of its principles, the nature of its plot, its dramatic construction, from 1914, written by Henry Albert Phillips. It contains a chapter on Visualization: "Visualized action takes first and foremost place in the photoplay; all other matters are harmonious trappings and devices or illusion that decorate creaking machines with esthetic realities. Inserted matter, unless artisticlly used, becomes theatric instead of dramatic. The volume continues on to examine subjects like how characterization in the short story and photoplay differ and how there is a necessity within plot to create an "obstacle", the author striving to "analyze photo-drama, to embody it as a new and complete for of drama-literary art."  Author Anna Strauss is of great assistance when writing about this, "In Nordisk, writers were instructed to compose 'simple stories, which were easily understood not only in Denmark, but everywhere', 'to use as few intertitles as possible' instead telling the story 'by means of the pictures shown.'" Her article includes that Nordisk films were rewritten with their endings shot twice for view in particular foriegn theaters, Strauus referring to the author Casper Tyberg in claiming that the changing of the films ending to an unhappy one was idiosyncratic to Ole Olsen and his view of exportation, or if you will, exploitation.   The Danish Marguerite Engberg author sees a shift in Danish filmmaking during 1910 to a more sensational film with the work of August Blom (The Temptations of the Great City, Ved Faengslets Port, 1911;The Price of Beauty, Den Farliiege Alder, 1911), a shift that brought the subject of the camera from historical costume films to the more exciting modern period. With multi-reel films of longer running length, Fotorama, Kosmorama and Nordisk Film Kompagni added to film the erotic melodrama. Engberg notes that not only did early Danish cinema popularize the detective and mystery, it also addressed sex, "The woman of the erotic melodrama is as a rule an active partner in the lover story. It is often she who makes the decisions, she who is the sexually active one." She credits as August Blom creating the vamp with his The Vampire Dancer (Vampyrrdanserinden (1911) and she does in fact claim that chronologically, Vampyren (The Vampire, 1912), directed by Mauritz Stiller was a direct result of its influence. When showing a portrait of actress Ebba Thompsen in a full page advetisement in the United States, Great Northern had described its film The Temptations of the Great City as "An Absorbing Problem Photoplay in Four Stirring Acts." To begin 1910, the Great Northern Film Company had begun advertising "Quality Films", it providing a still from the film Vengence or The Forester's Sacrifice. A full page advertisement promised "One Quality Only- The Best" with the films Child as Benefactor and Death of the Brigand Chief, to which it shortly after added  "a stirring dramatic production", Anarchist on Board. Its poster was described by  Moving Picture World as "original and attractive", it not only including a still which there was depicted the discovery of a bomb and "type large enough to be read in the lobby", but also having a synopsis describing the plot of the film. It again lavished praise on Great Northern for its posters that year while looking at the film Madame Sans Gene, which was accompanied with "a gorgeous poster for this subject in which all the colors of the spectrum are utilized to produce a harmonious and rich effect, never before seen in a show poster." Great Northern that year urged exhibitors to "Ask for lithographs and large size descraptive posters" It exhorted, "The Great Northern Film is a film make by which others are judged." It continued in 1910 with Never Despair or From Misery to Happiness, reviewed with a plot synopsis and plot synopsis only, as was Ruined by His Son, "a realistic feature production of high standard". Doctor's Sacrifice, "a cleverly presented story of modern life. Photographic excellence superb", and A Father's Grief, "a powerful story of intense interest, splendidly enacted and superbly reproduced" were to follow. It was reported that "The Great Northern's new 'Time Table' is a neat trade bulletin, illustrated and printed in colors, containing much interesting news pertaining to the company's films of both past and future releases, Copies are sent to exhibitors free upon request." During 1910 Great Northern introduced audiences in the United States to the films "The Captain's Wife", a realistic and thrilling dramatic production, "The Sons of the Minister", a feature film of heart interest and "Lifeboat", illustrating the interesting maneuvers of a life-saving station's crew.
As the directors and leading players often went identified in the magazine advertisements ran in the United States, Moving Picture World used a scene from The King's Favorite for one of its covers, the paid advertisement in that particular issue claiming that it was a work of art that will tickle the palmate of all film connoisseurs." The following year, 1912, it featured an unidentified actor an actress in a scene from the film King's Power on one of its cover. Breaking from form, during 1913 it feature a portrait of "V.Psilander, Leading Man, Great Northern Player. Nordisk films were often given audiences in London, the company having an office in Cecil Court, Charing Cross Road. The Mystery of the Corner House was given a full page of synopsis during 1913 given a full page synopsis in Cinema News and Property Gazette, and a there was a full page advertisement to "our latest feature , A Harvest of Tarres. During 1915, Pictures and the Picturegoer not only ran an advertisement for A Woman With A Past, but it published the narrative in short story form, "adapted from the Nordisk Film by Claude Wilson...This sensational Nordisk three-reeler with it unusually interesting story is quite fascinating to watch." It feature a still from the film of Ebba Thomsen. Its next installment was a 'serialization', or pehaps 'fictitionalization', of The Sins of The Great City, "adapted from the Nordisk Film by Headly Bridge." It is well worth quoting not only as an example of how silent film Photoplays were transposed into short stories for magazines, but to illustrate the melodramatic quality of Danish silent films, "There stood Daphne, a look of utteranle misery on her beautiful face. Her hand was raised to her head, and in it, it's cold muzzle pressed firmly to her temple, the revolver. Seaton's whispered 'Daphne' reached her ears. She turned- saw in his face nothing but love and remorse for his hasty judgement- and with a glad cry,she flew into his arms." The next paragraph was a concluding summary of the synopsis, "There is no need to say that Sins of the Great City is a thrilling type of drama- the story narrated above will confirm that....The release date is December 30th." It again featured a still photograph of Ebba Thomsen. Pictures and the Picturegoer continued, it publishing another story from the screen, The Cigarette Maker, adapted into short story form by Billie Bristow. "The performance of Miss Sanburn, especially as 'Nita' is sure to please all picturegoers. Like many Danish actresses, she is really wonderful." It had, the year before, also put into print the storylines of D. W. Griffith, and by transposing The Inherited Burden into magazine pages had adapted Ibsen's play Ghosts, rewritten as a film in turn rewritten as a short story from a film, into an installment in a periodical.
1914-15 was seen as included in the brief period during which Dansk Filmfabrik, in Aarhus Denmark, produced the films of director Gunnar Helsengren, which included I dodens Brudeslor, starring Gerda Ring, Jenny Roelsgaard and Elisabeth Stub, Meneskeskaebner (1915), Elskovs Tornevej (1915), starring Jenny Roelsgaard, Gerda Ring and Elisabeth Stub and the film Sexton Blake, in which the director appeared with Elisabeth Stub. The character Sexton Blake reappeared in Greta Britain during 1928 with the films of the directors George A. Cooper and Leslie Everleigh, among them being Sexton Blake, The mystery of the Silent Death, Sexton Blake, The Clue of the Second Goblet, Sexton Blake, The Great office Mystery and Sexton Blake, Silken Threads. In 1914, Danish silent film director Wilhelm Gluckstadt directed the film Youthful Sin (Ungdom ssynd), starring Sigrid Neiidendam.      In his biographical filmography, David Bordwell traces an early period where both A. W. Sandberg and Carl Th. Dreyer were journalists before enlisting with Nordisk Films Kompagni: the former in 1913, Sandberg in fact having photographed and directed Else Frolich in the film The Mysterious Flashlight (Det Gamle Fyrtaarn/Smuglersskibets Dodsfart), the latter part-time also in 1913 untill 1915, when Dreyer had apparently worked as though in a scrapt departmartment and had contributed no fewer than seventeen scrapts within two years, that, whether literary adaptations or not, had been either shelved unfilmed untill possibly reinterpreted by the director or filmed under a change of title. They include from 1915: The False Finger (De Falske Fingre), The Count of Oslo (Greven af Oslo), The Man in the Moon (Manden i manen), Adventure Ship (Eventyrskribet), The Dead Passenger (Den Dod Passager), The Secret Gifts (De hemmelighedsfude gaver), The Strandrobbers of Grimsby (Strandroverne it Grimby, The Rats (Rotterne); and from 1916: The Arm of the Law (Lovensarm), The Golden Plague (Den gulde pest), Stolen Happiness (Stjalen lykke), The Money or the Life (Penger eller livet), Dance of Death (Dodedanseren), The Financier, The Man Who Destroyed a Town (Manden der lagde byen ode). The Danish Film Institute and Lisabeth Richter Larsen have recently printed a short statement on Dreyer and what they hope to unearth during the study of his film and publication of his manuscrapts, "So far, no radically new discovery has been made that will turn our image of Dreyer and his films upsidedown. We are not, after all, the first to work through the Dreyer collection. Many Dreyer scholars have trawled through it- Maurice Drouzy, Casper Tyberg, Edvin Kau, David Bordwell, Dale and Jean Drum." Added to these were also Morten Egholmand and Amanda Doxtater. There certainly is a consensus that Dreyer ha been given two seperate contracts from Nordisk, one in early 1913 and the other, a prologation that extendended there sphere of his responsibilities, in 1915.  The second contract gives his the auspices of being a scrapt consultant, as well as making him the head of literary adaptations at Nordisk, those to not only  include the work of authors Harald Tandrup, Einar Rousthoj, but within Dreyer's new freedom during which he became a literary agent, his acquiring scrapts before Nordisk had commissioned him to adapt them,  also included were  new writers, among them being Carl Muusman. And yet as a scraptwriter, Dreyer not only wrote intertitles and continuity, but worked on narrative in regard to its structure with the editors during the cutting- it may be that the cutting rate, or the average shot length may be invaluable to look at when bringing early narrative films into estimation when studying the photoplay. To put Dreyer's use of shot structure within narrative structure into context, during 1913, Great Northern had advertised that one of its three reel films contained "75 stirring and unusually attractive scenes", it then noting that its next film being two reels in length included "over 60 compelling scenes", only to in turn describe that was to follow as being "in three parts with 90 Powerful and thrilling scenes"- Nordisk finally gave way with its advance advertising for Atlantis, "Coming!! The talk of the World, Atlantis A Motion Picture Masterpiece in 9 reels." Danish silent film director Carl Th Dreyer was to write every screenplay he was to direct. Tom Milner, who begins his volume on Dreyer with an account of his having seen the director at a screening of Getrude, quotes him as having said, "I know that I am not a poet. I know that I am not a great playwright. That is why I prefer to collaborate with a true poet and with a true playwright."  Forsyth Hardy recognized Carl Dreyer as having been a screenwriter at Nordisk during 1912 while a young journalist before his having directed, in that he was "One figure that links the Danish cinema of yesterday and today." The Danish Film Museum, now part of the Danish Film Institute, credits Dreyer with an acting role as an extra-supporting character in the film Leap to Death/Dodridet, which he wrote the screenplay to in 1912, the director of the film having been Rasmus Ottesen, and the principle actress having been Kate Hollborg. Dryer in 1913 wrote the screenplay to The Baloon Explosion (The Hidden Message/Balloneskplosionen, Kay van de Ala Kuhle), which again not only afforded a small role to Dreyer as actor but also to Rasmus Ottesen, it having starred  Emilie Sannom. Also scrapted by Dreyer, The Secret of the Old Cabinet (Chatollets hemmilighed, Hjalmar Davidsen) starring Ella Sprange and photographed by Louis Larsen, was very quickly shown in the United States, the full page advertisement from Great Northern reading "A Surpassing Photodrama Filled with Thrills". Dreyer also that year wrote the scrapts to Hans og Grethe (Elkskovs-Opfindsomhed/Won By Waiting Sofus Wolder), starring Gerd Edgede Nissen and Ellen Aggerholm and The War Correspondent (Krigskorrespondent, William Gluckstadt) starring Grethe Ditlevsen, Ellen Tegner and Emilie Sannom.
Danish Silent FilmDanish Silent Film
In 1914, Carl Th.Dreyer"Nordisk Film Kompagni, contributed the scrapt to Down With Your Weapons (Ned Med Vaabne, Holger Madsen), photographed by Marius Clausen and starring Augusta Blad. Motography reviewed the film with War Film a Plea for Peace. It saw the film as "a most unsual feature." It continued, "It depicts the great battle scenes with such remarkable realism and treats modern warefare comprehensively, but although primarily a war picture, it is really an anti-war picture, the underlying purpose of which is to create a hatred for war and advance the cause of peace...The picture is a mute testimony that war is merely a series of horrors and miseries for non-combatants as well as the combatants...The battle scenes are stupendous and spectacular." What is stirring about the Motography review is the accompanying still photograph of a "realistic hospital scene" Author Forsyth Hardy likened the film Lay Down Your Arms to the film Pro Patria by virtue of its timely subject matter theme, "In filmmaking and other matters Denmark took its posisiton as a neutral country and in several productions sought to press the cause of peace." In doing this, Hardy lightens upon that after peace had been arrived at, Denmark economiclly had brought its film production to a near standstill, reviving it with adaptations of the novel of Charles Dickens and Captain Matryat. Pro Patria was reviewed in the United States by Motion Picture New during 1915, "Recent developments have made war pictures more timely than ever, but such pictures must be good to meet with real success. Pro Patria is a film which, so far as one can judge from the newspaper accounts, must depict military operations much as they have been during the past winter in Europe. There is a convincing atmosphere which makes many of the battle scenes and views of the troops on march seem to be portrayals of actual warfare..The scenic effects of the film are of unusual beauty and power." It has been noted by the Danish Film Institute that other pacifist films from Denmark were The Flaming Sword (Verdens Undergag, August Blom 1916), A Trip to Mars (Himmelskibet 1918, Holger-Madsen) and A Friend to the People (Folkets Ven 1918 Holger Madsen). Anne Bachmann sees this as a strategic supplement to the studio's need to produce remakes and sequels, "A more immediate one was to continue the string of films promoting lofty ideals, in particular pacificism." She includes Pax Aeterna (1917) as an "idealist film" directed by Holger-Madsen,one of those also "advocating concord [that] typified this strategy, which combined internationalism with literary connotations."
     The adaptation of Emile Zola's novel filmed as Money (Penge), written by Carl Th. Dreyer for the director Karl Mantzius is in fact a lost film. Actresses Lily Frederiksen and Augusta Blad star in the film.
     August Blom's 1916 film The Spider's Prey (Rovedderkoppen), starring Rita Sacchetto, had been written by Carl Dreyer and Sven Elverstad. Scholar Casper Tybjerg has related the plot line of the film as having involved "a spider woman who resorts to kidnapping" That year Dreyer had also co-scrapted with Viggo Carling the film Evelyn the Beautiful (Den Skonne Evelyn, directed by Anders Wilhelm Sandberg. Photographed by Einar Olsen, the film returned Rita Sacchetto to the screen.
     Carl Dreyer wrote the screenplays to two films directed by Holger-Madsen during 1917, Fangre Nr 113, and Hans vigrige krone (Which is which/His Real Wife). It was a year during which Holger-Madsen directed the films Out of the Underworld (Nattevandreren) with Alma Hinding, and The Munition Conspiracy (Krigens fjede) with Valdemar Psilander, Ebba Thompsen and Marie Dinesen. Both films were photographed by Marius Clausen. While during 1918 Carl Dreyer was given one film scrapt, it being for director August Blom with Valdemar Psilander again starring together with Ebba Thomsen and title Lydia (Der Flammentanz, The Music Hall Star), during 1919, Dreyer was given two scrapts for director August Blom. Lace (Grevindens Aere) was photographed by Paul L. Lindau and starred Agnes Rehni, Gundrun Houlberg and Ellen Jacobsen. Also in the scrapt department at Nordisk during 1913 was Otto Rung, who wrote the scrapt to the 1914 film Vasens HemmeliI'm at ghed, directed by August Blom and starring Lili Beck. He wrote for Nordisk untill 1918 and during that time wrote the scrapt to The Poisonous Arrow (Giftpilen), also directed by August Blom and starring Else Frolich. It wasn't untill 1925 that Valdemar Andersen went behind the camera to direct one of his own screenplays; he had began with Nordisk film in 1913 with the short film Privatdetektivens offer (Sofus Wolder) before writing longer screenplays in 1916, which included The Bowl of Sacrifice (Livets Genvordigheder (A. Christian), starring Alma Hinding, before his eventually writing and directing his first film, Minder frau Zunftens Dage. Screenwriter Laurids Skands began with Nordisk in 1913, writing the screenplays to the films A Venomous Bite (Giftslangen, Hjalmar Davidsen), starring Alma Hinding and The Steel King's Last Wish (Staalkongens Ville (Holger-Hadsen), starring Clara Wieth. scraptwriter William Soelberg was only at Nordisk bewteen 1913 and 1916, writing the screenplays to the films Gold from the Gutter (Guldmonten, August Blom, 1913), starring Ebba Thomsen, Murder Will Out (Morderen, Sofus Wolder)Misunderstood (En Aeresprejsning, Holger-Madsen, 1916). Nordisk Film Komapgni founder Ole Olsen is credited with having co-written the scrapt to Peace on Earth (Pax aeterna, Holger-Madsen) with Otto Rung in 1917, as well as his having co-written the films A Friend of the People (Folkets Ven, Holger-Madsen, 1918) and Himmelskibet (A Trip to Mars, 1918) with screenwriter Sophus Michaelis. The Danish writer Carl Gandrup sold two scrapts to Svenska Bio in 1916, Envar sin egen lykas smed, directed by Egil Eide and photographed by Swedish Silent Film cinematographer Hugo Edlund, and Skuggan av ett brett, directed by Konrad Tallroth. Gandrup had been primarily a screenwriter for the director Hjalmar Davidsen, writing the photoplays to Likken Suunden of genuunden (1914), Alone with the Devil (Expressens Mysterium 1914), Dishonored (Den Van erede, 1915) and Det evige Had (1915) before penning the scrip to Mysteriet Paa Duncan Slot, directed by George Schneevoigt in 1916.
The novelist Laurids Bruun became a scraptwriter during 1916 for Nordisk, his co-scrapting the screenplay for the adaptation of his novel The Midnight Sun (Midnatssolen) with screenwriter Axel Garde, who had written the scrapt for the film Atlantis. It was adapted for director Robert Dinesen who instructed photographer Sophus Wangoe during the making of the film, which starred actress Else Frolich. Among the scraptwriters that had worked with Robert Dinesen that year was Harriet Bloch, who wrote the screenplay to the film Wages of Folly (Letsindigheders Lon), photographed by Sophus Wangoe and starring Agnate Bon Pragen and Gerda Chrisophersen.The writer Harriet Bloch has a particularly prolific portfolio built in Denmark while Dreyer was a scrapt writer, among her scrapts that were filmed between 1911 and 1923 being The Guestless Dinner Party (Den Store Middag) directed by August Blom and The Spectre of the Deep (En Karer lighedsprove).
     After directing his first film, "The Hostage", with Benjamin Christiensen and August Falk in front of the camera in leading roles during 1914, Martinius Nielsen directed sixteen films in Denmark, beginning with "Gentlemansekretaenen" for Nordisk Film in 1916. The film was written by Valdemar Anderson and starred Else Frolich. Valdemar Anderson also wrote the screenplay to the film "Stakkels Meta", directed in 1916 by Martinius Nielsen and starring Agnes Anderson.
     Not as prolific was screenwriter Palle Rosenkrantz who silimlarly wrote scrapts filmed between 1911-1925, of particular interest being When Passion Binds Honesty (Dyrekobt Glimmer), a film in which Emilie Sannom appeared under the direction of Urban Gad during 1911. The first Danish manual for scraptwriting, How One Writes a Film (Hvorledes skriver man en film), was published in 1916 by Jens Locher- many instructional manuals on how to write the photo-play or photodrama, scenario writing, were printed in the United States between 1916-1922, the onset of their appearance coinciding with the beginning of the mutli-reel film, and although the may have directly addressed the guidelines involved in censorship or transnational audiences as much as the Nordisk Film scrapt department, they involve content, particularly when a matter of plotline development. Locher gave the advice that screenplays should be built upon three main characters and no more and that while the interest of the audience should gain sympathy for one of those characters, denoument should be a plot twist arising from a straitforward development of plot.
     Motion Picture News reported on Danish silent film actress Asta Nielsen and a visit she had made to the United States during 1917. "It is understood that it is not at all unlikely that the European star will be presented in an American-made screen production within the near future. She has not as of yet, it is said, decided whether she will establish a studio of her own or go with some established American film organization. It is known that she had had offers from various film companies but thus far she has not made any decision for the future." Motography magazine similarly reported on Nielsen visiting the United States, "Some of her films have been shown in this country, through Pathe, and created a sensation...In these plays, Miss Nielsen portrayed characters of widely different emotions and import...she holds us with the vivid reality of each one. She is one of the few actresses on the screen who seem to show us her innermost thoughts, almost, one might say, the workings of her mind. Miss Nielsen has with her a scenario made from Holger Drachman's 'Once Upon a Time', to which play she secured the film right some time ago, and George Brandes, the famous Danish author and philosopher, is now writing a new story for production in film."
      Carl Th. Dreyer during 1920 directed the silent film The Witch Woman/The Parson's Wife. By 1922 Danish silent film director Peter Urban Gad had finished directing what would be his last silent film produced in Germany The Ascension of Hannele Mattern (Hanneles Himmelfahrt), actress Margate Schlegelful filling the title role. By 1923 both Benjamin Christensen and Carl Th. Dreyer would travel to Germany; Christensen would star in Dreyer's 1924 film Mikail (Chained), a film which Paul Rotha had described as "slow moving, unfolded with careful deliberation of detail", the film noted for its depth of characterization and insight into human nature. Acting for Dreyer for Christensen was only in addition to directing His Mysterious Adventure (Seine Fiar de Ubekannte, 1924 and The Woman Who Did (Die Frau Mit den Schelechten ruf, 1925), based on the novel by Grant Allan, while there. Carl Dreyer would also direct Love One Another (Die Gezeichneten, 1921) and Once Upon a Time (Der Var Engang, 1924) with actress Clara Pontoppidan. Dreyer's Once Upon a Time has been noted by Casper Tyjberg, a film scholar who has noted in his essay Forms of the Intangible that there were stylistic differences in Dreyer's films, stylistic variations from film to film, for it's being in keeping with the Swedish tradition under Charles Magnusson of shooting on location and to paraphrase Tyjberg, it's use of "landscape to create emotion around the characters."; the Journal of Film Preservation has reported the ending sequence of the film as still being entirely missing and that the screenplay, with Dreyer's notes, has been consulted to provide dialouge intertitles to accompany still photographs during a twenty first century restoration of the film.
During 1926, Urban Gad returned to Denmark to make one film before ending his career, The Wheel of Fortune (Lykkehjulet, co-scrapted with A. V. Olsen and starring Lili Lani. Morten Egholm depicts Carl Th. Dreyer by quoting him, "As early as 1920, Dreyer was discussing film film aesthetics with his famous Danish colleage Benjamin Christensen, He did that in an article called 'Nye Ideer om Filmen'. Christensen was in many ways an early spokesman for the auteur theory, as he said that the film director's most important task is to make poems out of pictures. Dryer replied to and contradicted this in his article:'the task of the cinema is and will be the same as the teater's: to interpret the thoughts of others.'" Motion Picture Magazine during 1923 wrote, Sigrid Holmquist has come to Lasky's to appear in The Gentleman of Leisure. She is the Swedish Mary Pickford." Holmquist had appeared under the direction of Lau Lauritzen in 1920 in the film Love and Bearhunting (Karleck och Bjornjakt before coming to the United States to appear in the film directed by Joseph Henaby and in an adapatation og the Kipling novel The Light that Failed (George Melford) with Jacqueline Logan. She had also starred in the earlier 1922 film The Prophet's Paradise, directed by Alan crosland. Danish actress Olga d'org starred in three films for Nordisk Film Kompagni, all of which were directed by A.W. Sandberg, including the 1923 film The Hill Park Mystery (Nedbrudite nerver).
Danish film director Carl Th. Dreyer in 1925 filmed Thou Shalt Honor Thy Wife (Master of the House, Den Skal Aere Din Hustru), which the director co-wrote with Sven Rindholm. Photographed by George Schneevoigt, the films stars Astrid Holm, Karin Nellemose and Mathilde Nielsen. Forsyth Hardy wrote, "Already Dreyer had developed that intensity which had become a feature of his methods as a director- an intensity which is communicated to his actors and permeates the entire film...In its naturalistic approach, The Master of the House (or Fall of the Tyrant) was considerably in advance of the period." In his book Transcendental Style in Film, the director Paul Schrader (Autofocus) characetrizes Dreyer's early film by their use of mise-en-scene, likening them, in their use of interiors and 'revelatory guesture', in particular to the Intimate Theater of Strindberg. Scholar Casper Tyjberg, rather, looks at the concept of a Transcendental style of film conveying an abstract meaning through its transparency and notes that he is of the opinion that Dreyer's film can be interpreted firstly as Art Films, his looking to the thematic content of Ordet and then inevitably to the highly, if not overly stylized film Gertrude. Scholar Morton Egholm summarizes a similar view by writing "The film style is invisible- yet it exists!" Egholm directs us to the writing of Ebbe Neergaard, who claimed that in Mater of the House Dreyer "regarded and formed his material in a pure cinematic way." Egholm draws upon exchanges between director Benjamin Christenson and Carl Dreyer discussed in New Ideas on Film, where Christenson advocated "that the film director's most important task is to make poems out of pictures. Dreyer replied to and contradicted this in his article: "the task of cinema is and will be the same as theater's: to interpret the thoughts of others." Scholar Morton Egholm elaborates, "When it comes to the discussion between being a real film artist (later called auteur) and an interpreter of others' thoughts Dreyer does not accept that the two categories are mutually exclusive. The style is something invisible, hidden behind the structure and idea of the literary source- but the style definitely has to be there and it has to be personal, otherwise there would be no film. At the same time, however, the literary source also dictates the style that will be developed during the process of adapting." Dreyer, in a foreward to a collection of four of his screenplays, writes, "I am convinced that presently a tragic poet of the cinema will appear, whose problem will be to find, within the structure of the cinema's framework, the form and style appropriate to tragedy." During the film Master of the House, Dreyer stylisticly uses the iris shot while cutting between close and medium interior shots, including and iris shot filmed over the shoulder of a character exiting through a doorway and an iris shot of her entering again later in the scene, and , more notably, the director during the middle of a scene uses iris shots while cutting between a close up and a medium closeshot; during the latter a second character, that of the protagonist's wife in the film, can been seen entering the frame of the shot from the right of the irised screen and then reentering during the length of the shot. Husband and wife are both shown in intercut iris closeups during a dialouge sequence within the middle of a prolonged interior scene, the exceptional beauty of the actress held by the camera as her eyes silently wait for her husband to speak. Dreyer shot most of the film in only two seperate interiors, having constructed a set where he could film the action from all sides of where it was taking place. In his biography of Greta Garbo, Raymond Durgnat quotes "the austerest of all film directors", Carl Dreyer, although the quote seems superfluous or decorative to the essay, as having said, "Nothing in the world can be compared to the human face. It is a land no one can never tire of exploring." The context was that Garbo, being a film star, was an object of art. Returning to Dreyer for his explanation of film technique as character-centered structure, character-centered editing, he writes in Thoughts on My Metier, "The soul is shown through style, which is the artist's way of giving expression to his perception of the material. This style is important in attaching inspiration to artistic form. Through the style, the artist molds the way details that make it whole. Through style he gets others to see the material through his eyes."
Early Danish sound film director Alice O'Fredricks appeared as an actress in two Danish silent films in 1925, Sunshine Valley (Solskinsdalen) with Karen Winther, directed for Nordisk Film by Emanuel Gregers, and Lights from Circus Life (Sidelights of the Sawdust Ring/Det Store Hjerte) with Ebba Thomsen, Margarethe Schegel and Mathilde Nielsen, directed by August Blom. She had appeared a year earlier with Clara Pontoppidan in a film produced by Edda Film, Hadda Padda, directed by Gudmundar Kamban and also starring Ingeborg Sigurjonsson. Gudmundur Kamban in 1926 for Nordisk Film directed Gunnar Tolnaes, Hanna Ralph and Agnete Kamban int the film Det Sovende Hus.
In October of 1917 Motoplay magazine announced that Asta Nielsen was in the United States, "Miss Nielsen has with her the scenario made from Holger Drachman's "Once Upon A Time" to which play she secured the film right some time ago, and George Brandes, the famous Danish author and philosopher, is writing a new story for her production in films. Miss Nielsen has studying American film art and said that what struck her most forcibly was the excellent photography, the great amount of titles and the extreme amount of time consumed in photography by a feature film." It assessed her on screen presence, near hauntingly with the hint that she would later play Hamlet, "She is one of the few actresses on the screen who seems able to show us her innermost thoughts, almost, one might say, the workings of her mind." Motion Picture World similarly reported Asta Nielsen, Danish Film Actress in America, "It is affirmed that she has not come here under contract and is not connected with any filmmaker on this side of the water" It mentioned, "The war has, of course, given a death blow to artistic activity in Europe.Miss Nielsen probably finds it a good time to take a vacation."
The assignment of scrapt writer on the first of two films that were to pair Gunnar Tolnaes and Lily Jacobsson, The Maharaja's Favorite Wife (Mahatadajahen's Yndlings Hustru) directed in 1917 by Robert Dinesen, was given to Sven Gade. The actor and actress both returned in 1919 for the sequel, The Maharaja's Favorite Wife 2 (Mahatadjahen's Yndlings Hustru 2), diet cited by August Blom.
How Sven Gade directed Asta Nielsen as Hamlet would seem as odd a mystery as Greta Garbo having attended a party given by Basil Rathbone where she in fact was in costume as the Prince of Denmark- Sven Gade had screenplay writer Erwin Gepard add a prolouge to the film before the credits were run. It announced that American scholar Professor Vining put forth the theory that Hamlet was a woman. Queen Gertrude, portrayed by Mathilda Brandt, inquires if she has born a son, and the reply is that she has given birth to a princess and that during the interim, King Hamlet has been mortally wounded.She is advised,"Proclaim the Princess heir to the Throne and the people will believe that you have given birth to a son." The sexual deceit is then taken up by Ophelia in her service to the Princess as one who is aware of the deception. In Germany, Scandinavian film director Svens Gade positioned actress Asta Nielsen in front of the lens in Hamlet (1920). Directing in the United States in 1925, his films included Fifth Avenue Models adapted from the novel The Best in Life by Muriel Coxen, Siege and Peacock Feathers (seven reels) with Jacqueline Logan; in 1926 they were to include Watch Your Wife (seven reels), Into Her Kingdom (seven reels) with Corinne Griffith and Einar Hanson and The Blonde Saint (seven reels), adapted from the novel Isle of Life by Stephen Whitman and starring Lewis Stone and Ann Rork. Gade would later become a scenario writer rather than director, one instance being Symphony for Universal, directed by F. Harmon Weight.
Upon being invited to follow a story that began in Victorian-Edwardian London, 1925 Silent Film audiences were also that year thrilled by the writings of Arthur Conan Doyle as they were led by Challenger on an expedition into The Lost World through the magic lantern silent film.

Silent Film: Lost Film, Found Magazines

Being a reader of mysteries, to begin the summer of 2013 I plunged into the middle of The Cinema Murder, written by E. Phillips Oppenheim in 1917, the copy I purchased in an old bookstore near the Theater District (Emerson College) of Boston for one dollar being a second printing from Little, Brown and Company from that year, which I thought was impeccable. I put the computer aside untill reaching chapter twelve; when I returned to the internet I found that the film is lost- it is not entirely forsaken as a lost film, it is listed either as lost or unknown. The novel was read by Frances Marion, whose scenario was adapted as a silent two years later for Cosmopolitan by George D. Baker and Harold Rossen, starring Nigel Barrie as the narrator protagonist and Marion Davies as a love interest. The novel itself is surprisingly profound in its examination of society and morals with its dramatic undercurrents that continually lapse back into its mystery plot involving an art teacher writing a play, as though it were aiming towards the material of early silent film drama. Oppenheim had earlier written The Black Box featuring the consulting detective Sandford Quest, which was published as a photoplay edition with scenes illustrated from the Universal Film. A copy of the film The Cinema Murder could still exist. I was pleased enough with the ending novel to return to the bookstore after finishing to find a second printing of The Passionate Quest, also written by E. Phillips Oppenheim, published during 1924. While on chapter four I found out that the novel was adapted in 1926 by J. Stuart Blackton, the film starring May McAvory also listed as being unknown, and not necessarily lost, although there are no available copies at present; after finishing the novel I returned to the second hand bookstore to buy a third novel written by Oppenheim, my beginning July of 2013 with a second printing from 1929 of The Treasure House of Martin Hews. It is not unfounded to say that each novel begins with a journey to London on the part of the main character, or characters, and that while one novel may be more exciting, another might be more deeply moving, but the subjects of each novel seem to be different while the same element of romance and suprise is central to the storyline. While "Sherlock Holmes sluethhound" is mentioned by the main character's nemesis in the concluding chapters, the novel is atypical from the others in that it nearly surpasses the cannon of Doyle in being adventure concerning the theives of priceless art and Scotland Yard. After, to find another shift of subject matter I continued the summer with a first edition of the novel The Wrath To Come, again by E. Phillips Oppenheim and published by Little, Brown and Company in 1924, and after finishing, although the author's style, choice of language and grammar and use of the implausible to interconnect plot threads and character relations with events transpiring at the beginning of the novel with the reintroduction of an absent character, may be similar in his novels, I followed the author's potluck decisions on subject matter which propel the character's journeys with his return to the mystery-romance by reading a second edition printed in 1926 ofThe Golden Beast, which revolves around a disappearance that mimics a mystery from the previous generation which occurred on the same estate. There were 478 silent films made in Sweden; of them only 192 still exist, although there are copies of fragments from a number of them. Added to that, countless Danish silent films produced by Ole Olsen for Nordisk Films Kompagni are missing, among those being (Caros Dod) and The Robber Chief's Flight and Death (Roverhovidiryens Flugt og Dod), directed by Viggo Larsen, as well as films included as missing titled The Daughter Sold (Dattern Solgt), The Cripple (Krolblingen) , Lars Hovedstadrejse (Lar's Trip to the Capital) and The Poacher (Krybskytten).
     Many early silent films made by the Nordisk Film Kompangni, although produced by Ole Olsen, still have an unattributed director, not only in the filmographies of lost film scholars but in the lists of the Danish Film Institute itself, thus at first there would seem  there is a preponderance before continuing to 1907, that there entirety of 1906 would have been lost in collections of Danish silent film. Other missing titles produced by Ole Olsen include Triste Skabner (Sad Destinies), Tandpines Kvaler (The Painful Toothache), Gavtyve (Rogues) and To Foraedldrelose (Two Orphans), "Rivalinder" (A Woman's Duel/The Rivals), "Gelejslaven" ("The Galley Slave"),  "Vitrioldrama" (Vitriolicdrama), "Violinist's Romance" (Violinistens Roman), "Gaardmandsson og Husmandsdottor" (("Father's Son and Crofter's Daughter), Knuste Haeband, and Kortspillere directed in 1906, as well as Testamentet, Den glade Enke (The Merry Widow) and Gabestokken (The Pillory) directed in 1907. Not the only webpage concerned with the preservation of Silent Film, the lost films webpage from Berlin show clips and stills from fifty silent film that it claims are "unknown or unidentified". Luckily, one of Olsen's first films for Nordisk from 1906, Fishing Life in the North (Fiskerliv i Norden)starrring Viggo Larsen and Margrete Jespersen was given Swedish intertitles and restored in time for the centennial anniversay of the studio. Of the 101 films made by Ole Olsen in 1906, 37 are thought to be fiction, or narrative, films, and of these less than ten percent exist today(Berglund).
      Although there were many films made before 1910, and therefore incidentally those predating the first silent Swedish films made in Kristianstad, that are missing, not all of the lost films of Denmark are short early silent films produced by the pioneer Ole Olsen. Author Ron Mottram has written that only one sixth of the four reel film The Baths Hotel (Badhotellet) survives as a fragment, it having starred Einar Zangenberg and Edith Bueman Psilander. There are no surviving copies of "Tyven" ("A Society Sinner") directed in 1910 by August Blom. There are no surviving copies of Pontifar's Hustru (Pontifar's Wife), directed in 1911 by August Blom or The Guvernorens datter directed in 1912 by August Blom and starring Else Frolich and Ebba Thomsen nor or there existant copies of the films The Blue Blood (Det blaa Blod,1912) and The Black Music Hall (Den sort Variete,1913), both  directed by Vilhelm Gluckstedt. The latter was scrapted by Stellan Rye. The film Island of the Dead (De Dodes O) directed by Vilhelm Gluckstadt, was recently included by Caspar Tybjerg as a lost film in his article Distinguished Compositions. Directed in 1913, the film was photographed by Julius Folkman and starred Ellen tegner.There were 31 silents that were given by him to the Royal Library during the year 1913 to begin the Dansih Film Archive. Peter Elfelt donated 20 films a year later, making him with Ole Olsen and Anker Kirkeby one of the original founders of Det danske Filmmuseum. It is more than certain in Denmark that were a seance to be held, Ole Olsen would still relish being a screening room curator and that his spirit would tap affirmatively if a medium ever were to ask- whether or not the ghost of Victor Sjostrom spends the evenings in various theaters of Strindberg. Bengt Forslund penned a brief paragraph about the silent film The Divine Woman (En Gudomlig Kvinna, 1928), directed by Victor Sjostrom under the name Victor Seastrom, One film thought to be non-existent before preservation attempts is a film which introduced actor Nils Asther in his first appearance onscreen, a Lars Hanson film directed by Mauritz Stiller in 1916, The Wings (Vingarne)- it was remade, or re-adapted rather, as a silent by Carl Theodore Dreyer.
     There have been several films thought to be lost that have  been reported as lost and having been directed by Danish film director that are difficult to be identified as having been directed by Dinesen, if recognized as such at all, in the catalogue of the Danish Film Institute: these include the film's The Spy (Spionen, 1908), released too early for Dinesen to have been its director, Katasofen, En Kvindens Aere and Dramaet I den gamble Molle.  The film "The Devil's Daughter" ("Djaeveler's Datter") in which Robert Dinesen starred with Else Frolich, was filmed during 1913 and is listed as a lost film, to which there is no inaccuracy as to Robert Dinesen having been the director.

en Danish Silent Film Danish Silent Film A year earlier, in the United States, Valda Valkyrien had appeared in the film The Valkyrie (Eugene Nowland), which irregardless of how possibly faithful it was to Norse Saga and The Elder Edda and its being elected to the Hall of The Dead, the film is now thought to be lost. Originally a ballerina, Valda Valkyrien had appeared in more than six Danish silent films, mostly of three reels of length, before her coming to the United States, including Dodsspring til hest fra Circuskuplean), Direcktorens Datter (Blom, 1912), Hans Forste Honorar (Blom 1912) and The Vanquished (Den Staerkeste, Eduard Schnedler-Sorensen 1912) During 1916 Valda Valkyrien, by then billed as merely Valkyrien (Baroness De Witt, starred in the films The Cruise of Fate and Hidden Valley, both directed by Ernest Wade-both films are screen film appearances of hers also listed as being a lost films- nor are there existant copies of the film made by Valkyrien in Denmark during 1912 entitled Hottets ny Skopudser (The New Shoeshine Boy, Eduard Schnedler-Sorensen) in which she briefly appeared with Otto Langoni. While audiences in the United States were watching Valkyrien on the screen, Great Northern used full page advertisements to popularize the film The Mother Who Paid starring Regina Wethergren "Featured in an Emotional Role" When reviewed, the film was "lavishly mounted and well cast", Wethergren "an actress of considerable emotional intensity...The appeal lies in a picture presentation of a thoroughly romantic tale in which there is no pretense of realism and no mere regard for probabilities than must govern even the writer of colorful fiction." And yet when we look for the film in Denmark we find En Moders Kaelighed starring Ragna Wettergreen four years earlier under the direction of August Blom, photographed by Johan Ankerstjerne with a screenplay by Peter Lykke Seest, a film which had afforded a small role to Valda Valkyrien. The United States lists The Story of a Mother (Historien om en moder, Blom, 1912) with Ragna Westergreen and Valda ValkyrPien, as a lost film along with the 1912 film En historie om kaerlighed (Two Sisters, August Blom 1912) with Jenny Roelsgaard and Valda Valkyrien as also being a lost film. Which is to say that the possibility of the The Man With the Missing Finger first run in the United States from Great Northern in actuality being a scrapt written by Carl Dreyer entitled Den Falske Fingre now at first seems open. Moving Picture World during 1917 reviewed "the celebrated Danish beauty" Valda Valkyrien in The Imagemakers.  The picture has a very unusual plot as it deals with pre-existence and tells us of a love that lasted through the centuries." The film allows Valkyrien a dual role, that of an egyptian girl in love with a prince before his death and her reincarnated spirit in the form of a modern woman. "Valkyrien's charming personality never appeared to better advantage than in this picture." Edwin Thanhouser described the film as "a drama of reincarnation involving parallel romances, one in modern times and the other dating back 3,000 years." During 1917 Valda Valkyrien appeared in the film Magda (Emile Chautard) with Clara Kimball Young, of which today there are no surviving copies. Valda Valkyrien has also been listed as being Baroness Dewitz or famous Baroness Von Dewitz with the alternative birthplace of Iceland rather than Denmark provided by author Hans J. Wollstein in The Strange Case of Valda Valkyrien; the library of Congress lists her as appearing in the extant film Diana the Hunter (Charles W. Hunter, 1916) during a year in which she also starred in Silas Marner for Thanhouser under the direction of Ernest C. Warde.
Loves of An Actress (Rowland Lee,1928) in which Nils Asther starred with Pola Negri and Mary McAllister, as a matter of fact, is a lost film. If all that exists of The Chinese Parrot is a still photograph, the caption from Photoplay Magazine, cautioned that, alhtough mysteries were not meant to be divulged, the adaption had not kept faithful to the Earl Der Biggers plotline.

Lost Silent Film, Found Magazines, the four reel missing prolouge to Mysterious Island shot by Benjamin Christensen

Danish Silent Film Screenwriter Frances Marion had written the early revision to the photoplay The Mysterious Lady, which was rewritten by screenwriter Bess Meredyth. During the time in between it had been elaborately reworked by Danish film director Benjamin Christenson. Upon first arriving in the United States, the Danish silent film director Benjamin Christenson had sold the scenario to The Light Eternal; Motion Picture News in 1926 reported a title change and that Christenson had been film a project under the names The Light Eternal and Devilkin and that Louis B. Mayer had finally decided upon its release title.  The first film Christenson had directed in the United States, The Devil's Circus (1926, seven reels) with Norma Shearer and Charles Emmet Mack, had had a scrapt which he had written himself. In The Devil's Circus Praised, Motion Picture Classic reviewed the film, "Some of the metropolitan critics were impressed with Benjamin Christenson's first American film The Devil's Circus. To me it was just early Griffith plus a dash of Seastrom pseudo-symbolism. Christenson is responsible for both the story and the direction." Arne Lund writes, "Christensen later claimed that twenty M.G.M. screenwriters were set loose on the screenplay of The Devil's Circus...Christensen stated that he barely recognized the original story after the continuity 'improvements' by staff writers...Christensen's initial story draft for example, set the film in Copenhagen, but M.G.M.'s writers quickly transposed the story." Christenson point, of course, was that the writers that were let loose  on his scrapt "altered the whole tone and message." During early 1927, Motion Picture News welcomed Christensen back to Hollywood reporting, Christianson Returns, "Benjamin Christianson, M-G-M's Danish director has returned to the studios from a brief vacation in Denmark and will shortly be assigned a new production. He reports interesting activities under way in Sweden and Germany and anticipated a strong bid for fame by the Russians this year." Danish Silent Film

     The Haunted House
(seven reels) with Thelma Todd, Montague Love and Barbara Bedford, was reviewed by Motion Picture magazine, "A most involved plot holds together a mystery picture, which starts out with some pointless, though eerie gags, but succeeds in ending with a burst of screams from the audience...This is of the new school of mystery play, in which there is a laugh for every shiver, so you don't feel you must look under the bed when you go home." Motion Picture Magazine reported, "On the set of The Haunted House at First National. A spooky scene was shot. William V. Mong as the vindictive old caretaker crept up behind Thelma Todd and touched her on the shoulder. The shriek she gave was so realistic that everyone on the set was impressed with Thelma's acting ability, and after the scene was shot the director took the occasion to congratulate her on her film work. 'Oh,' said Thelma candidly! 'That wasn't acting, that was my sunburn I got swimming at Malibu yesterday.'" During 1928 Exhibitor's Daily Review printed, "Christensen Signed- the general manager of production for First National, after seeing The Haunted House, signed Benjamin Christensen, the Swedish director, for two more pictures to be done at First National." "The Haunted House had had a Photplay which Christensen had written himself.
      The Hawk's Nest (eight reels) with Milton Sills, Montague Love and Mitchell Lewis was to follow during 1928.
     Mockery (seven reels) when reviewed by Photoplay shifted the look from director to star, "Lon Chaney's running rapidly through the list of human ailments and tribulations...Mockery is hardly an authentic picture of the budding (Russian) revolution but it is a good melodrama built up to a keen edge of tensity by Lon Chaney's highly effective character playing." The Film Spectator reviewed the film as part of its audience, "We are baffled by what goes on in the haunted house, but we find no less entertaining on that account." From a story written by Christensen, the continuity of the film is credited to Bradley King. A caption from Photoplay during 1927 read, "Benjaminn Christiansen had this elaborate contraption built so that he might get a good shot of Lon Chaney starting downstairs. The title of the newest Chaney picture- a Russian story- has been changed from Terror to Mockery. Its all right with us." The studio during 1927 had in fact in advance advertised the coming Metro Goldwyn Mayer Films starring Lon Chaney, "You'll get Lon Chaney in "Terror" Next, Then "The Hypnotist" Motion Picture News during 1927 reported what would now seem a mystery, "Production work was begun last week by Metro-Goldwyn Mayer on "Terror", the new film will star Lon Chaney. Benjamin Christensen, Scandinavian director is directing from an original story by Stig Esbern. Barbara Bedford has the feminine lead in the new picture....Other roles are being played by Richard Cortez and Johnny Jack (Mack) Brown." Film Daily roc idled a similar account, "M.G.M. Has begun production on Terror. Lon Chaney's new film which presents him in the role of a Russian peasant during the revolution...Barbara Bedford has been signed by M.G.M. To play opposite Lon Chaney I his next production, Terror."
When reviewing the film The Haunted House, the editor of The Film Spectator included the opinion that "Miss Bedford's appearance on the screen have been all too rare. The splendid performance she gave in Mockery, opposite Lon Chaney, should have earned her recognition as one of our most talented dramatic actresses. It is a strange business that does not make more use of a girl endowed so abundantly with both beauty and brains." On the camera technique of Chhistensen, The Film Spectator noticed, "By placing his camera almost on the floor, Christensen gives an eerie quality to his character...the heroic proportions of the characters supplied by the lowered camera gain added effectiveness by the clever use of lights and shadows....Nor did Sol Polito shoot any of his scenes from distorted angles. Occaisionally he placed his camera behind a chair and shot scenes through its back, but such shots were consistent with the usual low position of the camera." Interestingly, it added what would be a wry, and macabre overtone had it been pointed out seriously as having been the director's intention. "There are a couple of slips. Conklin's hat blows off and apparently rolls in the direction from which the wind is blowing. Although we get the impression that it is raining outside people coming into the house have no rain on them. The source of light in the haunted house is not indicated." Unless these oversights were meant to be Christensen's expression of the mystery of "the hereafter". There are many accounts that Mockery was long thought to be a lost film untill film preservation efforts during the 1970's, Rutgers University having inadvertly left the film as still missing on its moving image internet webpage, which provided a synopsis of a film surmised to be non-surving : author John Ernst published the biography Benjamin Christensen in 1967, Today, there are no known existant copies of the 1929 film The House of Horror (7 reels) for which Thelma Todd returned to the screen to film under the direction of Benjamin Christensen. Nor are there existant copies of the silent films The Haunted House and The Hawk's Nest; untill they are found and or restored, the films made in the United States by Benjamin Christensen continue to lurk within the shadows of the silver screen theaters, and although many of the theaters, with all their grandeur that introduced the films are also gone, particularly in Boston, the detectives of film can find them in the world of Lost Film, Found Magazines with each newly discovered poster, still or full page advertisement. The House of Horror, written by Richard Bee and photographed under the direction of Benjamin Christensen, was reviewed in 1929 by Motion Picture News. "If it isn't classified as a horror by audiences it will admittedly be rated a bore...Everything is there in The House of Horror, except the custard pie. MYbe that will be inserted in the sound version. In any case, it will neither add nor detract from the present story; because there is none. First National will install sound and dialouge in this picture...The picture consists largely of wind blowing, doors opening and closing and books falling off the shelves. Even the sequences where Louise Fazendas runs around madly and merrily garbed in 1876 model lingerie fail to cheer audiences. The main action of the story centers entirely in an antique shop."
It need not be overlooked that the Journal of Scandinavian Cinema recently published the article Scandinavian Auteur as Chameleon: How Benjamin Christenson reinvented himself in Hollywood 1925-29, written by Arne Lunde, who looks at correspondence written by the film director. Lunde sees an influence Christensen, "a visionary stylist and innovator" (Lunde), made on the technique used to film The Mysterious Island (1929), although, much like Stiller's having been replaced by Fred Niblo, he had been replaced on the film by Lucien Hubbard. "Silhoetted lighting in a submarine-interior shot also shows traces of a key Christensen stylistic signature." The review for The Mysterious Island during 1929 in Motion Picture News appeared alongside its review of House of Horror with the note, "The picture was originally started about three years ago with Benjamin Christensen directing. After completion of a four reel prolouge, deciding the story was impractical for the screen. Last year, Lucien Hubbard took the picture off the shelf to see what he could do with it. Hubbard wrote an entirely new story and started production. The finished picture does not contain more than a few hundred feet of the four reel prolouge photographed for the first version."Danish Silent Film When Photoplay reviewed the film Seven Footprints to Satan (1929), it held, "You won't get very excited about this so-called mystery story because you feel down underneath that it will turn out to be a dream. The denoument is not quite as bad as that, but almost...Thelma Todd manages to look both beautiful and freightened while Chreighton Hale makes his knees stutter." The film was photographed by Sol Polite. Exhibitor's Daily Review wrote, "Considerable mystery surrounds the identity of the actor who will play the role of 'Satan' in First national's forthcoming mystery picture, Seven Footprints to Satan, which Benjamin Christensen is to direct. The character in the novel by A. Merritt is described as a gigantic man with a Mongolian appearance. He is the central figure in the story. Christensen, who directed The Haunted House, the first mystery for First National, refuses to divulge the actor's identity." Later, Exibitor's Daily Review added, "A wire from First National's Burbank studios states that Loretta Young has been added to the cast of the mystery thriller Seven Footprints to Satan"
There are reports that the film Helge Indians (Helgeninderne, 1921) made by Benjamin Christensen before his coming to the United States and starring his wife, Karen Winther and Karina Bell is now a lost film. Forsyth Hardy chronicles, "The Danish director Benjamin Christensen, who was engaged to make Haxan (1922), an imaginative study of witchcraft which excitedly exploited the properities of the camera. These expensive films, however, failed to make impressions on the reluctant foreign audiences." He notes that it was a newly completed studio at Rasunda that had emerged with Svensk Filmindustri, a momentum having arisen as the result of the merger in 1919 between Svenska Bio and Film Scandia. In the United States, the film was reviewed as Witchcraft through the Ages by Film Daily who saw the film as claiming that there was "witchcraft, sorcery and black magic" throughout the centuries and that it was responsible for the perfidy of countless souls, "Novel film beautifully photographed is absorbing study but subject rather too grim for most picture houses....The incidents are strung together without any particular story...some striking effects of witches flying on broomsticks, infernal regions, ect, build a supernatural atmosphere that is gripping. Novel, beautiful- but not ordinary house fare." Christensen wrote, directed and starred in the film, entrusting the photography to Johan Ankerstjerne, who had previously distinguished himself through the use of side-lighting and had been behind the camera for the filming of Vengence Night, written and directed by Christensen in 1916.
     Author John Ernst published the biography Benjamin Christensen in 1967.

Danish film director Carl Th. Dreyer was in Norway during 1926 shooting the film The Bride of Glomdal (Glomsdalsbruden), photographed by Einar Olsen and starring Tove Tellback. Adapted from a novel by Jacob Breda Bull, Dreyer reportedly shot the film quickly, or quicker than he thought the project merited, before leaving Scandinavia to film in France. The Norwegian Film Institute during 2007 announced the restoration of the film The Bridal Procession (Brudeferden i Hardanger), also filmed in Norway in 1926; the film stars the very beuatiful actress Ase Bye and was directed by Rasmus Breistein.
Professor Ib Bondebjerg sees in Dreyer's style a marked "expressive inner realism". Bondebjerg writes, "Dreyer's own thoughts on filmmaking stress the importance of close-ups and the role of the naked, emotionally loaded face." As Dreyer had film in France, it is of note that Bondebjerg, in the paper A Cinema of Passion, Carl Th. Dreyer- the International Auteur in Classical Danish Cinema, traces the style of Dreyer's camerawork in La Passion de JLeanne D'Arc as more directly contemporary that directly attributable to the montage theory of Eisenstien and a Russian formalist influence. Scholar Casper Tybjerg points out Dreyer's attention to historical accuracy when designing the sets to the film and his having been inspired by medieval miniatures from which he derived a concept of stylization. Tybjerg explains a theory that advances that "filmmakers drew on paintings for their intrinsic visual interest" and that Dreyer looked to the paintings of Pieter Brugel the Elder when conceiving the film. In his paper Distinguished Compositions- The Use of Paintings as Visual Models in Danish Silent Films, Casper Tybjerg sees Carl Dreyer looking to Flemish art not so much to stir audience recognition through the use of well known tropes, but more to fabricate visual effects, this differing his stylistic choices from less auteur films that had been made earlier.
Paul Rotha was an early film critic to notice the stylistic auteur in Dryer's technique, evidently before the film disappeared, or was thought to be a lost film. In his volume, The Film Till Now, Rotha includes a sectioned titled The Theoretical- Methods of Expression of Dramtic Content and writes, "Camera mobility is completely justified in any direction and at any speed so long as the reason for its movement is expression and heightening of the dramatic theme....in La Passion de Jeanne D'Arc, where the quick, pulsating, backward and forward motion denoted the hesitant trepidation in Jeanne's mind...."


Although Karina Bell is now well-known for starring with Gosta Ekman in Kloven (The Clown, 1926) directed by Danish silent film director A. W. Sandberg, she had appeared before the camera under his direction is several ealier films, including The Lure of the Footlights (Den Sidste Danse, with Else Neilsen, Clarra Schronfeldt and Grethe Rygaard. Anders W. Sandberg showcased both Karina Bell and Karen Sandberg Caperson in the 1924 film House of Shadows (Moranen). Writing about the film, author Anne Bachmann notes, "Later Danish cinema also occasionally- and influenced by the Swedish style- emphasized Norwegian locations." Interestingly enough, Asta Neilsen waited untill having returned to Germany to appear in the film Hedda Gabler under the direction of Franz Eckstein, but not before her having made the film Felix with Rasmus Briestein. The film was based on a novel written by Gustav Aagaard and photographed by Gunnar Nilsen-Vig, who would later go on to photograph for the directors John Brunius and Tancred Ibsen. The screenplays to The Kiss (Kyssen, Feyder, seven reels) and Wild Orchids were both written by Hans Kraly.  In Germany, Kraly had written the scrapts to the films of Danish director Urban Gad, including the 1913 film The Film Star (Die Filmprimaddonna, starring Asta Nielsen.
Important to modern authors, Movie Makers magazine looks at the moving camera, flashback narrative and double exposed titles, the use of an image with inter-title, in the film Night Watch (Lajos Biros) looks at the overuse of the moving camera in The Street of Illusion (Kenton), "the camera pauses before a door, opens it, goes through a hall, enters a curtained arch, then another curtained arch, passes to a man and then gives a close up of him." It almost reevaluates the criticism of Stiller's and Dreyer's use of the moving camera from the perspective of 1929.
Danish Silent Film director Robert Dinesen would film his last two films in Germany, both lensed by the photographer George Bruckbauer, Der Weg durch die Nacht (1929) having starred Kathe von Nagy and Margarethe Schon, and Ariane im Hoppegarten (1928), having starred Maria Jacobini. Nordisk film at that time made only one film, The Joker (Jokeren, directed by George Jacoby. It had made more than 350, although short, films during the year 1914.
That Lars von Trier has had one of his works referred to as a Dogumentary is a silent nod to not only Vilgot Sjoman, but to silent film poet Dziga Vertov. Hovering over the journal seems the hinting that there could be later a mention of the work of Carl Th. Dreyer while trying to align themselves with typical literary journals such as Cinema Quarterly, The Hound and the Horn and Film Art. Vampyr, Danish director Carl Th. Dreyer's use of the vampire, in the form of Jullian West, as thematic context, was filmed almost silently, with sound added, in Germany in 1932. The film was based the plotline of ,among other vampire tales, In a Glass Darkly, written by Sheridan Le Fanu. Dreyer's choice of cameraman was Rudolph Matte. Carl Dreyer tips his hat to his having been a screenwriter when quoted by Sigfried Kracauer in Theory of Film, the redemption of physical reality whenever paraphrased as having noted the effect of narrative on the film's images, and their effect, in turn on the emotion of the spectator, the plot articulated on the screen bringing fantasy to the viewer. Film critic theorist Kracauer establishes a necessary validity of film as an experience and concludes the relational is subordinate to the technique of film when kept provisionally a realistic representation of fantasy, seeing realism as bringing fantasy into a camera-reality, "Vampyr, with its cast of partly non-professional actors is shot in natural surroundings and relies only to a limited extent on tricks to put across its vague hints of the supernatural." Film critic and author David Bordwell, on his webpage Observations on Film Art, recently provided a link to the web written by the Danish Film Insitute on the film of Carl Th. Dreyer it covering the directors brilliant silent film career as well as his longevity into the sound era. Peter Schepelern, writing with Lisabeth Richter Larsen of the Danish Institute sees Benjamin Christensen as Denmark's leading director between 1010-1020. The Danish Film Institute has written, "He had full control over the creation of his films, not only as a director, but also in many cases by being producer, author and protagonist." While Danish film director Benjamin Christensen had by 1913 had begun directing with his first film, Sealed Orders (Det hemmelinghstulde X), a melodrama that, irregardless of its belonging to or being typical of the genre of the early Danish spy film, had included the use of montage in his editing, Carl Th. Dreyer had in fact begun rather as a writer, contributing the screenplay to the film The Brewer's Daughter (Byggerens datter, 1912), directed by Rasmus Ottesen and starring Emmanuel Gregers. He was to write every screenplay that he was to direct. Of the film Leaves in Satan's Book (1919), Forsyth Hardy wrote, "In the selection of his theme we see both the influence of Griffith and the preoccupation with the forces of good and evil which has been characteristic of all Dreyer's films." After her having appeared with Edvin Adolphson in the film Brollopet i Branna (1927), directed by Erik Petschler, Mona Martenson in Norway starred with Einar Tveito in People of the Tundra (Viddenesfolk) (1928) written and directed by Ragnar Westfelt for Lunde-film, in Germany starred with Aud Egede Nissen in the film Die Frau in Talar, in Norway starred in the film Laila (1929) directed by George Schneevoigt for Lunde-film from a scrapt adapted from a novel by Jens Anders Friis, and in Denmark starred in the film Eskimo (1930), also directed by George Schneevoight. Danish film director George Schneevoigt continued the beginning of early Danish sound film the following year with the film Pastor of Vejlby (Praesten i Vejlby). The Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers during early 1930 printed, "The old company, 'Nordisk Film', has completely discontinued operations because of heavy competition with American and German made pictures. A new company, 'Nordisk Tone-film' has now been organized. it has been producing one reel sound pictures, not running more than from five to eight minutes."
Professor Ib Bondebjerg of the University of Copenhagen with author Mette Hjort has written a concise abbreviation of the effect of the transition to sound film on Danish Film production, "The advent of sound, combined with the negative effects of the First World War, had the effect of radically undermining Denmark's leading role within the international film industry and during the period of classic cinema culture (1930-1960), Danish film was reduced to a minor cinema produced in a small nation in an increasingly global world dominated especially by the U.S. The few Danish films that did manage to penetrate the international market during these years generated interest primarily as an expression of individual artistic talent, a case in point being the films of Dreyer. The period coincides largely with the articulation of the popular Danish genre formulae that were able at times to draw full houses and to constitute film as Danes preferred form of entertainment."

Victor Sjostrom Swedish Silent Film">Swedish Silent Film

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Swedish Silent Film:Victor Sjostrom- Lost Film, Found Magazines
Victor Sjostrom

To read the recent revision on Greta Garbo, Victor Sjostrom, Scott Lord on Silent Film.
I hope to transfer the information on this page to other pages.

My Silent Swedish Film webpage, which covered from the turn of century to the advent of sound, was, before its having been transferred at the last minute, a Geocities webpage. I still have a love for silent film, which skyrocketed after having looked at The Last Tycoon and The Garden of Eden; Photoplay magazine of 1927 mentions Fitzgerald being in the process of writing an original screenplay for Constance Talmadge, it later reviewing his adapted work, "Fitzgerald's novel, with its unscrupulous hero, violates some pet screen traditions." The silent film is in fact a deepening of the novel as an art form. Waldemar Young was credited for writing the scenario of  the film Off Shore Pirate (1921), adapted from the short story written by  Scott Fitzgerald.  If I was not to be present that evening, I jotted down my having noticed that Harvard Film has a free series of screenings open to the public at the University, which if you rebegin this month, includes The Joyless Street (Die Freudlosse Gasse (G.W. Pabst 1925); my copy of the film I no longer have (my former mentor had a yardsale or something or other). Previous screenings have included Danish film star, Asta Nielsen Tragedy of the Street (Dirnetragodre, Bruno Rahn, 1927). Evidently, The Great Train Robbery (Porter,1903) was still being shown in theaters as late as 1926, added to the feature then playing, whereas it wasn't untill Hamlet (Gade, 1920) that sex symbol Asta Nielsen was introduced to mainstream audiences in the United States. Is it possible that when Greta Garbo visited the home of Basil Rathbone in the masquerade costume of Hamlet, it was a tribute, or nod, to Danish Silent Film star Asta Nielsen? As research, the recent European claim that it is impossible to screen two films by Sam Brakage, The Boy and the Sea and Silent Sand Sense Stars Subotnick and Sender, seems to avoid being mysterious as it teeters on being ludicrous, and the present author sees little probability that they have decomposed-what will not be seen at Harvard University, or at the Universities of Sweden or Denmark, is the 1922 film The Beautiful and the Damned directed by William A. Sieter/SydneyFranklin and starring Marie Prevost, if a film accurately reported as being unavailbable for screening, or or the 1926 film The Great Gatsby directed by Herbert Brenon and starring Lois Wilson- within the world of Lost Films, Found Magazines, there are no existant copies of either film, our knowledge of them and curiousity is left for stills taken during the time period; there are no PI'm vaults that exist.For that matter, there little likelihood of a copy of The Villiage Blacksmith (1922, eight reels) directed by John Ford going on sale; there are no copies of it anywhere: similarly The Courtship of Miles Standish (Fredrick M Sullivan, 1923) is lost but two pages of full page advertisements of Charles Ray and Enid Bennett were found by the present author in The Film Daily from the year of its first run.
The characters portrayed on-screen by Ruth Taylor and Alice White may be familiar to present audiences, but the scenario co-written with John Emerson by the author of the novel Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, Anita Loos, and directed by Malcom St. Clair in 1927 is also among the silent film listed as lost film. One novel, One Increasing Purpose, seems intriguing in that it seems only possible that it is missing, filmed in 1926, it was advertised as being the next great work to have been written by A.S.M Hutchinson after If Winter Comes; as good as the drama may have been, it was filmed in England and seems elusive in being included in lists of lost-missing films. Although only its director, Leslie H. Hiscott, may know the whereabouts of The Missing Rembrant, die hard fans of Arthur Wotner and Ian Fleming can only wondePr. And yet there are several films that are now lost that appeared not only on the theater marquee, but in bookstores; Grosset and Dunlap having published Photoplay Editions of films rewritten as novels, in including intertextual photos, the illustrated photoplay edition of the novel London After Midnight, written by Marie Coolidge Rask, was published in 1928. Just as lost films have left behind their accompanying movie posters, as well as full page magazine advertisements that serve very much like movie posters when deciding not if we should see the film but what the film was like when first seen, each hardcover copy of an film adaptation into novel included a dustjacket, art that gives information about missing films: within there being Lost Films, Found Magazines. In regard to the 19O18 film Mania (Evyen Illes), not only can it be included in Lost Films, Found Magazines, but it has been restored by the National Film Inatitute (Filmoteka Nardowa), who when announcing its premiere wrote, "its contents pertain to universal truths". The film is notable for its starring Pola Negri and the set design to the film having had been being crafted by Paul Leni. It is imperative that the word film study be surplanted by the word film appreciation: it was in 1946 that author Iris Barry cautioned the readers of Hollywood Quarterly through the article "Why wait for Posterity" as to films quickly becoming lost and the need to preserve the "romantic" Greta Garbo film The Saga of Gosta Berling (Stiller, 1925) by saving the prints from deterioration. After explaining that the original two-color technicolor copies of the Black Pirate that had belonged to Douglas Fairbanks and Harvard University, respectively, were in a vault "at the point of final deterioration", and could only be duplicated in black-and-white form, she qualifies that the criteria for screening film need, as with "the early Seastrom films", only be pleasure. "What, really is the point of dragging old films back to light? First, I believe that it benefits the general esteem and standing of the motion picture industry as a whole; for if the great films of the past are not worth taking seriously and are not worth re-examination, then presumably neither are the great films of today. It would be unthinkable if the only books available to literary men and women should be no more than those published in the past year or so."  To echo her by my now finding this during the centennial of the two reeler in the United States  and of Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller having become contemporaries at Svenska Bio ,  the biography of actress Greta Garbo penned by the present author on Geocities webpage encompassed the long waiting period before what was to be the last film to be made by Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman, which happenned to be during the centennial of the one reel narrative film, "Of the utmost importance is an appreciation of film, film as a visual literature. film as the narrative image, and while any appreciation of film would be incomplete without the films of Ingmar Bergman, every appreciation of film can begin with the films of the silent period, with the watching of the films themselves, their once belonging to a valiant new form of literautre. Silent film directors in both Sweden and the United States quickly developed film technique, including the making of films of greater length during the advent of the feature film, to where viewer interest was increased by the varying shot lengths within a scene structure, films that more than still meet the criterion of having storylines, often adventurous, often melodramatic, that bring that interest to the character when taken scene by scene by the audience."
Whether or not there were pirates off the coast of Boston, the naval battles of the War of 1812 were immortalized, not only in the poem by Oliver Wendell Holmes, but in the film Old Ironsides (twelve reels), starring Ester Ralston, directed by James Cruze in 1926; it is a film that there has always been a copy of and not in need of restoration, but like The Black Pirate, which employed technicolor, the film is more renowned for its early use of Magnascope than its story of the high seas. Three years before James Cruze had directed Hollywood (eight reels) for Paramount, which featured cameos by Charles Chaplin, Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks. The film has not been seen since it was first reviewed by Robert E. Sherwood, the printed article one of the only ways of our knowing its subject, "James Cruze treated Hollywood as a fantasy rather than a grimly realistic drama...Miss Drown, as Angela, was wistful, appealing and supremely pathetic. Her wide eyes seemed to increase in depth and in softness with each fresh disappointment...She is a tremendous success in this her first picture." Is The Mystery of Room 643 (1914) a lost film?

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Scott Lord-Silent Film Swedish Silent Film
During 1920, Film Scandia merged with Scandia to team Charles Magnusson with Nils Bouveng to run AB Svensk Filmindustri. Having been an actress for several films directed by George af Klerker, Mary Johnson wasP also that year to appear in the Swedish silent film Stovstadsfaror, directed by Manne Gothson and photographed by Gustav A. Gustafson. Appearing with Johnson in the film were Agda Helin, Tekl Sjoblom and Lilly Cronwin.
     
     Motion Picture Magazine during 1923 wrote, "Sigrid Holmquist has come to Lasky's to appear in The Gentlemen of Leisure. She is a Swedish Mary Pickford". Holmquist had appeared under the direction of Lau Lauritzen in 1920 in the film Love and Bear Hunting (Karlek och Bjornjakt) before coming to the United States to appear in the film directed by Joseph Henabery and also during 1923 appeared in an adaptation of the Kipling novel The Light that Failed (George Melford) with Jaqueline Logan. She had also appreared in the 1922 film The Prophet's Paradise directed by Alan Crosland.


Although The Silent Cinema, authored by Liam O'Leary, is a "Pictureback" and includes numerous stills from films that are lost and represents them as though they were available for screening at the time of its 1965 printing, it not only presages internet writing with its combination of filmography and chronology, but astutely alerts us that while becoming an even more vesatile drama actress, Asta Neislen had found new directors with whom to film. DuPring 1922, she appeared in an on screen production of the writing of Stendhal with Vanina (Vanina, order die galgenhochziet), directed by Arthur von Gerlach and photographed by Fredrik Fuglsang.
In Germany, Marlene Dietrich by 1927 had begun to appear on the the screen in lead roles more often, her having that year starred in the film Cafe Electric (Gustav Ucicky). Not entirely ironically, while more and more films from Europe were becoming introduced to writers in the United States, two films from Germany that were filmed complicitly without subtitles yet still having a clear narrative development and depiction of plotline without expository or dialoge intertitle were being written about in the United States, Backstairs (1926), filmed by the stage director Leopold Jessner, a film about a young girl whose is in love and a mailman who witholds love letters written to her because he himself is in love with her, and Shattered (Lupu Pick,1921), scrapted by Carl Mayer. Not only did Photoplay Magazine spy on Hollywood, but in 1929 it reported the release of Mata Hari: The Red Dancer, with Magda Sonja in the title role, the film directed in Germany by Fredrich Feher.
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 The Street of Sin (1928, seven reels) starring Fay Wray and Olga Barclanova was begun by Stiller and finished by the director Joseph von Sternberg.

During 1924, Conrad Nagel would that year team with Aileeen Pringle for the film Three Weeks. Nagel would appear on the screen with Eleanor Boardman for the 1924 film Sinners in Silk (Henley) and then the following year for The Only Thing, directed by Jack Conway. Silent Film actress Norma Shearer, in 1924, was starring in Broadway After Dark (Monta Bell, seven reels) with Anna Q. Nilsson, The Snob (Monta Bell, seven reels) with John Gilbert, Empty Hands (Victor Fleming, seven reels), Married Flirts (Robert Vignola, seven reels) with Conrad Nagel and The Wolfman (Edward Mortimer, six reels) with John Gilbert. The next year she starred in Pretty Ladies (Monta Bell, six reels), one of the films that she had been given by being a contract player at the MGM studio, it having afforded her a cameo role. The film was based on a story by Adela Rogers St. Johns and had featured Conrad Nagel. Also that year Shearer appeared in the films Waking Up the Town (James Cruze, six reels), Lady of the Night (Monta Bell, six reels) and His Secretary (seven reels). She continued with Conrad Nagel the following year in The Waning Sex (seven reels) and appeared in Upstage (Monta Bell, seven reels). While Mauritz Stiller was in movie theaters with Hotel Imperial, Photoplay Magazine reviewed Monta Bell's direction of Norma Shearer in Upstage as "delightful. When an interviewer had asked Conrad Nagel if he had been in love with Norma Shearer, Nagel equivocated, 'Every man who knew or worked with her was in love with her. She had an unusual grace and tact, and she was very sensitive to other people's feelings.' Pola Negri appeared in two films directed by Dimitri Buchowetski during 1924, Men, with Robert Frazer and Lily of the Dust.
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1922 was a year during which Gustaf Molander's second film, Amatorfilmen, the first film in which actress Elsa Ebbengen-Thorblad was to appear, brought actress Mimi Pollack to Swedish movie audiences. Molander had made the film The King of Boda (Tyrranny of Hate, Bodakungen) in 1920.
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-Sir Thomas Henry Hall Caine had been secretary to Dante Gabriel Rosetti during the last year of the painter's life, his novels having been adapted to the screen by George Fitzmaurice, who filmed Barbara LaMarr in The Eternal City (1923) and by Hugh Ford, who filmed Katherine McDonald and Katherine Griffith in The Woman Thou Gavepst Me (1919.) Cinematographer Charles Van Enger not only photographed the 1924 film Name the Man, directed by Victor Sjöstrom, but also that year photographed the films Lovers' Lane (Phil Rosen, seven reels) with actress Gertrude Olmstead, Three Women (Lubitsch, eight reels) with May McAvoy, Forbidden Paradise (Lubitsch, eight reels) with Pola Negri and Daughters of Pleasure (six reels) and Daring Youth (six reels), both directed by William Beaudine.
King Vidor in 1924 paired John Gilbertand Aileen Pringle in two films, Wife of the Centaur with Kate Lester, and His Hour. Norwegian film director Tancred Ibsen, while briefly in Hollywood, worked on the set design to the Vidor film His Hour. Monta Bell that year directed John Gilbert in The Snob (seven reels).

In Sweden, Karin Boye was publishing her second volume of poetry, Hidden Lands, her continuing in 1927 with the volume The Hearths. She had published her first work, Clouds two years earlier, a year when Swedish poet Birger Sjoberg had published Frida's Songs.

In 1925, Edmund Goulding began directing with Sun-Up Sally (six reels), starring Conrad Nagel and pIrene and Sally (six reels), starring Constance Bennett, following the two films with Paris (six reels)

. Rathbone had also appeared in silent films- Trouping with Ellen (T. Hayes Hunter, seven reels) in 1924, The Masked Bride (Christy Cabanne, six reels), starring Mae Murray, in 1925 and The Great DeceptionP (Howard Higgin, six reels) in 1926. Rathbone and his wife had been present at the premiere of Flesh and the Devil. Anna Karenina (1914), filmed by J. Gordon Edwards, had starred Betty Nansen. On learning that Greta Garbo had already had the film Mata Hari in production, Pola Negri deciding between scrapts that were in her studio's story department chose A Woman Commands as her first sound film, in which she starred with Basil Rathbone. Directed by Paul L.Stein, the films also stars Reginald Owen and Roland Young. Ronald Colman had begun as a screen actor in England as well with the films The Live Wire (Dewhurst, 1917), The Toilers (1919), Sheba (Hepworth, 1919), Snow in the Desert (1919) and The Black Spider (1920) It was for Nordisk Films Kompani that year that August Blom had directed Asta Neilsen in the film The Ballet Dancer
directed by George Pearson in 1914 being among one of the most sought after films listed as missing by the British Film Institute. W. Scott Darling, a favorite of the present author, was certainly writing mystery scrapts in Hollywood during 1920, his scenario to Scott Sidney-Charles Christie), based on an Arsene Lupin story written by Maurice Leblanc, was reviewed under the title Mystery Novel Loses interest In Screen Adaptation. It purportedly lost "some of its excitement and suspense in the pictorization...There is a morbid element to the tale which becomes unneccesarily vivid in the picture form." Apparently, "Lupin falls in love with Delores Castlebank, widow of the murdered man." At the bottom of the page, the magazine offerred a "box office analysis for the exhibitor" with "The Name of Arsene Lupin and A Promise of Mystery, Your Best Bets" and prompted, "If you want a catchline, this will do: Added, subtracted, divided, the mysterious numbers gave the answer 813. What does it mean?" Perplexing to the readers of the present author is that. although there is no reason to qualify the film as being "lost" the fact that the title of the film is a number, makes it missing from catalogues of film that are not lost as well as those that are.


Salsvinnapolttajet (The Moonshiners, directed in Finland during 1907 by Teuro Puro and Louis Sparre, is presently considered a lost film. The photographer is listed as having been Frans Engstrom. Interestingly enough, author Marguerite Engberg writes that photoplay dramatists were instructed to limit the use of inter-titles and thereby depict narrative as visual whenever possible. To parallel this, a steady number of guides on creative writing that can be found in the category of Photodrama or photodramatist appeared in the United State between 1912 and 1920, whether or not many seem more lurid than the films themselves- to arbitrarily look at them, to find a sense of meaning as to what early photo-drama plot was, there is Photodrama: the philosophy of its principles, the nature of its plot, its dramatic construction, from 1914, written by Henry Albert Phillips. It contains a chapter on Visualization: "Visualized action takes first and foremost place in the photoplay; all other matters are harmonious trappings and devices or illusion that decorate creaking machines with esthetic realities. Inserted matter, unless artisticlly used, becomes theatric instead of dramatic. The volume continues on to examine subjects like how characterization in the short story and photoplay differ and how there is a necessity within plot to create an "obstacle", the author striving to "analyze photo-drama, to embody it as a new and complete for of drama-literary art." The Danish Marguerite Engberg author sees a shift in Danish filmmaking during 1910 to a more sensational film with the work of August Blom (The Temptations of the Great City, Ved Faengslets Port, 1911;The Price of Beauty, Den Farliiege Alder, 1911).

Roman Navarro in 1924 appeared in two films directed by Fred Niblo, Thy Name is Woman and The Red Lily. In 1925 the actor appeared in the films The Midshipman (Christy Cabanne, eight reels) and The Lovers Oath (six reels). Novarro is quoted as having said, 'It wasn't enough for her to satisfy the director. Often -despite his OK- she asked for a scene to be retaken because she didn't think she had done her best.' I'm Between the films The Primitive Lover (Sidney Franklin, seven reels, 1922) and The Lady (1925), Frances Marion had written the screenplays to The French Doll (1923), Song of Love (Chester Franklin, eight reels, 1924), based on the novel Dust of Desire and starring Norma Talmadge Secrets (Frank Borzage, eight reels, 1924) and Tarnish (George Fitzmaurice, seven reels, 1924).
     Screenland magazine noted that the scrapts filmed by George Fitzmaurice were often submitted by his wife, and that Ouida Bergere, more frequently remembered, or referred to, as the lover of Basil Rathbone "was a successful actress before she began to write for pictures." The present author almost found it of more personal interest that there was an author named Faith Service that wrote for Motion Picture Classics more than anything. During 1920 it featured a portrait of the film director George Fitzmaurice and his relationship to the screenwriter, but also included a fictionalized version of the scrapt to the silent film On With the Dance, its scenario written by Ouida Bergere. Faith Service regularly appeared in the magazine as an author that adapted the photoplay into the short story, with the subtitle "fictionalized by permission" or "told in story form, her having typed out the plots to the films Victory Miss Hobbs, Remodeling a Husband and The World and His Wife and She Loves and Lies, it being to the present author fascinating that the stills to films that now may be lost appear next to their transposition into a differeton art form. That year Gladys Hall fictionalized the scenario to the film Way Down East, condensing its charactizations into a handful of pages, the spectator of 1920 reading what would soon be on the screen in front of them, perhaps while viewing the star as a commodity within the extra-textual discourse of the fan magazine but with the familiar art form of the magazine short story installment. About the director Fitzmaurice, the Motion Picture Classics published, "For Fitzmaurice owes his remarkable ability to attain beautiful pictures- admirable in light, shade and grouping- to his early training as a painter, Maurice Tourneur owes his skill in the same field to the same source......En passme it is interesting to note the commraderie of Fitzmaurice and his wife, known to the scenario world as Ouida Bergere. 'We work together on every production,' explains the director." Faith Service was also distinguished as having been published in Photoplay magazine. Is the Mystery of Room 643 a Lost Film? There are many photoplays that during their first theater run were adapted from screen images into third person narrative, original screenplays that were published as magazine fiction after rewritten by magazine staff writers that, with stills from each film, have been preserved in regard to their storyline, characterization and that still exist as they did on celluloid and silver nitrate. The Essanay Film The Return of Richard Neal (1915), starring Nell Craig, and earlier chapters with Francis X. Bushman staring as in "adventures of the private investigator" are not listed as lost, but presently someP lists they are not found to be existant. The film appears in story form , with several film stills,in Picture Stories Magazine. It has caught the attention of the present author that Edna Mayo may be an actress with which modern audiences could have been be more familiar with; her Essanay film Stars, Their Courses Change (1915, three reels) seems to be unlisted as being missing while having had appeared in Motion Picture World Magazine- in light of there having been the documentary The Unknown Chaplin, both films would appear to currently be lost. There is every indication that the film Ponjola, starring Anna Q. Nilsson is missing from compendiums on lost film, although it appeared in full page magazine advertisements it seemingly to have been left unlisted. It also appeared in a Photoplay Edition published by Grosset and Dunlap the year of its release, the dustjacket of the 1923 novel rewritten from the screen by Cyntheia Stockley reading, "Illustrated with scenes from the photoplay. A First National Picture". Of course not every film made by the Stoll Film Corporation is lost and missing, but as it seems like a smaller studio, two films from 1923 appear to be unlisted, The Tidal Wave (Hill) and Bars of Iron (Thorston). Any film featured in Picture Stories Magazine during 1914-1915 could be later found to be a lost film. His Last Chance was featured as a work of fiction as novelized in Picture Stories Magazine and does not presently appear to be included in list of films that have been lost; the magazine cover advertises the periodical as being the "Illustrated Films Monthly". The title reads "Adapted from the IMP drama by Rosa Beaulaire", but neglects to name the actors and actresses in the stills and the name of the director of the film. The same issue includes the photoplay On the Verge of War in short story form with only "Adapted from the 101 Bison Film by Owen Garth. The Riddle of The Green Umbrella on the other hand credits Alice Joyce as a girl detective "from the two reel Kalem detective story" who is solving the murder of a professor; the film is not listed as being lost and is absent from lists of films that are decidedly not lost. The Triumph of Venus, advertised in the pages of Photoplay during 1918 is another film that seems yet to be put on lists of missing silent films. What I did happen to find in the pages of Photoplay Magazine was the six page novelization of the chapter-play, or serial, The Eagle's Eye directed by George Lessey and Wellington Player in 1918. With the novelization of the photoplay are published stills from the film, stills that show frames from a silver screen flicker that no longer survives. The lost silent film starred actress Marguerite Snow.


In Sweden, Par Lagerkvist that year published the novel Guest of Reality (Gas hos verkligheten). It is an account of the events of his childhood an his claim of his reluctance to accept religous ideals.

      In Sweden, Olaf Molander directed Lady of the Camellias (Damen med kameliorna, 1925), starring Ivan Hedqvist and Hilda Borgström and photographed by Gustav A. Gustafson. Forsyth Hardy writes, "The film derived some distinction from the delicately composed interiors and from the touching performance Tora Teje gave in response to Molander's skilled direction."
     In 1926 Molander followed with Married Life (Giftas), starring Hilda Borgström and Margit Manstad, also photographed by Gustav A. Gustafson and in 1927 with Only a Dancing Girl, which he wrote and directed.
     Swedish film director William Larsson during 1925 directed the films Broderna Ostermans huskors and For hemmet och flickan, with Jenny Tschernichin and Elsa Widborg in what would be the first film in which she was to appear.

     Gosta Ekman had earlier been seen as leading man in the United States, as a "romantic type" In Pantomine magazine it was surveyed that, "he plays the impudent, but loveable adventurer to life and his slender blonde figure lends itself most admirably to graceful interpretations of this kind." Photoplay magazine saw Ekman in a similar way, describing him in 1923 as "the Swedish shiek" (the Swedish Valentino) and predicted his soon aquiring famem in the United States, as it did that year with Sigrid Holmqvist. Photoplay reported, "Arriving with him from Stockholm was Edith Erastoff, the wife of Victor Seastrom, the Swedish director who is now working for Goldwyn. Miss Erastoff played opposite Mr. Ekman at the Stockholm Theater....'A beautiful boy,' says director Seastrom, 'Too beautiful- but he is a great actor and never hesitates to conceal his good looks for a character part which demands make-up.'" The magazine that year speculated that "in all probability" Ekman woulod appear on screen in a version of "Three Weeks", concievably opposite actress Theda Bara.

      In Sweden, in 1925 Ragnar Ring directed the film Tre Kroner (1925), following the next year with the film Butikskultur. Ett kopmanshus i skargarden starring Anna Wallin and Anna Carlsten was written and directed by Hjalmer Peters, its photographer Hellwig Rimmen.

Early Danish sound film director Alice O'Fredricks appeared as an actress a year earlier with Clara Pontoppidan in a film produced by Edda Film, Hadda Padda, directed by Gudmundar Kamban and also starring Ingeborg Sigurjonsson. Gudmundur Kamban in 1926 for Nordisk Film directed Gunnar Tolnaes, Hanna Ralph and Agnete Kamban int the film Det Sovende Hus
In Finland, the film The Northeners/The Bothnians (Pohjalaisis) was recently screened for the first time since its first run release in 1925. Directed by Jalmari Landensue, the film was photographed by a camerman that would film on several occaisions for the directors Konrad Tallroth, Erkki Karu and Teuro Puro.


Elmer Dictonius, Swedish-Finnish avaunt-guard modernist poet was in Finland during 1922, where with Haggar Olsson he founded the poetry journal Ultra.
The Introduction to American Underground Film, written by Sheldon Renan, remarks upon Vikking Eggling having continued after his renown short abstract geometrical film Diagonal Symphony, "Eggling stuck to the difficult work of animating scroll paintings assisted by a girlfriend who learned the technique especially for him...he is said, however, to have made only two more films, Parallete (1924) and Horizontale (1924) before his death in 1925." In the academic scholarly research of Astrid Soderberg, John Sundholm and Lars Gustaf Andersson in their paper The writing of a History of Swedish experimental film the authors discuss Eggling's immediate effect and his inevitable effect on film, "If Eggling's pioneering work had to be integrated into a teleological historiography the history of Swedish experimental film would begin and end at the same moment. Eggling made only one film, but a work that is usually considered to be both one of the first abstract films ever made and the only Swedish artistic effort as such in the twentieth century that had substantial international impact."
During his absence from Europe, Dadaist Hans Richter photographed avaunt-guard silent film during 1925, including Ghosts Before Breakfast, and Filmstudie. Richter is not specificlly referred to in the 1922 issue of Vanity Fair Magazine that published legend Tristan Tzara with the article Some Memoirs of Dadaism, an account of the movement which has undertaken to free French art from its classical rigidities, but as a chronicle of the Tzara's 1920 return to Paris it explores Dadaism as an international endeavor while introducing Dadaist meetings, which were to include Paul Eluard, Andre Breton (A Tempest in a Glass of Water), Louis Aragon (The Glass Syringe), and Hans Arp (Clean Wrinkles), as Dadaist Theater, and therefore Dadaist Festival. If it is seen that Modernism in art was removed from cinema, also writing in Vanity Fair was Edmund Wilson, who wrote The Aesthetic Upheaval in France, the Influence of jazz in Paris and the Americanization of French Literature and Art. "For the younger artists in France have competely thrown overboard the ideals of perfection and form, of grace and measure and tranquility, which we Americans are accustomed to think of as their most valuable possession." Although it was in 1928 that Germaine Dulac filmed The Seashell and the Clergyman, written by Antonin Artaud, her film The Smiling Mrs. Beudet brings her work back into 1923. Duchamp, whom the present author has long admired for the paintings Nude Descending a Staircase would eventually turn from the meanings imbued within the human figure is the poetic meanings, associations, it can geometricly, within plane and shadow, hold, to a more plastic ready-made interpretation of angle and curve, his having filmed Anemic Cinema in 1927, leaving spatial questions of the human form delineated by action to Jean Cocteau with The Blood of the Poet, a film of which the present author is as equally fond. Paul Rotha adds the appellation Absolute Film to Abstract Film, "The abstract film is a primary example of unity of filmic purpose." A series of abstract visual images could be brought into visual abstract patterns with abstract forms that were in movement, seen through the relations of mercurial geometric figures to each other. "The screen is a blackboard to Eggeling." Rotha refers to the films Light and Rythym (Bruguiere and Blaketon), Light and Shade, and Montparnasse (Desalv). The Flood (Louis Delluc, 1923), while being a catalyst to the experimental film of the period, is attributed with having been "derived from the Swedes" (O'Leary). The film still lauded Delluc as a proponent of the experimental film and he has been referred to as one of the first film critics, his having written about the theater, untill inveigled toward the film by his hife, actress Eve Francis. In her volume Let's Go to the Movies, Iris Barry wrote, "There is a lady called Gertrude Stein, who writes books composes entirely of words; meaning is a thing she avoids. She has her enthusiasts, who conted, quite rightly, that writers must make patterns in words and that old words must be pressed into new meanings...She is in fact the same case as the absract films as Paris, which equally scrupulously avoid meaning." Long ago, the present author was fond of her novel Ida.


Audiences in 1925 viewed Mary Pickford in the silent film Little Annie Rooney (William Beaudine, nine reels). Among the films in which flapper Clara Bow appeared in that year were Eves Lover (Roy Del Ruth, seven reels), The Scarlett West (John G. Adolphi, 9 reels) and The Keeper of the Bees (James Meehan, seven reels). During 1925, Sally of the Sawdust (ten reels) and That Royal Girl (ten reels) would both team W.C. Fields and Carol Dempster. Both films were directed by D.W. Griffith.
     
     In regard to D.W. Griffith still filming during the 1920's and Thomas Ince having been part of Triangle, it may have been that the photodramatists of the silent era in the United States had by 1925 seen a transformation. In a volume entitled Modern Photoplay Writing, published in 1922, Howard T. Dimick wrote, Thus the present era might be called the era of the detailed synopsis, which has evolved out of the era of the scenario." It concludes his thought from the previous sentence, "The modern playwright submits his story in the form of a detailed synopsis, amounting in length to a short story, casting the dramatic form, establishing the events, developing the characters, introducing the atmosphere, but minus all dialogue and moralizing not pertinent to the demands of the mechanism it is intended for, the camera." He adds that previously the scenario had been submitted to set the dramatic form and that the synopsis would not be able to veer from the dramatic line as developed, whereas in a more modern era, the synopsis had become a dramatic form of continuity. In a slightly earlier volume, Scenario Writing Today, published in 1921, Grace Lytton crawled to page 146 before adding the chapter Writing the Brief Synopsis or Outline and discusses the part played by the scenario editor, "Your brief synopsis is your card of introduction to the scenario editor...An outline of the plot is really all that is indispensible." Interestingly, she adds to the synopsis and scenario, continuity, but claims that, "The continuity will be written in the studio and if you send it one it will probably not be used" while optimisticlly claiming continuity writing, the adding of a full developed novel like descraption after the scenario and synopsis, to be a valuable thing to study in that its practice imporved scenario writing.
A director that had worked with Griffith, Jack Conway, who had himself dropped out of highschool, would direct Jack Pickford in the 1926 film Brown of Harvard with Mary Brian, Mary Alden and Francis X Bushman. Ever since, there have been various murders and questionable characters surrounding the University. Sometimes sinister, it often boil down to that as a University, it has its own unique way of whether it does or doesn't know whom is attending, and or whom isn't. Conway was also to direct the film Soulmates that year. In the United States, in 1926, Dorothy Gish would begin filming with Herbert W. Wilcox, under whose direction she made the films Nell Gwyn (1926) with Randle Ayerton and Julie Compton, London (1927), with John Manners and Elissa Landi, Tip Toes (1927) with John Manners and Mme. Pompadour (1927), written by Frances Marion and starring Antonio Moreno.
      It was in 1926 that Lillian Gish, while filming La Boheme (King Vidor, nine reels) with John Gilbert, had met Victor Sjöström. Lillian Gish was quoted by an early biographer as having said that it was on the set of La Boheme that she began working with Frances Marion on the continuity behind The Scarlet Letter. Photoplay Magazine in 1926 added a photocaption to a still from Victor Sjostrom's film, for they had trouble getting Lillian to put torrid temperature into her La Boheme scenes. Here is Lillian sending hot looks to Lars Hanson. Quoted by Liberty Magazine during 1927, Lillian Gish said, "King Vidor directed La Boheme, and one of the best cameramen in my experience, Hendrik Sartov, lent his aid...We finished it on a Saturday, and without waiting for my weeks holiday, we began The Scarlet Letter on Monday."
     The present author uploaded one google.video, as a test film, it covering only the first four minutes of the film, but it was one of those directors that become a favorite on reputation, rather than the availability of the entire catolog of film, he being James Kirkwood, who was married to silent film actress Gertrude Robinson before marrying Lilla Lee. In the United States, Fox Studios in 1927 continued their films of the Great West, pairing Tom Mix with Dorothy Dwan in The Great K and A Train Robbery (Lewis Seiler, five reels).Not only was there Houdini, the query Does Rudy Speak from Beyond- Natacha Rambova Talks of the Spirit Messages she claims to have recieved from Valentino appreared in Photoplay Magazine during 1927 from the pen of Fredrick James Smith. In 1935, the magazine International Photographer quoted cameraman Bert Longworth, ""Only by the correct usage of lights can photography be raised to the standard of art.'" The magazine continued, "His first job in motion pictures was with Universal. Among the pictures he shot the stills on were The Hunchback of Notre Dame and The Phantom of the Opera. After three years he transferred to M.G.M. Studio where he was the first man to take portraits of Greta Garbo and covered her two early hits Flesh and the Devil and The Temptress An issue of Film Fun during 1922 also pointed out the same need for lighting to be essential to film-making, "Lighting is one of the most important elements in the making of a good picture... In Sweden, they have only four months during the year in which the sun shines and during that time they work eighteen hours a day. The Swedish pictures have a peculiar luminousity which we do not seem able to obtain in this country and it is probably due to the intense brightness of the sun." Included in the article are stills from the Swedish Silent films Synovia of Sundown Hill, The Dawn of Love and A Gay Knight

Silent Film: Lost Film, Found Magazines

There were 478 silent films made in Sweden; of them only 192 still exist, although there are copies of fragments from a number of them. Added to that, countless Danish silent films produced by Ole Olsen for Nordisk Films Kompagni are "presumably lost": the Danish Film Institute notes that approximately 1600 silent short and feature films were made whereas only 250 films presently exist, Not the only webpage concerned with the preservation of Silent Film, the lost films webpage from Berlin show clips and stills from fifty silent film that it claims are "unknown or unidentified". Several features filmed by Norwegian director Peter Lykke Seet between 1917 and 1919, including De Foraeldrebse (1017), En Vinternat (1917), Lodgens datter (1918), Vor tids helte (1918) and Aersgjesten (1919) are lost films, of which there are no prints- the first film to be photographed in Norway, a drama or pre-narrative film apparently too much a travelogue belonging to the cinema of attractions to be also its first fiction film, is lost: directed by Hugo Hermansen it was one of the first films to be photographed by Swedish cinemamatographer Julius Jaenzon, it having had been titled Fisker livets farer and filmed in 1907. Only a fragment exists of the 1909 film Skilda tiders danser, directed by Walfrid Bergstrom, which by itself, considering the film and the history of film production is Sweden, may not be suprising, and yet of the four hundred and seventy eight silent films that were made in Sweden, the Swedish Film Institute has saved only one hundred and ninety four, less than half. Varminglandinganna (Ebba Lindkvist, 1910) and Champagner uset(Poul Welander, 1911) are included as two film made before Charles Magnusson had established Svenska Biograften at Rasunda that exist only in fragmentary form. Most of the four reel films made by actress Alice Joyce for Vitagraph Co in the United States from 1914 have been listedl as lost as have her five reel films made for Vitagraph from between 1915-1921. An early film starring John Gilbert and Norma Shearer, The Wolfman, directed by Edmund Mortimer in 1924, is also among the myriad of films now thought to be lost. Included among them are The Dark Angel (George Fitzmaurice, 1924) pairing Vilma Banky and Ronald Coleman, The Chinese Parrot (1927, seven reels), adapted for the screen from the pen of Earl Der Biggers by Paul Leni and starring Marian Nixon and Florence Turner and Four Devils, filmed in the United States by F. W Murnau in 1928 and starring Janet Gaynor and Nacy Drexel. Photoplay, while providing a still from the film, saw The Four Devils as the "long awaited successor" to Murnau's Sunrise and as a source of a plot summary to the film, it alludes to the film's tone, "the final shot implies a happy ending. The film will probably be cut to eliminate the over drawn scenes before it is released."
     Loves of An Actress (Rowland Lee,1928) in which Nils Asther starred with Pola Negri and Mary McAllister, as a matter of fact, is a lost film. If all that exists of The Chinese Parrot is a still photograph, the caption from Photoplay Magazine, cautioned that, alhtough mysteries were not meant to be divulged, the adaption had not kept faithful to the Earl Der Biggers plotline. Untill they are found and or restored, the films made in the United States by Benjamin Christensen continue to lurk within the shadows of the silver screen theaters, and although many of the theaters, with all their granduer that introduced the films are also gone, particularly in Boston, the detectives of film can find them in the world of Lost Film, Found Magazines with each newly discovered poster, still or full page advertisement. It need not be overlooked that the Journal of Scandinavian Cinema recently published the article Scandinavian Auteur as Chameleon: How Benjamin Christenson reinvented himself in Hollywood 1925-29, written by Arne Lunde, who looks at correspondence written by the film director. Lunde sees an influence ChristOensen, "a visionary stylist and innovator" (Lunde), made on the technique used to film The Mysterious Island (1929), although, much like Stiller's having been replaced by Fred Niblo, he had been replaced on the film by Lucien Hubbard. "Silhoetted lighting in a submarine-interior shot also shows traces of a key Christensen stylistic signature." When Photoplay reviewed the film Seven Footprints to Satan (1929), it held, "You won't get very excited about this so-called mystery story because you feel down underneath that it will turn out to be a dream. The denoument is not quite as bad as that, but almost...Thelma Todd manages to look both beautiful and freightened while Chreighton Hale makes his knees stutter." The film was photographed by Sol Polite. Forsyth Hardy chronicles, "The Danish director Benjamin Christensen, who was engaged to make Haxan (1922), an imaginative study of witchcraft which excitedly exploited the properities of the camera. These expensive films, however, failed to make impressions on the reluctant foreign audiences." He notes that it was a newly completed studio at Rasunda that had emerged with Svensk Filmindustri, a momentum having arisen as the result of the merger in 1919 between Svenska Bio and Film Scandia.

Norwegian actress Greta Nissen would star in two films directed Roaul Walsh in 1926, The Lucky Lady and The Lady of the Harem. Also that year she appeared in The Love Thief (John McDermott) with Norman Kerry and The Popular Sin (Malcom St. Clair). The Black Pirate, swashbuckler Douglas Fairbanks, brought the silent film audiences of 1926 the romance of the high seas. At Pickford Fairbanks Studio, William Beaudine had just then completed filming Mary Pickford in the film Scraps. Director Marshall Nielen by then had also had his own studio, where he was directing the film The Sky Rocket
 Sweden during 1926 Klerker directed the film Flickorna pa Solvik, starring Wanda Rothgardt. Edvin Adolphson and Mona Martenson were teamed by Erik A. Petschler in the 1926 film Brollopet i Branna, photographed by Gustav A. Gustafson. The film also stars Emmy Albiin. Sigurd Wallen in 1926 directed the film Ebberods bank, the assistant director to the film Rolf Husberg. That year Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius directed his first film, which he also scrapted, Flickorna Gyurkovics, starring Betty Balfour, Karin Swanstrom, Stina Berg and Lydia Potechina. Mordbrannerskan (1926) directed by John Lindlof, photgraphed by Gustav A. Gustafson and starring Vera Schimterlow and Brita Appelgren, was the first film in which the actress Birgit Tengroth was to appear. Screenwriter Ester Julin in 1926 wrote and directed the film Lyckobarnen, photographed by Henrik Jaenzon Although Karina Bell is now well-known for starring with Gosta Ekman in Kloven (The Clown, 1926) directed by Danish silent film director A. W. Sandberg, she had appeared before the camera under his direction is several ealier films, including The Lure of the Footlights (Den Sidste Danse, with Else Neilsen, Clarra Schronfeldt and Grethe Rygaard. Anders W. Sandberg showcased both Karina Bell and Karen Sandberg Caperson in the 1924 film House of Shadows (Moranen). To flashback to 1921 and the Danish actress Asta Nielsen, the last volume of poetry written by Vilhelm Krag, Viserg of Vers had appeared in Norway in 1919, and with it are two novels, Stenansigot, from 1918, and Verdensbarn, from 1920. Vilhem Krag then adapted his work Jomfru Trofest for the screen in a scrapt co-written by the director Rasmus Briestein. Interestingly enough, Asta Neilsen waited untill having returned to Germany to appear in the film Hedda Gabler under the direction of Franz Eckstein, but not before her having made the film Felix with Rasmus Briestein. The film was based on a novel written by Gustav Aagaard and photographed by Gunnar Nilsen-Vig, who would later go on to photograph for the directors John Brunius and Tancred Ibsen. It was a fertile time period in Scandinavia for literary adaptations that should have brought the name of the Norwegian author Sigrid Undset to the forefront with film going audiences in the United States. In 1920 Sigrid Undset published the first volume of her Kristin Lavransdatter trilogy, Krasen, followed by the volumes Husfrue and Korset, in 1921 and 1922, respectively. They had been preceded by a volume of essays, Et Silent film was almost to an end. In 1927 alone, Alice Terry appeared in the films Lonesome Ladies (Joseph Henaberry), Notorious Lady (King Baggot), also starring Lewis Stone, An Affair of the Follies (Milland Webb), written by June Mathis, and The Prince of Headwaiters, also starring Lewis Stone (John Francis Dillon, seven reels). Roman Navarro that year appeared in the film Road to Romance (seven reels). During a year that he appeared with Delores Costello on the cover of the Scandinavian periodical Filmjournalen, John Barrymore in 1927 would begin what was to quickly become the only then whispered of crescendo of the silent film period, whith the film The Beloved Rogue, a year when Warner Oland appeared under the direction of Alan Crosland and with Delores Costello in A Man Loves (ten reels), starring Barrymore, and again in the film Old San Francisco (eight reels). Photographer Oliver Marsh that year would be behind the camera lens Norma Talmadge in the film The Dove (nine reels), director Roland West adapting the play written by Willard Mack for the screen. W. S. Van Dyke that year brought Wanda Hawley to the screen in the film The Eyes of Totem, also starring Ann Cornwall. That Movie Classic Magazine included the title New Styles for Sex Appeal on its November,1933 cover featuring Greta Garbo is a fitting contrast to when the magazine had featured Garbo the silent actress on its cover during 1927 before it had changed its name, a look, from Motion Picture Classic. Alice Joyce had been the magazine's cover girl during the previous month and silent actress Betty Bronson followed during March. Included among those chosen to be covergirl for Photoplay Magazine during February of 1927 were actresses Olive Borden, Arlette Marchal, Lois Wilson, Mae Murray and Mary Brian. Actresses chosen by Screenland magazine in 1927 to grace its cover included Marie Provost, lya De Putti,Anita Parkhurst, Gilda Gray and Jetta Goudal: Each month Cal York wrote a page entitled Girl on the Cover; in regard to any personal favorite covers to Photoplay Magazine of the present author, so far there are two, both from 1926, Marion Daviesy Oand Alice Joyce. While author Deebs Taylor explains that 'it' as typified by Elinor Glyn was sex appeal, he also writes that silent film actress Clara Bow had brought the excitement of the flapper to the screen a year before her having been given the role in the 1927 film It (seven reels) during her appearance in the film Mantrap (Victor Fleming, seven reels). She appeared on the cover of Filmjournalen Magazine in 1927 and in 1929. Photoplay Magzine covers for the year 1928, featured the actresses Corinne Griffith, Marion Davies, Evelyn Brent, Billie Dove, Ruth Taylor, Ester Ralston and Eleanor Boardman. Clara Bow is a particular instance of Lost Films, Found Magazines; a highly publicized silent actress that was often written about, if not written about in within the extra-textual discourse of fan magazines as one the earliest forms of film criticism, with the expectation that modern novels that had not yet been filmed would soon be brought to the screen, Clara Bow apprearred in several films that have only been seen due to recent efforts to preserve them. Parts of silent films are missing- among the films featuring Clara Bow either still incomplete, but restored, or restored in their entirety are Down to the Sea in Ships (1922), Maytime (Gasnier, 1923), Poisoned Paradise (Gasnier, 1924), Black Oxen (Frank Lloyd, 1924) and the 1925 film My Lady of Whims. Without the films, all that is left are magazine advertisements where the screen star cordially invites our consumership, not only our consumership as spectators for the advertised product, but as spectators for the fantasies of 'a now by gone era', the look of the female directed to a time only preserved as being seldom seen on the silent silver screen, once captured by the moving camera and now guessed at through the pages of magazines. 1928 saw actress Loretta Young as she appeared in her first two films with silent film actress Julanne Johnston, Marshall Neilan having directed both actresses in Her Wild Oat (1927, seven reels), with Colleen Moore and Martha Mattox and Joseph Boyle having directed both actresses in The Whip Woman (1928, six reels), with Estelle Taylor, Lowell Sherman and Hedda Hopper. She had been acting under the name Gretchen, which was changed at the suggestion of Mervyn Leroy, and, according to the webpage of the estate of Loretta Young, at the suggestion of Colleen Moore. John Gilbert that year made the films The Show (Tod Browning, seven reels), Twelve Miles Out (Jack Conway, eight reels). John Gilbert also appeared that year with Jeanne Eagles in the film Man, Woman and Sin (seven reels), which Photoplay reviewed as being of interest because the actresses and actor were paired together but concluded, "Miss Garbo needn't worry over Miss Eagles.", it thinking that the film and the part played by the actress was tailored in order to substitute for the Silent Film actress Greta Garbo "Director-and author-Monta Bell knows his city room. After that the film disintegrates into cheap melodrama." The following year John Gilbert appeared in Four Walls, made with him by director William Nigh, (eight reels), and actress Vera Gordon. Actress Emily Fitzroy, who appeared with John Gilbert and Greta Garbo in the 1927 film Love, had that year appeared in the films Married Alive (Emmett Flynn, five reels), with Margaret Livingston and Gertrude Claire, Orchids and Ermine (Alfred Santell, seven reels) with Colleen Moore, Hedda Hopper and Alma Bennet, One Increasing Purpose (Harry Beaumont, eight reels), with Lila Lee, Jane Novak and May Allison, and Once and Forever (Phil Stone, six reels), with Patsy Ruth Miller and Adele Watson.
 In Sweden, Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius continued directing with Youth (Ungdom), starring Ivan Hedqvist, Marta Hallden and Brita Appelgren. Erik A Petschler in 1927 directed Hin och smalanningen, photographed by Gustav A Gustafson and starring Birgit Tengroth, Ingrid Forsberg, Greta Anjou, Jenny-Tschernichin-Larsson, Helga Brofeldt, Emy Bergstrom and Emy Albiin. Gustaf Edgren in 1927 directed The Ghost Baron (Spokbaronen) starring Karin Swanström and photographed by Adrian Bjurman, which was followed by Black Rudolf (Svarte Rudolf, 1928) starring Inga Tiblad and Fridolf Rhudin, both films having been written by Sölve Cederstrand. The assistant director to the film Black Rudolf had been Gunnar Skogland, it having been the first film in which the actress Katie Rolfsen was to appear.


Photoplay reviewed The Enemy in 1929, "This picture offers the most stirring anti-war propaganda wver filmed, yet maintains a heart interest which will thrill you every moment...Lillian Gish ceases to be the ethereal goddess. She is an everyday woman who sacrifices her man, her child and finally her honor, for the necessity rather than glory of battle."

During 1929, Swedish author Harry Martinsson published his first volume of poetry, The Ghost Ship (Skokskepp), it followed in 1933 by the novel Cape Farewell (Kap Farval). Written by Solve Cederstrand and photographed by Hugo Edlund, Konstgjorda Svensson (1929) ,with Brita Appelgren, Ruth Weijden, Rolf Husberg and Weyeler Hildebrand, was directed by Gustaf Edgren. Also appearing in the film were Karin Gillberg and Sven Gustasfsson, the brother of Greta Garbo. Photoplay in 1929 featured a photo of the couple, its caption reading, "It's in the old Garbo blood, for Greta's brother is an actor too!! His name is Sven and he is shown rocking the boat in a scene from "The Robot", a new Swedish film. The young lady is Miss Karin Gillberg, another argument for better ship service to Scandinavia."
     In 1929 Edvin Adolphson directed his first film, it having been the first film made in Sweden to include sound, The Dream Waltz (Sag det i toner), co-directed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Jenny Hasselquist and Eric Malmberg.

On that return to Sweden, Photoplay Magazine recorded, "Contentment meant more to Lars than money. He writes that he is happier that he has ever been in the Royal Dramatic Theater in Stockholm.

Before co-starring with Garbo, in 1928 alone, Nils Asther had appeared in the films The Cardboard Lover (eight reels), The Cossacks (George Hill, ten reels) with John Gilbert, Dream of Love (Fred Niblo, six reels) photographed by William Daniels and Oliver Marsh and starring Warner Oland, Adrienne Lecouvrer, and The Blue Danube (Paul Sloane, seven reels) with Seena Owen. Danish Silent Film director Robert Dinesen would film his last two films in Germany, both lensed by the photographer George Bruckbauer, Der Weg durch die Nacht (1929) having starred Kathe von Nagy and Margarethe Schon, and Ariane im Hoppegarten (1928), having starred Maria Jacobini. Nordisk film at that time made only one film, The Joker (Jokeren, directed by George Jacoby. It had made more than 350, although short, films during the year 1914. Among the silent films mentioned as having been notable by Eisenstien, author and Silent Film Director, were Six Girls Behind Monastery Walls (Hans Beherndt, 1927), The Awakening of a Woman (Fred Sauer, 1927) and The Green Manuela (1923, E.A. Dupont). It literally more important that he was aware of The Portrait of Dorian Gray (Vsevolod Meyerhold,1915) and Yakov Protazonaov's Father Sergius (1918). His first film was The Wise Man, which he directed in 1923. Author Raymond Spottiswoode adds the silent film of Russian director Alexander Room to noteworthy screen essays, particularly Bed and Sofa (1927) and The Ghost that Never Returns (1929), his remarking that the camera in a revolt against stage technique selected "guestures and facial expressions which a theater audience might have overlooked," and it can be asked if during complicated setups and successive shots whether the camera of silent pioneer D.W. Griffith intentionally or unintentionally does. In his volume, "Pictureback" rather, The Silent Cinema, author Liam O'Leary adds the films The Woman of Ryazan (Olga Preobrazhenskia, 1927) and Two Days (Georgi Stabovi, 1927) to "individual films" that were among those that were filmed in Russia. Before appearing on the screen under the direction of Rouben Mamoulian, King Vidor and E. A Dupont, actress Anna Sten during 1927 was seen in silent film by Russian audiences in The Girl With the Hatbox (Devuska S Korobki, Boris Barnet), Agent Provocatuer (1927), and during 1928 in Lash of the Czar (The White Eagle,Byeli Orel,Yakov Protaznov). Paul Rotha mentions the film New Babylon (1929), filmed by G. Kozintsev and A. Trauberg as having been a continuation of Eisenstien's theory and principles of cuttinng. The film Picture of Dorian Gray, seen by Eisenstien, has been listed as a now lost film.That Lars von Trier has had one of his works referred to as a Dogumentary is a silent nod to not only Vilgot Sjoman, but to silent film poet Dziga vertov (Man with a Movie Camera, 1929) and the constructivist principle of filming the life-fact and shooting life unawares. Vladimir Petric, in his book Constructivism in Film surveys the films of Vertov and his affinity to poetry, that explaining where the editing of his film might differ from the often handheld edting of the new, and yet slowly fading, avant-guard Dogme, that "montage could create life facts" following "the constructivist principle of an ideational justaposition of different materials to produce a more meaningful structural whole" and "the constructivist principle that a film is unified by the cinematic integration of its numerous components, each aspect acquiring meaning through its integration with the other elements and their relation to the photographed events." On the surface, or when looked at quickly, this would seem to bring about a narrative cinema, and at times it may. Interestingly, as Dogme was beginning to dissipate as a movement, one director advised holding the camera steady, thereby avoiding unnecessary, or obtrusive movement, irregardless of its being handheld. If Spottiswoode neglects to mention that Alexander Room was that year the director of Russia's first sound film, it had only been a documentary. To move the view from modern textbooks to then contemporary periodicals, the editors of Experimental Cinema, published between 1930-1934 at first seem to relegate art film and montage more to an intriguing subculture than a counter-movement with their Review of Arnheim's Film and the nod to the short films of Lewis Jacobs, Mobile Composition and Commercial Melody while staying avaunt-guard enough to introduce the early films of the sound era as being foreign- and yet the essay on Arnheim collapses after delegating his aesthetics as being given from an ivory tower and adds little worthwhile about how film is cut, with "The contemporary 'plastic criticism of painting divorced from any social or class forces has been prevalent throughout the bourgeois world". They include a publication of New Montage Concepts by V.S. Pudovkin. Hovering over the journal seems the hinting that there could be later a mention of the work of Carl Th. Dreyer while trying to align themselves with typical literary journals such as Cinema Quarterly, The Hound and the Horn and Film Art. In an essay on "Formal Cinema", Kirk Bond asked if there could not be, after the "functionalism" of Eggeling, more of a recognition of "the two-dimensional, monochrome character of the screen" where there is the "observed motion of light and shade on a limited plane surface". As the present author was born in New England, of particular interest is the noting of a film by Henwar Rodakiewicz and the claim that he had extracted graves stones in an old church cemetary from their social or thematic context, making their meaning, as shapes and geometric figure, more abstract than personally significant to the viewer.
As the silent era was coming to a close, Douglas Fairbanks would appear in the film The Iron Mask, directed by Silent Film Director Allan Dwan. Alfred Hitchcock in 1928 would direct one of his only Silent Films, The Farmer's Wife. John Ford, who's first sound film The Black Watch appeared on theater screens a year later in 1929, had by then directed several silent films, including The Girl in No. 29 (1920), Little Miss Smiles (1922), Thank You (1925) and Mother Machree (1928).
Directing A Modern Hero in the United States with cameraman William Rees in 1934, G. W. Pabst, the director of Greta Garbo's second feature film, had entered into the directing of sound film with the films Westernfront 1918 (1930), Die Greigroschen Oper (1931) and Kameradschaft (1932). His actress, Louise Brooks, whom in 1929 he had directed in the films Pandora's Box and Diary of a Lost Girl (Das Tagebuch einer verbrenen), was during that same year introduced to the sound film by being paired with William Powell in The Canary Murder Case. While A Cottage On Dartmoor (Anthony Asquith) includes a dialog intertitle written by the director reading,"Will you come with me to a talkie tonight?".
Vampyre, Danish director Carl Th. Dreyer's use of the vampire, in the form of Jullian West, as thematic context, was filmed almost silently, with sound added, in Germany in 1932. The film was based the plotline of ,among other vampire tales, In a Glass Darkly, written by Sheridan Le Fanu. Dreyer's choice of cameraman was Rudolph Matte. Film critic and author David Bordwell, on his webpage Observations on Film Art, recently provided a link to the web written by the Danish Film Insitute on the film of Carl Th Dreyer, itt covering the directors brilliant silent film career as well as his longevity into the sound era. While Danish film director Benjamin Christensen had by 1913 had begun directing with his first film, Sealed Orders (Det hemmelinghstulde X), a melodrama that, irregardless of its belonging to or being typical of the genre of the early Danish spy film, had included the use of montage in his editing, Carl Th. Dreyer had in fact begun rather as a writer, contributing the screenplay to the film The Brewer's Daughter (Byggerens datter, 1912), directed by Rasmus Ottesen and starring Emmanuel Gregers. He was to write every screenplay that he was to direct. Of the film Leaves in Satan's Book (1919), Forsyth Hardy wrote, "In the selection of his theme we see both the influence of Griffith and the preoccupation with the forces of good and evil which has been characteristic of all Dreyer's films."  The Film Daily in the United States in 1930 ran, straitforwardly, "Sound Film Production is Started in Norway...The first ambitious effort in the new medium will be an adaptation of Einar Mikkelsen's novel "John Dale". it will be filmed in Alaska under the direction of George's Schneevoight and will have Mona Martenson as it's star." After her having appeared with Edvin Adolphson in the film Brollopet i Branna (1927), directed by Erik Petschler, Mona Martenson in Norway starred with Einar Tveito in People of the Tundra (Viddenesfolk) (1928) written and directed by Ragnar Westfelt for Lunde-film, in Germany starred with Aud Egede Nissen in the film Die Frau in Talar, in Norway starred in the film Laila (1929) directed by George Schneevoigt for Lunde-film from a scrapt adapted from a novel by Jens Anders Friis, and in Denmark starred in the film Eskimo (1930), also directed by George Schneevoight- it had not only been Greta Garbo and Victor Sjöström that had made the transition from silent film to sound. As did Edvin Adolphson, who directed the film When Roses Bloom (Na Rosarna sla ut) in 1930, starring Sven Garbo. Greta Garbo had visited her brother, Sven Gustaffson while in Stockholm. The film was co-scrapted by Gosta Stevens and also stars Swedish actresses Karin Swanstrom, Margita Afren, and Anna-lisa baude. Marie Hansen was given her first appearance on screen with the film. The Private Life of Greta Garbo, published in Photoplay during 1930, is, much like the biography of Greta Garbo written by Norman Zierold, an enjoyable, if not charming, read, it including a brief mention of Sven Garbo, "At one time Miss Garbo's brother, Sven, who has been quite successful abroad both on stage and screen, wanted to come to Hollywood. He even sent tests of himself to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer."

John W. Brunius directed two films during 1930, The Doctor's Secret (Docktorns Hemlighet) and The Two of Us (Vi Tva), in which Edvin Adolphson appeared as an actor with Margit Manstad, Marta Ekstrom and Anna-Lisa Froberg, the film having been the first in which the actress was to appear. Swedish cinematographer Harald Berglund in 1930 began filming under the direction of Ragnar Ring on the film Lyckobreven.

Danish film director George Schneevoigt continued the beginning of early Danish sound film the following year with the film Pastor of Vejlby (Praesten i Vejlby). The first Norwegian sound film, The Big Chirstening (Den store Barnedapen) was also the first film directed by Tancred Ibsen. He would begin worj in Swedish film co-scrapting and then co-scrapting and co-directing Vi som gar koksvagen (1932) and its counterpart Vi som gar kjokken veinen (1933) with Gustaf Molander and his photographer Ake Dahlqvist. Made for A/S Oslo Talefilm, it is an adaptation of a novel published two years earlier by Sigrid Boo. Tancred Ibsen would rejoin Victor Sjöström in Sweden, directing him in the 1934 film Synnove Solbakken. Among the photographers that began the era of early sound film in Sweden was Martin Bodin. It is almost endering that Pauline Brunius appeared as an actress in front of his camera under the direction of Gustaf Edgren in the 1934 film Karl Fredrick regerar while Brunius was directing what would be his last film, False Greta.

Suomi-Filmi of Finland produced its first sound film in 1929, The Supreme Victory (Korkein voitto), directed by Carl von Hartmann. The photography was found to be too expensive and the making of sound films was postponed while silent films were continued to be made. Finnish author and film director Jorn Donner was later to write, 'I have a difference of opinion from that of those historians who proclaim the eternal value of a mass of pictures from the teens and twenties. I reject the theoreticians, such as Rudolf Arnheim, who characterize talking pictures as a corruption.' Where Jorn Donner shows an appreciation of film is in his viewing it as a literature, his seeing the silent film as a point of departure within the freedom, or sensitivity, of the artist, Donner's particular appreciation of film seemingly that of an appreciation of the film having an audience that recieves what the film conveys thematiclly and a spectator that not only is positioned in a relationship to the subject, but that is connected to the author of the work by the characters and what they symbolize; Donner seemingly views filmmaking as a readership, one that within film history can only become more modern. The spectatorial address of the silent film was one that used the intertitle, scene construction often based on whether explanatory titles were being used to carry the narrative and establish the expostition, or whether the amount of dialouge needed by the scene could be accomodated by the use of dialougue intertitles: the advent of sound had brought about the transition from photoplay, as a literature, to screenplay.
Two actors that have now become legendary for their having worked together with Sjöström in his film The Wind (eight reels), silent film actress Lillian Gish and Montague Love, were teamed together for the early sound film His Double Life, under the direction of Arthur Hopkins. Two actors that were paired together after the beginning of the use of sound in film were Nils Asther and Fay Wray, their appearing in Madame Spy, directed by Karl Fruend in 1934.
Picture Play Magazine in 1930 announced, "Young, lovely, successful Vilma Banky has decided to abandon her career on the screen and find contentment in private life. She doesn't say that she prefers to be "just a wife, because to her the change entails no comedown, no sacrifice." The magazine felt that she was retiring at "the height of her beauty and fame."
Photoplay in 1930 noted, "At the end of every picture Greta Garbo gives an entire day to new portraits. She takes it seriously...She will be photographed on in the only in the clothes she wears in her pictures...One Garbo belongs to the public, the other is a private individual. To keep in the sustained mood she likes to have sad music played on the phonograph. To end the silent era two months before Greta Garbo's last silent film, The Kiss (Jacques Feyder), Clarence Sinclair Bull became her gallery photographer. Author Mark A. Viera writes, 'She liked him because, like Clarence Brown, he spoke softly, if at all.' When Geocites closed, the still photographs scanned from the orginal negatives that Mr. Vieira sent via yahoo e-mail to the present author, and the two letters he wrote were transferred to my google blog. They include a still photograph of Greta Garbo in The Kiss left over from his editorial decision. Apparently he owned more photographs than he needed to publish and sent the unused ones to me. Please accept that I may have been the author to introduce the photos to a Swedish readership, years after they were unearthed. As the reader will notice, the photo used on the cover of Mr. Vieira's was sent to without the title Cinematic Legacy lettering. One published photograph taken by Clarence S. Bull found by the present author was in an issue of International Photographer from 1931, a portrait of camerman John W. Boyle, who had only just then returned from Scandinavia filming a "multi-color film" in Denmark and who would make Sweden, Land of the Viking, a travel newsreel shot on color film stock. Before his having met Greta Garbo, the photography of Clarence Sinclair Bull had been published in periodicals under the name Clarence S. Bull. During 1922, Picture-Play magazine ran his portraits of Helen Chadwick and Claire Windsor; in 1923 his portraits of Mae Busch and Mabel Ballin.  His portrait of Colleen Moore had appeared in Screenland Magazine in 1922.


 

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Not all coffins contain merely a signet ring, pieces of splintered wooden stakes and strewn flowers from mouldy garlic plants, nor are theaters the only dark places where we search for worlds of the public sphere that support the fantasies of the private.
Although only its director, Leslie H. Hiscott, may know the whereabouts of The Missing Rembrant, die hard fans of Arthur Wotner and Ian Fleming can only wonder. The director is not only known to fans of Sherlock Holmes but is also listed as the director of The Murder of Roger Ackroyd, under the title Alibi, and of the film Black Coffee.;And yet there are several films that are now lost that appeared not only on the theater marquee, but in bookstores; Grosset and Dunlap having published Photoplay Editions of films rewritten as novels, in including intertextual photos, the illustrated photoplay edition of the novel London After Midnight, written by Marie Coolidge Rask, was published in 1928. Just as lost films have left behind their accompanying movie posters, as well as full page magazine advertisements that serve very much like movie posters when deciding not if we should see the film but what the film was like when first seen, each hardcover copy of an film adaptation into novel included a dustjacket, art that gives information about missing films: within there being Lost Films, Found Magazines.


Scott Lord-Silent Film

      




     
     Universal Weekly during 1922 advertised Lon Chaney starring in "The Trap", still regonizing Chaney as more of a character actor rather than a genre superstar- the publication pulled audiences into theaters with the dra of Herbert Rawlinson supported by Virginia Vali in "The Black Box", a "smashing melodrama of mystery, romance and thrills from the famous novel by Louis Joseph Vance. Directed by Stuart Paton." The publication proclaimed the appeal of the film, "The 'crook' play, with lots of mystery and thrills; it's just what the public wants now." Notably, in Denmark, where the detective genre had flourished ten years earlier, post-war production had dwindled to where it had been superseded by exporting screen adaptations of the novels of Charles Dickens. Tod Browning was directing Priscilla Dean in the Universal film "Under Two Flags", "The Greatest Romantic Spectacular of All Time."
     During 1923, Universal Weekly, a magazine published by Universal Jewel and Universal-Super Jewel films, featured advertisements for two of the reigning movie queens at Universal, Priscilla Dean, who was appearing in Drifting, and Virginia Valli, appearing on screen in A Lady of Quality. It claimed that "millions will read this advertising in The Saturday Evening Post." and included outlines for particular Exploitation Campaigns. The Motion Picture News Booking Guide of 1924 provided a brief synopsis of the film "Drifting", "Melodrama with a Chinese locale dealing with the dope game and efforts of those against it to kill it and those in it to get away with the big stakes."

     The six reel  film "Wicked Darling", directed by Tod Browning and starring Priscilla Dean and Lon Chaney, is famous for not being a lost film- apparently there was one acceptable print of the film held by Pthe Film Musuem in the Netherlands. It is a crime drama and in fact the first film on which Chaney and Browning collaborated. Before making the film, Dean had been touted by the studio as the "Wonder of the Year", her having appeared in "The Wildcat of Paris" and "A Silk-Lined Burgler".

     " 'To be wicked,' said Lon Chaney, in a recent interview, 'is to my mind one of the most difficult things for an actor to undertake. And at the same time it is one of the most infinitely interesting and fascinating sides of the actor's art'." Chaney was quoted by The Moving Picture World during the first run publicity campaign for the film "Outside the Law"  One writer has noted that director Tod Browning uses almost no camera movement during the filming of the 1921 film "Outside the Law". The technique of the film is typified by its cross-cutting. Lucien Hubbard was quoted by Motion Picture News as having contributed as a writer on the continuity of "Outside the Law" and as a scenario editor, a firm believer in "the superiority for picture purposes of the story written for the screen, not the play or novel". Hubbard explained, "Given equal thought and preparation it is evident that a story written expressly for the pictures will be more effective than one designed for other medium, and then trimmed and altered to fit. in 'Outside the Law' we had this advantage, for so experienced a director is Browning thinks I terms of pictures. There was no excess verbiage to dispose of, no flowing descraption of mental processes that could not be translated to the screen." What Hubbard might be alluding to is the exigencies of the Photoplay and female spectatorship, perhaps, a putting the female into the scene, or putting the female into the plot, tailored by the needs of the director as the narrative voice behind the lens. Motion PIcture World also saw the screenplay as an original endeavor, "When Tod Browning wrote 'Outside the Law' for Priscilla Dean, he not only provided this popular Universal star with the best role of her career, but created a character especially for Lon Chaney, than whom there's no more accomplished actor on the screen. The director knows better than any other writer the dramatic heights which Chaney can scale and he created a role that permits him to sound the depths of deviltry and to excessive his dramatic skill to the utmost." The film spotlights Lon Chaney with actress Priscilla Dean and her real life husband, Wheeler Oakman. And yet if it seems as though Tod Browning and Lon Chaney would tire of the crime drama and eventually leave actress Priscilla Dean behind to establish a genre of horror film, Prsicilla Dean very quickly had retained top billing at Universal during 1921 with two films made for director Stuart Paton, "Reputation" and "Conflict", both establishing her as a dramatic leading lady.

     Motion Picture News in 1923 reported that, "Wallace Worsley, the director, aided by Perley, Poore Sherman and E.T. Lowe Jr, the adapters, as well as by Chaney, have taken extraordinary measures to assure that every character of the fifteenth century classic will be faithfully reproduced in the screen version of Hugo's book" The announcement was accompanied by the title, "Gladys Brockwell Added to 'Hunchback' Cast", the actress chosen to support the already signed Lon Chaney. Exhibitor's Herald provided eight stills from "The Hunchback of Notre Dame" in a two page layout during 1923, "The locale is Paris of 1482 and Notre Dame Cathedral is reproduced as it appeared at that time...That interiors were not neglected in the interest of exterior elaborateness is shown in another photograph on the opposite page." The magazine noted that over 4,000 actors were employed during the filming.
     Exhibitor's Herald reviewed "The Hunchback of Notre Dame" during 1923. "The outstanding figure of the play is the hunchback- Lon Chaney. Chaney appears in a most extraordinary make up and the first impression is that of grotesqueness, and at that moment of first appearance, it hardly seems possible that the characterization can ever become real and vital, but before many scenes are passed, Chaney becomes convincing in a remarkable degree. It seems to us that Chaney in this production has just about touched the high mark of character acting in pictures because he not only registers effectively the called for touches of the role, but in addition, he puts over from behind his hideous mask a make up a spiritual phase of the character that unquestionably has been the chief feature in making the Victor Hugo story immortal."
    The criteria as to whether a film is lost or not, whether only an incomplete version exists, is whether it's general release print survives. The original release print of "The Hunchback of Notre Dame" was 12 reels with 10 reels released later to theaters. Therefore although there were 12 reels of its Photoplay filmed, the film is considered to survive today in its complete form with the fragment of two reels missing as they were not seen by movie goers during its first run, now treated as deleted scenes.





      During the summer of 1925, Lon Chaney was on the magazine's cover for the film The Phantom of the Opera. The Film Daily of 1925 reported of the film's enigmatic, or perhaps the film's eerie, star, The question may arise whether women will like the appearance of Chaney as the Phantom. he is first shown with a a mask, but when the mask is pulled away the distorted features may appear unpleasant to some, but at that he gives a great performance and again demonstrates that his is a master of make-up." The magazine, while describing the type of story as a "dramatic mystery" and a "thrilling mystery story", not only gave credit to the film's director, but noted the supplemental work of Edward Sedgewick. The magazine was consistent with the advertisements run by the studio itself as it recommended a Box Office Angle for the film, "Should get a lot of money in the larger houses particularly."  Motion Picture Magazine of 1925 promised that the spectatorship of audience reception would be an exchange of commodification, "You will have all the thrills you hope for: murders are committed, people are drowned and terror reigns supreme. When you go see 'The Phantom of Opera' wear plenty of bandoline, or whatever it is that keeps hair from standing on end."
     It is suprising to see, but Exhibitor's Trade Review ran sandwiched between its table of contents and its editorial pages an anomaly- a magazine advertisement disguised as an article, every look of the page having the appearance of a review written by the magazine and every word pointing to it having been written by Universal Studios. The clue on the bottom of the page reads, "Universal Is Filming A Photodrama Which is Confidently Expected to Equal the Famous Hunchback in Sensational Glamour." The advertisement introduces Mary Philbin as being cast in the film, "The film depicts many tense episodes and she has proven herself equal to the task of registering the entire gamut of human emotion before the camera."  Looking through other issues of the magazine it would seem that this type of advertisement-review can now only be called a "Courtesy Advtertisement", and their might have been plenty of reason why the magazine would substitute a full page of its own due to editorial considerations and the lurid grotesque make up of Lon Chaney and still take it upon itself to promote the film to remain in a favorable light with its patrons, thereby maintaining the integrity of its look and feel with the artwork used within its pages.



Importantly, scholar Linda Williams, although taking the premise that with Phantom of the Opera, the horror film could be seen as a pre-established albeit mostly new genre, compares the "Woman's Look of Horror" to the male voyer subject to reiterate the relationship between the female spectator and the female protagonist and the desire of spectator for protagonist. Williams notes that during the Phantom of the Opera, Christine, the student of the Svengali-like Phantom, only sees his masked face after he has been shown to the audience; she is shown in a two-shot with the Phantom, coyly, demurely from behind him. Again, during the abrupt, unmasking scene, they are shown in two-shot and she is behind him as the mask is removed, the viewer therefore seeing the Phantom's real face before she- we are left with the desire to see the reaction of the female protagonist and we desire, as interpellated subject, to experience the emotion in the silent actresses' face.

     The author Ian Conrich sees the film made in the United States by Universal Studios between 1923-1928 as being horror-spectacular, full legnth films that, along with the films of Douglas Fairbanks, tried to near the lI'm arge-scale production standard of Griffith. Silent film pioneer D. W. Griffith had already by 1922 promised audiences entering the dark of the silver-nitrate screen's public spherPe of reception One Exciting Night, a film purportedly built more for atmosphere and devices that would gradually become standard in mystery film than for plot twists and complications, its emphasis having been on trap doors that lead to hidden passageways known only to ghostlike persons. After starring in the film, Henry Hull was interviewed by Picture Play magazine and said, "But on the screen without my voice and without artificial disguise, what would I be. i wondered. 'But we don't photograph the face,' Mr Griffith assured me, 'we photograph the thought, the soul.'" Carol Dempster, who appears in the film was known to audiences as having been paired with John Barrymore in the film Sherlock Holmes By 1923 Silent Film director Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau had already made The Haunted Castle and Nosferatu, his continuing with Phantom and Driven from Home. The former cast Lil Dagover with Frieda Richard, and actress who filmed under the direction of several, in not numerous, silent filmmakers and appeared in Robert Dinesen's film Claire (Die Geschichte eines jugen madchens, 1924). Whether or not pertinent to every Nosferatu-Vampyr hollywood tale, if the idea of a precise, fully descraptive shootingscrapt intiated by silent film director Thomas Ince can be rediscovered from the photoplay, paricularly if it can be reconcieved passed any nouveau roman or nouvelle vague notion of film poetry only as an avaunt guarde act, it is interesting, without feeling that Griffith worked entirely without a scrapt or that Ince wrote novels in the form of picture plays, that author Kenneth Macgowan associates Murnau with his camerman Karl Fruend and scraptwriter Carl Mayer in a way that makes theirs a reinterpretation of the ideas of keeping a shootingscrapt and of adding within it cameramovements that popularized the use of cameramobiltiy. "Mayer's scrapts were detailed. They indicated every shot...In order to visualize action nad movements as he wrote, he used a camera viewfinder, a device that shows what ones shot will cover." From these scrapt camera instructions Freund added subjectivity, reinterpreting the shootingscrapt with point of view. Still, it is certainly evident that by 1927, the horror film and art film Pwould merge in eerie, atmospheric silent film essay on shadowplay and the black and white tones of mood and suspense, Paul Leni's The Cat and the Canary. To add to the mystery of silent film director Rubert Julian, the sound remake of the film The Cat and The Canary entitled The Cat Creeps (1930) is lost. Stills from the film show actress Helen Twelvetrees in the lead role. From a screenplay adapted from the novel by the Universal/Jewel scrapt department, director Rupert Julian in 1925 would throw swirling silver shadows across the screen waiting untill Mary Philbin would remove the mask of the Phantom of the Opera. The Mystery of the Yellow Room, written by Gaston Leroux had been filmed earlier, in 1919, with Joseph von Sterberg as its assistant director, the film written and directed by Emile Chautard. Behind the mask and costumed in red during the tinted sequences, silent film actor Lon Chaney not only filmed on the famous Phantom of the Opera backlot, but he also appered in front of the camera at MGM, where he that year starred with Gertrude Olmsted in The Monster (Roland West, seven reels) and with Mae Busch in the silent film The Unholy Three (Tod Browning, seven reels). Mary Philbin later appeared in the 1928 silent Drums of Love (D. W. Griffith, nine reels) and in the 1929 silent The Last Performance (Paul Frejos, seven reels). Before becoming known to audiences as the consulting detective Sherlock Holmes, Clive Brook would appear with Jetta Goudal.
After running advertisements for the film Phantom of the Opera, The Reel Journal, a sister publication to New England Film News, announced that the two would be paired together at DeMille studios under the direction of Rupert Julian during 1926 in the film Three Faces East, whereas Universal was to be filming The Radio Detective, "a mystery story by Arthur B. Reeve, as a chapter-play" Upon being invited to follow a story that began in Victorian-Edwardian London, 1925 Silent Film audiences were also that year thrilled by the writings of Arthur Conan Doyle as they were led by Challenger on an expedition into The Lost World through the magic lantern silent film. In 1925, Bela Lugosi had appeared on theater marquees starring in the film The Midnight Girl (Wilfred Noy, seven reels), with Lila Lee and Garreth Hughes. Lila Lee would appear under the direction of Scott Pembroke in the film The Black Pearl (1928,six years). Although two years earlier, he had appeared in the film Silent Command (J. Gordon Edwards, eight reels), it may be noted that Bela Lugosi appeared of the screen under the direction of F. W. Murnau while in front of the lens of Karl Fruend in the silent film Dr. Jeckell and Mr.Hyde/The Head of Janus (Der Januskopf, 1920), filmed in Germany.
      Universal had entered the film Dark Stairways (Robert F. Hill) with the actress Ruth Dwyer into the filming of mystery in 1924. Photoplay in 1929 reviewed The Thirteenth Hour, an MGM entry, "Another mystery yarn wI'm ith secret panels, trapdoors, underground passages and a series of other mysterious what-nots", only to later add Paramount's Something Always Happens, "It's dangerous business, girls, to pray to for something to "happen". You might get such a surprise as Esther Ralston gets when she finds herself in this haunted house of musty stains, sliding panels, walking chairs, ect." Not only is it uncertain from where magician Harry Houdini screened silent film in 1927, but the name of his director is shrouded in a cranking up of the kem light, he being listed as producer of his silent film. When he appearred in the the film The Grim Game (1919), serial "cliffhangers", adventure films much like the Danish melodramas and silent Sherlock Holmes, were still being made, the title of his being The Master of Mystery. He continued with the silent film Terror Island (1920), The Soul of Bronze (1921), The Man From Beyond (1922) and Halldane of the Secret Service (1923). Not only was there Houdini, the query Does Rudy Speak from Beyond- Natacha Rambova Talks of the Spirit Messages she claims to have recieved from Valentino appreared in Photoplay Magazine during 1927 from the pen of Fredrick James Smith.

     Lon Chaney participated in the art form of silent film as well as establishing the genre of the American horror film, a genre which was still being sold to audiences during the silent era and one that still needed to fully originate in the consumership of the spectator and be rediscovered from the magician's trunk of George Melies. Several of Chaney's films that are not centered upon characters within horror melodrama include characterizations, despite the use of make up, that involve the classical narrative indicative to Photoplay as an art form, one often mentioned by Bordwell and Thompson.


     During 1922 Lon Chaney was paired with actress Hope Hampton to appear in the film Light of Faith, originally titled The Light in the Dark. it's director was Clarence Brown who would soon thereafter become the originator of the "pull-back shot". After deigning the plot to be trite, it concerning a young, inexperienced woman falling in love with a millionaire, Film Daily magazine saw a remarkable opportunity for exhibitor's to exploit the film on the merit of its color tinted sequences symbolically woven into the plot. "The color work insistently demands attention. The story of the search for the Holy Grail from Tennyson's poem is done masterfully. Not only are the colors soft, without fringe, and unusually attractive...." The magazine praised the photography as "good-color process probably best ever shown in this country" while it pointed out the excellent climbing done as a screen thrill by either Chaney or s stunt double, it claiming it didn't know which, during an escape scene. "while you can use the name of the star to advantage and easily promise the best picture she has ever made, you can also promise your people the finest colored photography ever shown in this country....Get some stills of the colored reel and use them around the lobby. If they are in color, so much the better. They will be excellent as an attraction....Also use stills of the star. She looks very beautiful in one. The title hardly lends itself to catch lines, but you can talk about Faith being the Light in the Dark and perhaps work it in. Also, use the name of Lon Chaney."
    "The Man of a Thousand Faces" had already been placed underneath the name of Lon Chaney by 1922. The reference to his make up kit, and his versitility at pantomine, was featured in studio advertisements for the film "The Trap" placed by the publicity department in Universal Weekly. The film was directed by Robert Thornby and photographed by Virgil Miller. Along with a synopses of the plot, Motion Picture News Booking guide provided a brief descraption of the film, "French-Canadian melodrama carrying primitive action and romance."
     1922 saw two full page advertisements in Exibitor's Herald, seriously presented in typeface for the thoughtful investor for the film "Shadows" directed by Tom Forman and starring Lon Chaney, "Confidently proclaimed the greatest story told to motion pictures" I lent the advice that "Shadows wasadaptated as a title because it has mystery, meaning and merit as a box office aid. it has the advantage of being a one-word title and lends itself admirably to advertising and exploitation."



Silent Film: Lost Film, Found Magazines

     Greta Garbo had been slated to film "The Ordeal" with Lon Chaney as his co-star under the direction of Marcel de Sarno; it is not a lost film of which there are no surviving copies, it was left unmade and is an unrealized film scrapt, an abandoned photoplay.Lon Chaney is quoted as having said, "I told Garbo that mystery served me well and it would do as much for her."  The advertisements published in advance by M.G.M during 1926 announced the film as an adaptation of a novel by Dale Collons, Motion Picture News having described the upcoming film as a "sea story" and having announced that Ray Doyld, formerly a newspaper reporter, was preparing the scenario. "Garbo in Support of Lon Chanet in 'The Ordeal' announced Greta Garbo as the "featured feminine player opposite Chaney. A similar report appeared in Moving Picture World that year.  Film Daily during 1927 reported that John Griffith Wray had been signed to direct Lon Chaney in "The Ordeal", it neglecting to mention entirely Chaney having been previously signed to the film or Marcel deal Sarno having been dismissed as its director.
     "Towar of Lies" in which Lon Chaney starred under the direction of Victor Sjostrom is in fact a lost film; there are no surviving copies of the film and the best way to find the content of the film is to search through magazine articles printed during it first run for reviews and synopses. The publicity department of M.G.M often, if not incessantly, centered its magazine advertisements around the attraction of the studios "stars", that is to say it claimed to have the greatest number of the most popular screen actors, the particular film a then afterthought- in The Film Daily during 1926 it directly addressed exhibitors, "Then take 'The Tower of Lies', Victor Sjostrom, director; Lon Chaney and Norma Shearer stars. It's an angle when exhibitors advertise this thrilling attraction as a 'successor to "He Who Gets Slapped" with the same director and stars.'."
 During 1925, Lon Chaney, in an article entitled My Own Story and published by Movie Magazine, while pointing to the themes of "self-sacrifice and renunciation" in his films wrote, "The picture I have just completed, Tower of Lies, is the story of a father's enduring love and sacrificep, even to death, for his wayward daughter. I do not know that it is my favorite of all roles that I have portrayed, but certainly it is one of them and I consider Victor Seastrom, who directed it, the greatest director in the motion picture profession." Also in 1925, The Reel Journal, a sister publication to the magazine New England Film News, reviewed the films of Lon Chaney with the article "Lon Chaney Turns to Less Grotesque Roles". The article initially began by noting that, in regard to depiction of thematic character, "Lon Chaney, who has attracted stardom by playing roles of a weird and grotesque character, is turning to portrayals depending on more deeply human qualities for their interest.", the professionalism as a make-up artist on the part of Lon Chaney is not without having been noticed, "In his first Metro-Goldwyn Mayer picture, Victor Seastrom's production of Leonid Andreyev's He Who Gets Slapped...Chaney donned two make-ups, one as a European scientist, and the other as a clown. It was said by critics of the latter that this portrayal was the first circus clown interpretation to express the humanity which lies behind the painted mask of a mountebank...In The Tower of Lies, his make-up demonstrates a transition from middle age to old age." Both films The Tower of Lies and The Unholy Three were unreleased at the time of the review.
     Although there accounts of Lon Chaney only having taken a small role in the film, "The Next Corner", directed by Sam Wood in 1924 is a lost film. The film, made by Paramount, stars Dorothy Mackaill and its length is seven reels.
     It is not entirely suprising that Lon Chaney was cast with John Gilbert in their respective dramatic roles. John Gilbert would later star as a magician in a 1931 adaptation of a story written by Gaston Leroux for the film "The Phantom of Paris", which was apparently slated for Lon Chaney before his death. There are no existing copies of the film "While Paris Sleeps" in which Lon Chaney and John Gilbert appeared on the screen together under the direction of Maurice Tourneur during 1923.
     There are no existing copies of the film "A Blind Bargain" starring Lon Chaney, directed by Wallace Worsley during 1922. It is an adaptation of the novel Octave of Claudius, written by Barry Bain. Appearing in the film with Chaney is actress Jaqueline Logan.  Exhibitor's Herlad remarked upon Chaney's performance in the film, "This tragic story by Barry Bain has a wealth of good acting by Lon Chaney in a dual role. Indeed it would be difficult to imagine any other actor...who could handle these two contrasting characterizations with one half the dramatic finesse that is Chaney's." Whereas both Tod Browning and Lon Chaney had previously centered on the morality of the crime drama to arrive at plot lines, they would soon begin to establish the genre of the silent horror film and its commodification- Motion Picture News Booking Guide introduced the Lon Chaney film "The Blind Bargain" as Mystery Melodrama. It added, "Star plays Dual role...A struggling author agree to allow doctor to experiment on him in return for financial and medical aid for his mother, who is dying...the author escapes the fate of other victims chained in the doctor's private dungeon when one of those men breaks the bars engaging him and crushes the doctor to death. Romance between author and publisher's daughter."
     "Voices of The City", or "The Night Rose", starring Lon Chaney under the direction of Wallace Worsley, six reels released toward the end of 1921, is also a lost film of which there are no existing copies. The film, a heavily censored crime drama that was recut before its release, also starred actress Leatrice Joy. That year Chaney had also appeared in the six reel film "For Those We Love", a romantic melodrama directed by Arthur Rossen and starring Betty Compson. The actress had co-produced the film with Goldwyn Studios. The library of Congress has no listings of archived holdings of the film, it presumed to be lost and there being no surviving copies.

     Director George Loane Tucker was responsible for the scenario of the eight reel film "The Miracle Man", of which only a three minute fragment now remains. Released in 1919, the film starred Lon Chaney with Betty Compson and Elinor Fair. Silent film proponent, author, perhaps icon, Anthony Slide, has casually mentioned that it was not untill the film "Miracle Man" that character actor Lon Chaney gained recognition as a film artist and the film may have catapulted him toward stardom- it may also be taken for granted that the majority of the earlier film made by Chaney before "The Miracle Man", not to mention several made after, are lost in their entirety, including numerous short films made between 1914-1915 and possibly a dozen feature films in which Chaney appeared between 1916-1917. The Man of a Thousand Faces before becoming a celebrity is now invisible on the screen as an aspiring star, the celluloid having been destroyed.
    Although one of Chaney's best films, Laugh, Clown Laugh, directed by Herbert Brenon during 1928, is often screened to modern audiences, the Library of Congress lists the film as surviving only as incomplete and missing an entire reel. There exists no copy of the fourth reel of the film. Of the film, Photoplay expressed the emotion that "it is the greatest relief to have him minus his usual sinister make up...Loretta Young, as Simonetta, reveals an unexpected display of dramatic ability."
     Among the films to which there are no holdings listed by the library of Congress are two six reel films directed by Tod Browning during 1919, both starring Mary McClaren, both presumed to be lost and their present survival unknown, "Petal on the Current", based on a story by Fanny Hurst and "The Unpainted Woman", adapted from the work of Sinclair Lewis.
    It's has been estimated that less than 10% of the earl films of Lon Chaney made for Universal still exist. Chaney had filmed with Universal Bison, Universal Nestor and Universal Rex during the second decade of the twentieth century. Of the lost films that Lon Chaney made during 1916, 1917 and 1918 for Universal Blue Bird and Universal Red Feather, several were made with the actress Dorothy Phillips or actress Louise Lovely and were directed by either Joseph de Grasse or Ida May Park. The films were a running length of five reels.
     Lon Chaney was given the supporting role of Nils Krogstad was a screen adaptation of Henrik Ibsen's "A Doll House" (1917) in which Joseph de Grasse directed actress Dorothy Phillips.
     In regard to Lost Fim, Found Magazines, the idea that there is no existent copy of the film, but history can be studied by looking at the neglected magazine articles of one hundred years ago, some of the most beautiful magazine art of the Tweties belonged to the regular output of Bluebird Photoplays, a subsidiary of Universal Manufacturing Company- most of the films of Bluebird Photoplays made between 1916-1919 are unknown to survive. Although not strictly mystery or horror films, it being too early in the history of Universal Film to belong to a developed horror adventure genre, they include the work of three notable directors: Rupert Julian, Rex Ingram and Tod Browning.  Also directing for Bluebird was Robert Z. Leonard, who married actress Mae Murray after directing her in "Princess Virtue" (1917)
     Rupert Julian not only directed his own films, but like Victor Sjostrom in Sweden, often appeared in front of the camera. One such film was "The Mysterious Mr. Tiller" in which the director starred with Ruth Clifford during 1917- the film is thought to be lost. Motion Picture Weekly reported that in the film Julian directed himself in a dual role, "He changes before the eye of the camera from a debonair gentleman of the world, in conventional evening dress, to a desperate, sinister criminal, one with distorted features and threatening leer in his eyes." The magazine saw the transformation as clever and the film as a mystery, mysteries then growing in popularity- the film was a "corker". It is unknown whether  the 1916 five reel film "The Evil Women Do" in which the director starred with Elsie Jane Wislon and Francella Billington is presently lost. The Photoplay was based on a novel by Emile Gaboriau. Bluebird Photoplays also produced Rupert Julian's adaption of Alfred Lord Tennyson, "Naked Hearts" from 1916, in which the directed and starred with Francellia Billington. It is also unknown if there are still surviving copies of the film. Two five reel films in which actress Ruth Clifford was directed on screen by Rupert Julian for Bluebird Photoplays, the 1917 film "The Door Between" and the 1918 film "Hands Down (The Highest Card)" are both in fact presumed to be lost films.


Included among the myriad of films that cannot be viewed by modern audiences  are The  The Chinese Parrot (1927, seven reels), adapted for the screen from the pen of Earl Der Biggers by Paul Leni and starring Marian Nixon and Florence Turner and Four Devils, filmed in the United States by F. W Murnau in 1928 and starring Janet Gaynor. Photoplay, while providing a still from the film, saw The Four Devils as the "long awaited successor" to Murnau's Sunrise and as a source of a plot summary to the film, it alludes to the film's tone, "the final shot implies a happy ending. The film will probably be cut to eliminate the over drawn scenes before it is released." Paul Rotha in The Film till now, a survey of the cinema opined, "Murnau's second picture for Fox was Four Devils, a story of the circus ring, which (save for some moving camera work) an uninteresting film." Laurence Reid of Motion Picture Classic magazine, The Celluloid Critic, reviewed the film in an article that read, "There are some highly graphic scenes- the outstanding being the expansive one of the trapeze act with the spectators seated Pin rows after the manner of the Roman Coliseum. there are suggestions of 'Variety' in this incident pertaining to the acrobatic work, though Murnau has used initiative in developing the story in his own dramatic way. So I highly recommend 'Four Devils', which is colorful, appealing and moving."

       Silent film journals have noted that no matter how star struck audiences may have been, John Barrymore's film When a Man Loves was eclipsed and while thought to be a lost film, it was not screened between 1927 to 2000, but add to this that the film The Lotus Eater (Marshall Neilan, 1921), in which he appeared with Colleen Moore and Anna Q. Nilsson, was also during that entire time taken to be a lost film; one source listed as many as thirteen films in which John Barrymore starred that are believed to be missing.  The five reel film "The Test of Honor", in which John Barrymore starred during 1919, is a lost film of which there are no surviving copies. It is a film adaptation of the novel The Malefactor, written by the prolific mystery-romance writer E. Philips Oppenheim. The present author having spent a summer having read twelve novels written by E. Phillips Oppenheim while collecting first editions at a used bookstore in Boston, my hardcover copy of The novel The Malefactor Was printed in 1907 by Collier.


     If all that exists of The Chinese Parrot is a still photograph, the caption from Photoplay Magazine, cautioned that, alhtough mysteries were not meant to be divulged, the adaption had not kept faithful to the Earl Der Biggers plotline. In addition to "The Mountain Eagle", an early silent starring actress Nita Naldi directed by Alfred Hitchcock during 1926 being listed as lost with no surviving prints, there were several films which Hitchcock, before having become director, wrote the intertitles for as an apprentice in the screenplay department of Famous Players-Lasky British made between 1920-1922. All the films for the studio on which Hitchcock worked appear to now be non-existant.
   
     Picture Play magazine, in two full pages using six still photographs toward the end of 1927, introduced the new Lon Chaney film, title The Hypnotist. the director and author was Tod Browning, with Chaney as "a Scotland Yard detective with a mystery to solve by means of mesmerism and a terrifying disguise. "the bat girl, played by Edna Techener, is an eerie creature." For silent film detectives piecing things together, when Ruth Waterbury interviewed Lon Chaney for Photoplay, she reported the film having been completed in its entirety that morning under the title The Hypnotist, a week ahead of schedule, " 'Tonight, I start out for the high Sierras,' Lon crowed. 'No shaving, no make up, no interviews, for four long lazy weeks.' " Chaney had planned to embark directly on a fishing trip with his wife. in the article The Life Story of Lon Chaney, Waterbury describes the actor filming," Earlier that day I had sat on The Hypnotist set watching Lon enact a monster creeping through a fearful room. Then he had worn a black frock coat and a high black hat. he had a wig matted grey ly about his shoulders and from his slobbering mouth, pointed teeth gleamed and tears of agony flowed from his awful distended eyes."  The True Life Story of Lon Chaney would become ancedote rather than reporting for Waterbury of Photoplay, "He loathes people on the set. Yet he saw to it that I always had a comfortable place  on 'The Hypnotist' set so that I might witness how easily he worked and with what economy of guesture. Arriving one day at the studio I was told he was in his dressing room. I did not find him there. On the company stage, I observed Tod Browning, his director, and the Kleigs were blazing. Suddenly I heard a voice calling me. Up against the roof of the stage, some thirty feet high, was a monster bat, waving its hand at me. Of course it was Lon. He had been rigged up there for hours. At that distance the camera couldn't catch his face and any other man would have used a double. Lon thought the bat business important to his characterization, so he did it." In two of its numerous, weekly Studio briefs, Motion Picture News Magazine during September of 1927 announced that during the week, Henry B. Wathall, Claude King, and Andy McClelland had each individually been added to the cast of "The Hypnotist", a "new Metro Godlwyn Mayer vehicle for Lon Chaney."
     At first glance, it would seem that the studio itself gave Lon Chaney the name of "the man of a thousand faces" the phrase having appeared in one of its magazine advertisements for the film "The Hypnotist". The advertisement read, "Chaney, the man of a thousand faces and a thousand arts, once again will delight audiences with a role that has within its range all the curious and the novel, the fiendish ness and the sacrificial redemption that has gone with his greatest efforts. M.G.M. Is banking heavily on the power in The Hypnotist. Just in all Chaney stories the Suprise elements make the plot, and it is divi cult to divulge them in a cold brief paragraph."
In regard to Lost Films, Found Magazines, Photoplay reviewed the film London After Midnight, "Lon Chaney has a stellar role in this mystery drama and the disguise he uses while ferretting out the murderer is as gruesome aPs any has ever worn...Chaney plays a dual role." The Motion Picture News Booking Guide of 1929 provided a brief synopsis of London After Midnight, directed by Tod Browning, "Theme: An uncanny mysterious drama laid in a haunted manor house in England. Lon Chaney in the role of a Scotland Yard detective invades the precincts of ghosts and apparitions and utilizes hypnotism in a scientific manner." Carl Sandberg reviewed the film in 1928, "No wonder Inspector Burke is played by Lon Chaney with little or no make up. The world had forgotten what Lon Chaney's real face looks like and when he lets his own countenance shine forth he is disguised most of all...The story of how Inspector Burke solves the mystery is one of the most diverting and suspenseful in all the long associations of Chaney, the actor, and Tod Browning, the director. Conrad Nagel, Marceline day and H. B. Walthall have parts, but do not have them seriously enough to interfere with Mr. Chaney and his performance." National Board of Review magazine wrote, "An interesting mystery story. The story is tense and the acting excellant...The effect rendered by the use of vampires is eerI'm ie and the whole story is of an unusual nature." The Film Spectator during 1928 provided an eye witness account of London after Midnight, "For once, Tod Browning gets too deep for my poor understanding. I do not know if I was expected to take it seriously as a treatise on the application of hypnotism to crime detection or whether I was to regard it as a fanciful joke...This is about one reel of story embellished by six reels of utter rot. if the Scotland Yard man wants to hypnotize Conrad Nagel and Henry B. Eat hall surely he could have managed it without dragging in a vampire for which is no authority other than Slavic folklore, an old man with starling teeth and a woman who looks like a bit of animated death."
     With "London After Midnight", the seven reel silent film The Big City, directed by Tod Browning and starring Lon Chaney is also lost. Only the trailer, of which there are existing fragments, can be seen today.. Browning co wrote the scenario with Waldemar Young in 1928 and starring in the film Chaney are Betty Compson, Virginia Pearson and Madeline Day. From stills and reviewers, the film is principally Chaney without make-up. Picture Play Magazine used two full pages to carry six stills from the film The Big City that begin to provide clues as to the tone, atmosphere and dramatic content of the film, despite the director's film technique and editing being difficult to surmise from only stills. The photo captions allude to its plot and character motivations for plot by announcing a love interest between Betty Compson and Lon Chaney. "As the heroine of a crook picture should be." The title to the two page layout was "A Stir in the Underworld".

     An earlier film directed by Tod Browning, A Dangerous Flirt (1924), starring Evelyn Brent, is also included among the lost films of Silent Hollywood. A review of the lost film can be found in the magazine Photoplay. "an intriguing little drama spiced with the risqué. Threatened with a scandal because she has been out all night with a youth whose car broke down our heroine agrees to marry the hero. She loves him, but is afraid of love. Not understanding, he leaves for South America. She follows."


Of Silent film director Tod Browning, Iris Barry wrote, "Browning has a peculiar gift for managing dramatic suspense, only rivaled by some of the Germans, though achieved by methods less dramatic than theirs." That Devil Bateese (William Wobert, 1918) in which Lon Chaney starred with Ada Gleason, is a lost silent film.
     Lon Chaney would return to the screen in 1926 in the films The Blackbird (Tod Browning, seven reels), The Road to Mandalay (Tod Browning, seven reels) and Tell It To the Marines (George Hill, ten reels).
     The Motion Picture News Booking Guide provided a brief synopsis of the film Road to Mandalay, directed by Tod Browning, "Melodrama of a degenerate parent who gets a streak of redemption when he would save his daughter from evil partner. She has no knowledge of her father's identity."
     Picture Play Magazine looked at the director's technique while providing a brief synopsis to the film "Blackbrid", directed by Tod Browning. " 'The Blackbird' is a perfectly fine melodrama of London's Limehouse district, that convenient locale where we can always find crooks of the better sort...When Lon Chaney takes to play a double role- He is in this a tough, tough, thug known as The Black Bird, and he lives with his brother, a holy man, known as The Bishop of Limehouse. The Blackbrird makes trouble and the Bishop tries to undo it...However, not to deceive you too long, Lon Chaney plays both parts...Tod Browning has a remarkable sense of melodrama. He photographs bits of action and fleeting glimpses of faces, making in a few seconds a point that many directors could make in several reels of action."


     In 1927, Lon Chaney starred in front of the camera of silent film director William Nigh to portray Mr. Wu (eight reels), the film co-starring Renee Adoree and Gertrude Olmstead. It was reviewed in Photoplay as a "gory story and one that is not likely to equal most of Chaney's films in popularity." The Motion Picture News Booking Guide provided a brief synopsis of the film "Mr. Wu", "Theme: Adapted from the stage play.  Melodrama of Chinese vengeance when mandarin's daughter prefers American's love in preference to a Chinese marriage. "
     1927 was a year in which Rupert Julian, director of Phantom of the Opera was collaborating with screenwriter Garret Fort on the film Yankee Clipper to showcase actress Elinor Fair. Tod Browning that year would be filming "The Show", starring John Gilbert, Renee Adore and Lionel Barrymore. Motion Picture Magazine published a photograph of Browning on the set filming a topshot from a platform or what looks like the roof of a three wall set. Still referring to the film as "The Day of Souls", the photcation read, "Now in order to be a good cameraman you have to be able to swing from chandeliers and do any other feat which will result in action being photographed in an unusual way. This scene...is to be photographed with the camera shooting down upon it."
     While one of the ten films then being produced by M.G.M, also among them being "Masks of the Devil", directed  by Victor Seastrom, and "The Mysterious Lady", directed by Fred Niblo, it was reported by Exhibitor's Daily Review that the film "West of Zanzibar", starring Lon Chaney and directed by Tod Browning, would be made with sound effects. The photographer to the film would be Percy Hilburn. A photo caption in Exhibitor's Herald and Moving Picture World was directed toward moving going audiences, " Grim visages from Lon Chaney's latest 'West of Zanzibar', which is as distinguished for unusual characterizations as Chaney pictures usually are."
     Photoplay Magazine reviewed the film "Where is East is East", directed by Tod Browning in 1929 and starring Lon Chaney with Lupe Valez and Estelle Taylor. "Gather round folks for another Chaney bedtime story- A very bad woman, wife of an animal trapper, deserts her husband only to return later to steal the affections of the boy who lives her own daughter. Not nice at all, this woman, but Estelle Taylor plays her to perfection." The film being the last on which Chaney had starred under the direction of Browning, it would mark the tenth film on which the two had collaborated.

     While looking for films that might have played on the same marquee as double features, on early horror film from 1926 include "Midnight Faces" (1926) in which Francis X. Bushman and Kathryn McQuire appeared under the direction of Bennet Cohen.
      Based on the novel by Somerset Maugham, "The Magician", directed for M.G.M by Rex Ingram, brought more horror and suspense to the movie theaters of 1926. Alice Terry and Gladys Hamer star in the film. Motion Picture News magazine reviewed the film with "Fantastic Picture by Ingram aha it's Moments"- "It is weird, fantastic, adequately suspension and shivery-and no matter how it is accepted, no one is going to dismiss it as something that doesn't belong...Here in the new opus, the symbol of the title role is a coiling cobra. The magician...is determined a la Svengali, to get a beautiful girl in his clutches in order to solve his problem of human life. if he can squeeze her heart's blood into his formula he will solve his age old riddle."
     Interestingly, the first film directed by Rex Ingram was "Black Orchids", the scrapt cowritten by Ingram and the leading lady of the film, Cleo Madison. Filmed for Universal during 1917, a lack of support for the film required Ingram to remake it five years later for Metro with Barabara La Marr under the title "Trifling Women". Motion Picture Magazine describes Cleo Madison as the "French Vampire" placing more on her being seductuctress than supernatural while starring in "the main incidents of a drama which deals almost exclusively with open defiance of all moral law but which nevertheless holds the spectator's unidivided attention to the end of the last reel." Bluebird Photoplays, a division of Universal, subtitled the film, The Love Affairs of A Heartless Woman, "the film a five reel romance bearing the Bluebird Seal", which is indicative of the sensationalism of the second decade of the century centering upon an immorality of sexuality, whereas during the third decade of the century it would embrace the macabre more often in the thrill seeking of the Photoplay and photo dramatist. Although a Bluebird Photoplay, purportedly, a print of the five reel film "The Chalice of Sorrow", in which Rex Ingram directed actress Cleo Madison, does presently exist in Los Angelos it fortunately not being one of the several Universal-Bluebird films in need of restoration or preservation. It is unknown whether the five reel Bluebird Photoplay "The Reward of the Faithless" directed by Rex Ingram during 1917 still exists and it is unknown whether the five reel film "Pulse of Life (Humanity)" directed by Ingram in 1917, starring Molly Malone and Gypsy Harte, still exists.
     It could be purported that while the silent film was well suited as a visual art form for the horror film, that one reason for the genre taking so long to be established was not only was it a genre that was being imported for Europe-it being easily seen that "The Cabinet of Caligari" (1920) and "The Golem" (1920) were soon followed by "The Hands of Orlac" (1922) and "Waxworks" (1924); one volume, The New Spirit of Cinema, published in 1930, having alleged just that, that Expressionism itself was exploitation, with the paragraph, "The circumstances that linked the commercial and aesthetic tendencies together are not difficult to trace." - but that the popular form of melodrama untill 1920 was the serial, or cliffhanger, and that adventure films were sold in installments as narratives, which would account for Universals first Chaney films, Phantom of the Opera and Hunchback of Notre Dame being literary adaptations that almost collide with the costume drama, as with Fairbanks and the Three Musketeers. If mystery suspense films are presently lost and are without surviving copies, one primary reason to look for is if they were made as serials and released in shorter multi-reel form. It need only casually noted that to return to film appreciation, despite the clifferhanger being escapist, it avoiding the themes that leave us with a spiritual experience of having looked at the dramas within the world, the pull they have that brings costumers into the theater is part of fantasy having been taken up by art, irregardless of how they sit next to films like "The Joyless Street", "The Scarlet Letter" or "The Gold Rush". Propheticly, the magazine Exceptional Photoplays during 1922 reviewed the film "A Blind Bargain", "Whatever the case was Mr. Chaney has succeeded in lending the true horror note and placing his picture in that limited category which is headed by the John Barrymore screen version of Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde."
    Scholar Casper Tybjerg has written that the Expressionist films of the mid-twenties were "precursor" films of the genre of horror films, possibly not yet "full-fledged" horror films, and yet it is difficult to exclude "Nosferatu" from the genre if only to begin with the film "The Man Who Laughs". Tybjerg looks for similarities in the films where they can be considered "Fantastic Films" and he in fact includes a Danish serial starring Olof Fonns, Homunculus (1916) of which only a fragment exists and no full copy of the work survives- there are less than two of is six parts that can be screened at present. Despite the effect of The Great War on the European film industry, Casper Tybjerg  includes the influence of the film "Der Student Von Prag" (1913) as well as the next entry directed by Stellan Rye, the 1914 film "The Eyes of Ole Brandis" (Die Augen de Ole Brandis), which is a lost film. It is hopefully history itself that Professor Tybjerg confidently provided a plot summary of a film which we longer have a copy of adding his his efforts in film preservation and that in light of that I can employ the subtitle "Lost Film, Found Magazines" to my own internet writing more often. Author Leonaordo Quanesimo views the Homunculus character as inevitably derived from the Gothic Novel. Quanesimo writes, "The Frankenstein creature in this sense is the ancestor and begetter of this character. The Nosferatu of Galean/Murnau is its direct successor. This last link seems very transparent. Homunculus' features in numerous and obvious ways are already those of the vampire from 1921."
      To the contrary, without a vague sentiment of a well laid out genre, the program reader to the six reel film "The Phantom Honeymoon", written and directed by J. Searle Dawley during 1919 read, "If you don't believe in ghosts please come to this theater next week and see 'The Phantom Honeymoon'. Should it happen that you do believe in ghosts will you kindly attend the showing of 'The Phantom Honeymoon' next week. Whether you do or don't, be sure and attend this theater next week and you may change your present opinion about some ghosts. We cannot go any further."  Motion PIcture News gave the advice to exhibitor's that presaged the new genre, that, "title and theme is the thing to excite their curiously and these are what should be displayed in every possible place." This was to be despite the notoriety of the film's star, Marguerite Marsh. The plot line entails a "ghost romance" involving a groom who loses a duel on his wedding night, having exposed his arm to a deadly snake, and the bride who implores to die with him, a double exposure showing the couple traveling around the world during the afterlife. During the same week, Motion PIcture News reviewed the film 'A Scream in the Night', starring Ruth Budd, and it noted to its movie going readers that, "No part of either the theme or action suggests the title." the magazine, as early film criticism, implying that not only were films a sellable product, but were works of art being advertised for their "pull", their box-office draw.
Untill they are found and or restored, the films made in the United States  continue to lurk within the shadows of the silver screen theaters, and although many of the theaters, with all their granduer that introduced the films are also gone, particularly in Boston where as historic districts theater districts have shifted while being rebuilt, the detectives of film can find them in the world of Lost Film, Found Magazines with each newly discovered poster, still or full page advertisement.
When Photoplay reviewed the film Seven Footprints to Satan (1929), it held, "You won't get very excited about this so-called mystery story because you feel down underneath that it will turn out to be a dream. The denoument is not quite as bad as that, but almost...Thelma Todd manages to look both beautiful and freightened while Chreighton Hale makes his knees stutter."

Photoplay magazine in 1927 reviewed a unique foreign film, "A story of the City of the future, I'm weirdly imagined, technically gorgeous, but almost ruined by terrible acting and awful subtitles. The settings are unbelievably beautiful; the mugging of the players unbelievably bad." In the United States, a newer version of the Silent Film Metropolis is currently being presented by Kino International. Karl Freund was the film's cameraman. Apparently, possibly as a lietmotif or metaphor for cranking up the kem and its dusty archive of sprockets and outdated take up reels once a tradition at Harvard, the University overlooked the dilapitated condition of the Fogg Art Musuem and screened actress-machine Brigitte Helm in the Silent Film at its Film Archive during September along with the film Sunrise (Murnau).
Without the films, all that is left are magazine advertisements where the screen star cordially invites our consumership, not only our consumership as spectators for the advertised product, but as spectators for the fantasies of 'a now by gone era', the look of the female directed to a time only preserved as being seldom seen on the silent silver screen, once captured by the moving camera and now guessed at through the pages of magazines.


Nils Asther had appeared in the films Laugh Clown Laugh (Herbert Brenon, eight reels) with Lon Chaney and Loretta Young, The Cardboard Lover (eight reels), The Cossacks (George Hill, ten reels) with John Gilbert, Dream of Love (Fred Niblo, six reels) photographed by William Daniels and Oliver Marsh and starring Warner Oland, Adrienne Lecouvrer, and The Blue Danube (Paul Sloane, seven reels) with Seena Owen.
     Exhibitor's Herald stressed in a photo caption that Chaney was the "King of Make Up" while introducing Loretta Young as "the cuppie". Talking Picture Magazine would in retrospect later remind its readers that, although virtually unknown, it had only been after fifty girls had been given camera tests, that Loretta Young had been awarded the leading feminine part in the film "Laugh, Clown, Laugh".

     During 1929, "The Last Warning", from a play by Thomas F. Fallon, would conclude the career of film director Paul Leni. Exhibitor's Hearlad and Moving Picture World referred to Leni as "the wizard who put the fear of the unknown into 'The Cat and the Canary'....He is an artist of lights and shadows. he can do more with a spotlight and shadow than many directors can do with a full cast of players. 'The Last Warning' will be absolutely the last word in attractions next season...This will be all the more certain when it is known that Alfred A. Cohn, scenario ace, has prepared the scrapt." During 1928 notice had been given that, "the final scenes...have been photographed and the picture is now in the cutting room...The story revolves around the staging of a play in a haunted theater, unoccupied for years. The picture will have sound effects."
Louise Brooks, whom in 1929 he had directed in the films Pandora's Box and Diary of a Lost Girl (Das Tagebuch einer verbrenen), was during that same year introduced to the sound film by being paired with William Powell in The Canary Murder Case. While A Cottage On Dartmoor (Anthony Asquith) includes a dialog intertitle written by the director reading,"Will you come with me to a talkie tonight?".

Vampyre, Danish director Carl Th. Dreyer's use of the vampire, in the form of Jullian West, as thematic context, was filmed almost silently, with sound added, in Germany in 1932. While Danish film director Benjamin Christensen had by 1913 had begun directing with his first film, Sealed Orders (Det hemmelinghstulde X), a melodrama that, irregardless of its belonging to or being typical of the genre of the early Danish spy film, had included the use of montage in his editing, Carl Th. Dreyer had in fact begun rather as a writer, contributing the screenplay to the film The Brewer's Daughter (Byggerens datter, 1912), directed by Rasmus Ottesen and starring Emmanuel Gregers. He was to write every screenplay that he was to direct. Of the film Leaves in Satan's Book (1919), Forsyth Hardy wrote, "In the selection of his theme we see both the influence of Griffith and the preoccupation with the forces of good and evil which has been characteristic of all Dreyer's films."


As the silent era was approaching nearer still to its close, The Mysterious Dr. Fu Manchu (1929), directed by Rowland Lee, pitted silent film actor Warner Oland against O.P. Heggie. Jean Arthur co-stars in the film. Warner Oland would become a nemesis by continuing in two sequels, The Return of Dr. Fu Man Chu (Rowland V. Lee, 1930) and Daughter of the Dragon (Lloyd Corriton, 1931).
     The first Charlie Chan film, The House Without a Key is lost. Based on the novel by Earl Der Biggers, it appeared in 1926 as part of a two-reel serial with Betty Caldwell and Carry Egan with George Kuwa appearing on as the sleuth. The silent film was directed by Spencer Bennet.  Oddly, the remake of "The House Without A Key", "Charlie Chan's Greatest Case", directed by Hamilton MacFadden during 1933 and starring Warner Oland as Derr Biggers aphorism touting sleuth Charlie Chan, is also lost. There are no surviving copies of either film.
     The review of one of the first "all-talking" or "talkie" motion pictures in which Warner Oland had starred in during 1929 while at Paramount explains the scrapt and plotline centered around a foriegn film director, "No doubt you read the thrilling mystery in PHOTOPLAY. Perhaps you were among the many thousands who took part in 'The Studio Murder Mystery Contest' In any event you will still wnat to see 'The Sudio Murder Mystery" because it is a corking mystery melodrama with plenty of dramatic kicks and suprises. The story deals with the murder of a prominent actor in a big studio at midnight." We will not rI'm eveal the murderer here either. The 1936 film Charlie Chan at the Opera would reunite Swedish actor Warner Oland and British actor Boris Karloff; they had both starred together with actress Pearl White in the silent serial The Phantom Foe (1920) directed by Bertram Millhauser, who would later write the screenplays to the Universal filmsThe Spider Woman (1944), The Peal of Death (1944) and The Woman in Green (1945), starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce as Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
During 1927 the studio itself released advertisements predicting that Lon Chaney would return to the screen in an adaptation of the Writing of Gaston Leroux, it announcing to audiences that the film "Seven Seas" was on its way as a coming attraction, which was only to be left unmade as an unrealized film scrapt. It was to plunge him into "a swirling action that seethes aboard a convict ship on its way to Devil's Island. A revolt throws into his hands the man responsible for his plight and Chaney's sardonic revenge is tempered only by the softening influence of the girl who is the one redeeming breath of beauty into his life. Power and tenderness mingle together in a great narrative whose tense drama is heightened by the surging background of the Seven Seas."
     A 1929 issue of Photoplay Magazine reported, "Lon Chaney has overcame his microphone phobia. One of his first talkies will be "Cher-Bibi", by Gaston Leroux. It then pealed with the announcement, "Snow storms, trainwrecks, and floods" were in fact promised, "with Lon Chaney at the throttle of the locomotive, with the film, "Thunder". In Chaney Talks!, Harry Lang lends insight to what lay behind Hollywood legend, the extratextual discoursI'm e that enveloped stage performer and screen character, while writing for Photoplay Magazine, "'I'll tell you frankly,' said Chaney, sitting back with his inevitable cap and his not so often seen horn-rimmed specs on, 'that my first talking picture is going to make me- or break me! Inside, I mean; in here...' He tapped his breast."  Lon Chaney remarked the the film Thunder would have been more aptly titled "Snow" in light of its exterior locations. The New Movie Magazine during 1930 provided an article by journalist Ruth Biery entitled "Lon Chaney Goes Talkie- He is not going to retire from the screen and he is going to use voice in pictures when the righ time comes." Biery recorded, "It was not easy to find him...the studio didn't know where he was and the Chaney house would give no information. I found him finally. he was in bed in a Hollywood hospital. He had just had his tonsils removed. The climax of his first illness in fourteen years...He just wanted to be with his wife and she was beside him every moment. 'Say, I told you before that if I had my way, I'd never give an interview. I want to be a mystery. Don't you remember."

Close Up Magazine during 1929 suggested that Lon Chaney and Tod Browning were to separate for individual projects while Browning direct Bela Lugosi on the M.G.M lot. it announced, "Lon Chaney, who, with Charlie Chaplin, has signed a pledge never to do a talkie, will next be seen, but not heard in a picturization of Major Zinor Peckloff's 'The Bugle Sounds'.  It is a story dealing with the Foreign Legion. George Hill, the director, sometime ago made a special trip to the actual scenes of the book and secured many thousand feet of atmospheric shots." Motion Picture News during 1929 ran the studio's advertisements announcing, "Lon Chaney will appear in three pictures. There will be a sound and silent production of each" Two of the three films were listed as only Title to Be Announced- Sound or Silent. In s synopsis of "The Bugle Sounds", Chaney was to play a character "reckless, grim-visaged, yet vulnerable finally in the combat of love....Lon Chaney will appear in two other pictures for which elaborate plans are underway, assuring motion picture audiences new vistas of adventure-thrill, new character-portraitures by the master Lon Chaney who grips the world's imagination."

    In the same Issue, Close Up, in its Hollywood Notes section, looked at the latest film from Tod Browning. "The Thirteen Chair, directed by Tod Browning, is forthcoming M.G.M mystery play. It's locale is Calcutta and an added touch of realism is given to the picture by the inclusion to the cast of Lal Chand Mehra, a nephew of the Swami Pranavenanda." Hollywood Filmograph reviewed the all talking production as a "conglomeration of screeches, seances, murders and investigations none too adeptly combined by Tod Browning....Several scenes, as it happens, depend entirely upon sound for their effect. The lights on the settings are turned off and the screen is a glimmering grayness. One hears shrieks, screams, thuds and the effect is a sense of uncanniness." National Board of Review Magazine reviewed the film "The Thirteenth Chair", almost as though it were disguising film theory during the new discussion of whether sound would integrate audiences into narrative or whether it would detract from the primacy of the visual image, which was central to narrative; perhaps it was merely eavesdropping. "The talkies of course add many thrills to the mystery story which were unknown to the silent film....In this picture is the oft used method of discovering the murderer by reenact ing the scene of the crime in order to frighten a confession from the guilty person- the guests at a seance during which the murder was committed are placed in exactly the same positions they occupied before and the same proceedings followed." New Movie Magazine also put the silent film into a direct comparison, or direct chronology, with the sound film in its review of "The Thirteenth Chair", but in applauding actress Margaret Wycherly for playing the fortune teller twice, it seems to imply that she appeared in the 1919 film, where she actually had played the role on stage, it being her husband Bayard Veiller who had been involved in both projects, writing both the silent Photoplay and sound  screenplay when remade. The magazine offered, "This melodrama has been neatly transformed into a talkie, although the crime has been shifted to another character."  Bela Lugosi and Conrad Nagel would appear under the direction of Tod Browning in a mystery made more spine-tingling by the performances of Lelila Hymas, Helene Millard and Mary Forbes.



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Anne-Kristin Wallengren, for Nordic Academic Press, only indirectly refers to the work of Gosta Werner and the restoration of lost silent film in the article, Welecome Home Mr. Swanson-Swedish Emigrants and Swedishness on Film. "There is the still extant film Storstadfaror (Perils of the Big City, Manne Gothson, 1918), in which a young man goes to America and at the end of the film, returns to Sweden, rich; however, while this was one of the very few films made in the 1910's to show America in a positive light, it is also significant that his was only a supporting role." The film Perils of the Big City was written by Gabrielle Ringertz and photographed by Gustav A. Gustavson. Appearing in the film were Mary Johnson, who would later film under the direction of Mauritz Stiller and actress Agda Bjorkman.
The film apparently was the only film produced at Hasselblad Fotografiska, from its first film in 1915, untill it merged early in 1918 to become Filmindustri Skandia, not to have been directed by George af Klercker, Manne Hothson had previously been Klercker's assistant director. This having be said, scholar Astrid Soderberg Widding points out that Gosta Werner neglects or omits the films made by Af Klercker before he began with Hasselblad, almost to confer with other authors that place Sjostrom and Stiller at the forefront of Swedish Silent Film's Golden Age; Leif Furhammer has advanced that Af Klercker had been an Auteur  only to heighten the comparison that can be made between George Af Klercker and Carl Th. Dreyer, despite Dreyer's having entered directing later and his only having scrapted melodramas while searching for adaptations.
     The film 'Mysteriet natter till den 25ie' proves to be more enigmatic than its director. it stars Swedish actress Mary Johnson with Carl Barklind and was photographed by Sven Petersson- one of the first films to demonstrate the need for silent film preservation, it was not shown to audiences until, 1975. Clearly George af Klercker was eclipsed by Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjostrom in that af Klercker left had Svenska Bio before  Stiller and Sjostrom had gained renown internationally for films of longer running length. The director Geroge af Klerker is portrayed by actor Bjorn Granath in the film "The Last Scream" ("The Last Gasp", Stig Bjornman, 1995), a two character play in one act lasting almost an hour which depicts a fictional, ie. Imaginary, meeting between the director Klercker and Charles Magnussion, founder of Svensk Filmindustri and which was written by Ingmar Bergman. Actress Anna Von Rossen stars as Miss Holm. The play was published by New Press in the volume, The Fifth Act, in which also appeared Monologue, After the Rehearsal and Presence of a Clown. Stig Bjorkman, noted for his interviews of Ingmar Bergman is also the director of I Am Curious Film, and But Film is My Mistress.

It is clear that Astrid Soderberg Widding outlines the ostensible difference between the director George Af Klercker and his contemporaries Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller by accurately placing him as a director of "melodrama and sensational adventures" made in Denmark, those which had established the director Viggo Larsen ; he is also apart from the type of film made in Kristianstad before he had began with Svenska Bio at Lindingo. As academic writing among film historians can be cumulative, each seminal text nodding to what is salient in each of its predecessors, it is certain that Soderberg Widding will not only contribute to film history research, but will springboard later film theory. She describes the directing of Af Klercker with, "A purely film-theoretical aspect that becomes evident when looking at Af Klercker's production deserves to be highlighted. it has to do with the relationship between the visual and narrative elements: phenomena which in film-theoretical historiography are not infrequently regarded as counterpoints......Af Klercker's films are in their narratives quite conventional and typical of their time. They provide thrilling stories while expressing a supreme control over film as a medium." In describing this, Astrid Soderberg Widding articulates the interrelationship between content and form while praising the films of Af Klercker for their "stylistic stability and visual extravagance, if only to reiterate that characters are developed within the miss en scene context of their created environment in the narrative plots of both Danish and Swedish silent film "Here one encounters a driven visual narrator   who demands a high degree of focus. many of the different narrative devices and stylistic features are noteworthy: his utilization of a qualified depth-of-focus cinematography aw well as the effect of advanced lighting." The author notes that one instance of this was Klerker's use of door frames within the image. In no academic papers already copyrighted, Soderberg Widding looks intricately at technique including the element of editing, so as not to neglect shot structure being in tandem with composition, by distinguishing a signature of Af Klercker's composition, "to use an undivided screen space where dissectons and doubling so takes place within a general frame rather than the introduction of several frames."
Dodsritten under cirkuskupolen (1912) had been written by Charles Magnusson and photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. George Af Klercker had written his own screenplay to the 1912 film Jupiter pa Jorden, also filmed by Henrik Jaenzon. Although Af Klerker directed a short film photographed by Sven Petterson and starring actress Tyra Leijman Uppstrom during 1913, he that year also directed The Scandal (Skandalen) for Svenska Biographteatern, his photographer again Henrik Jaenzon, as was the case with the film Med Vapen I Hand that year,actress Selma Wiklund Af Klerker also returning for both films. As director, Klercker appeared on screen on camera in front of the lens of cameraman Henrik Jaenzon during "Med Vapen hand", which he did again while directing "For faderneslandent" with Jaenzon as camera man. Ragnar Ring codirected the film and wrote it's screenplay and actress Lilly Jacobsen starred in the film.
     In Goteborg, Sweden, the two films produced by Hasselblads Fotofraphiska during 1915 were both filmed by George af Klerker and Sve Petterson. That year George af Klercker contributed the film "The Rose of Thistle Island" ("Rosen pa Tistelon), the first film in which actress Elsa Carlsson and Anna Lofstrom were to appear. The novel had been filmed previously by director Mauritz Stiller as "Pa livets Odesvager".
Among the films directed by George Af Klercker during 1916 was The Gift of Health (Aktie bolaget Halsams gave), the first film photographed by cinematographer Gustav Gustafson and the first film in which actress Tekla Sjoblom was to appear. Also starring in the film are Mary Johnson and Anna Lofstrom. That year Swedish film director Af Klercker also appeared on screen in the film Under the Spell of Memories (I minnenasband), in which he directed Elsa Carlsson, Tora Carlsson and Elsa Berglund. The film was written and photographed by Sven Pettersson. The 1916 film Hogsta Vinsten, in which director George Af Klercker appeared on screen with actress Gerda Thome Mattsson lasted a brief running time of only sixteen minutes at a time when the average running time had been increased from four reels to six. The film was photographed by Sven Pettersson.
Af Klercker had gained renown not only for his blending artificial and natural light, but while at Hasselblad he innovated the techniques involved with a lens system that was suited for filming objects at a distance, ranging from a focal length of a few feet to that of a mile.

Danish Silent Film

Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller

Swedish Silent Film

Swedish Sound Film

Greta Garbo Silent Film

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Author Kenneth Macgowan praises the silent film The Avenging Conscience as a photoplay, his view being that Giriffith's film uses a narrative method of storystructure, action being secondary to character development, if not often interpolated in between scenes, his noting that it was seldom that Griffith used intertitles with lines of dialougue during a scene. Among the narrative films of Griffith filmed in 1909 was the silent film The Sealed Room.
The camera could also portray the character more fully by adding the movement of the camera to character movement, as in The Golden Louis (1909), mobilizing the gaze of the character within the organization of the look. In For Love of Gold, one of the fourty four biograph films made in 1908, D.W. Griffith and Bitzer had shifted the placement of the camera during the scene, the close up used in conjuction with the long shot and full shot. Not only could the editing together of different spatial relationships with each shot provide contrast between shots that were in a series, but the duration of each shot could be varying as well. With the use of varying camera postitions, particularly during the 1908 film After Many Years, Griffith would establish the use of the 'narrative close up', and by the interpolating of an individual shot between shots similar in composition as a cut in shot, editing would be used to connect seperate shots to advance plotline. With Griffith, film would create a proscenium arc of its own, that of the lens, a lens that would with the Vitagraph nine foot line bring the frame into the grammar of film, shifting from a viewpoint of playing in front of the audience to one more aligned with it, the authorial camera entering into a new relationship with the spectator- included in the films made by D. W Griffith in 1908 is a stage to screen adaptation of The Taming of the Shrew, with Florence Lawrence.
Among the literary adaptations filmed by Vitagraph in 1909 was Launcelot and Elaine.
In her autobiography, Lillian Gish discusses Griffith's use of shot legnth in The Lonely Villa (1909) and his cutting between camera distances in The Lonedale Operator (1911). Not incidentally, Eisenstien in a discussion of Griffith's editing goes so far as to describe "the principle function of the close shot" which is "not so much to present, as to signify, to designate, to give meaning." Belazs adds, "Only in editing is the shot given its Pparticular meaning." Cavell writes, "If either the frame or subject budges, the composition alters." If filmic address during a cinema of attractions had begun with the act of display, it had begun to incorporate the actor as seen in close shot, which could be edited into a grammar of film - the shot had become "the unit of editing" and the "basis for the construction of the scene" (Jacobs), whereas before it had been the scene that would allow the placement of shots, it now being that there could be an assemblage of shots. Terry Ramsaye writes," Griffith began to work at a syntax for the screen narration...While Griffith may not have originated the closeup and like elements of technique, he did establish for them their function."; which silent film author Nicholas A. Vardac reiterates by writing that it was from the films of Edwin S. Porter that D.W. Griffith acquired the technique of viewing the shot within its context as "a syntax for the melodrama". Two films directed by Eisenstien have been offered online through streaming video, the silent film The Battleship Potemkin (1925).
Belazs mentions that the mood of a scene can be established by the particular set ups that are used, his almost attributing the ability to participate in the action to the surroundings and background in which the film takes place, as does Spottiswoode, who mentions that by filming from any number of postitions and angles, the director can decide which elements of the scene can be included in creating its mood, particularly which components of the director's subject. Bengt Forslund notes that the use of nature to provide the action of the scene with something that would render it more dramatic Gardner
, particularly diring "the lyrical love sequences between Lili Beck and Gösta Ekman, his having written, "There is also an intentionally stereoscopic effect in the sets that is typical of all of Sjöström's films, and that shows the amount of intuition Sjöström had for the new medium." Often in the films of Sjöström, like in those of Bergman, the landscape "in which his journeys take place are part of the journey." (John Simon). Peter Cowie has noted that Swedish films were often shot on location and that Sjöström had "revelled in location shooting and embarked on the most perilous of stunts for the sake of realism." Birgitta Steene writes that "it was Sjöström and Stiller (as well as Griffith) who began to shoot pictures out-doors". One author writes, "Nevertheless in his best dramas of pastoral life, Sjöström to integrate the rugged Swedish landscape into the texture of his films with an almost mystical force- a feature noted and much admired in other countries."  Of interest is that the establishing shot that begins the Greta Garbo film Love, directed in the Untied States by Edmund Goulding is an exterior that begins the plotline with Garbo in a snowstorm being brought homeward in a sleigh; it is a series of exterior shots that depict nature as the background for character delineation very much like in the films of Scandinavian director Victor Sjöström, so much so that it is revealed in the first interior shots that both the love interest in the film, portrayed by John Gilbert, and the audience, were nearly unaware of who the character portayed by Garbo really was and hadn't fully realized it untill being given later look at the beauty of the passenger, as though they were being reintroduced to someone they had been with during the journey through the snow.
And yet, if the present author has anything to add to what has been written in appreciation of Scandinavian film and its use of landscape to add depth to the development of character by creating relationships between the background and the protagonist of any given film's plotline, within that is that within classical cinema and its chronological ordering of events, it is still often spatio-temporal relationships that are developed. The viewer often acknowledging the effect that an object within the film might have upon the character, an object that is either stationary or in movement, poeticly in movement as a waterfall would be, the structuring of space within the film not only clarifies plot action, but, within the framed image, included in the spatial continuity within the visual structure of the film, establishes a relation of objects that appear onscreen to the space that is offscreen. Spatial relations became narrative. Character movement, camera movement and shot structure create a scenographic space which within the gaze of the actress is observed through an ideal of femininity, a unity of space constructed that links shots, often by forming spaces that are contiguous within the scene and creating images that are poeticly presented as being contiguous; subjectivity is structured within the discourse of the film and these subjectivities are presented to the viewer as being within a larger context within early Silent Scandinavian films.
In addition to using close ups that could isolate the actor from what particular background that happenned to surround him or her, D. W. Griffith would establish the relationship between character and enviornment as well, particularly developing it through the use of editing and varying spatial relationships, as in his use of exteriors and the long shot in the silent film Battle at Elderbrush (1912).
In Kristianstad, Sweden the director Carl Engdahl pioneered with the film The People of Varmland (Varmanningarna) in 1909. Robert Olsson photographed The Wedding at Ulfasa for two directors, the second having had been being Gustaf Linden. The film starred the Swedish silent film actresses Ellen Appelberg, Lilly Wasmuth and Anna Lisa Hellstrom. In 1910, Olsson wrote, directed and photographed the film Emigranten, starring Oscar Soderholm and Valborg Ljungberg, and photographed the films Emigrant starring Torre Cederborg and Gucken Cederborg in her first appearance on screen, and Regina von Emmeritz och Kongung Gustaf II Adolf, starring Emile Stiebel and Gerda Andre, both directed by Gustaf Linden. Twelve years later, Gucken Cederborg was introduced to another actress who would soon be introduced to Swedish audiences, Barry Paris having written that when when she and actress Tyra Ryman walked into Pub with actor-director Eric Petschler, Greta Garbo, who worked there as a clerk, recognized them immediately.
Film historians have noted that Kristianstad, Sweden was home to another film, The Man Who Takes Care of the Villian (Han som clara boven), filmed in 1907. Produced by Franz G. Wiberg, the film has never been released theatrically.
Svensk Kinematograf was the production company that under N. E. Sterner had filmed six of the earliest films photographed in Scandinavia- Robert Olsson had photographed Pictures of Laplanders (Lappbilder), Herring Fishing in Bohuslan (Sillfiske i Bohuslan), Lika mot lika starring Tollie Zellman and Kung Oscars mottagning i Kristianstad in 1906 before working with Carl Engdahl. Also shown in Stockholm and Goteborg during 1906 was the film Kriget i Ostergotland. In 1911, Gustaf Linden, directed the film The Iron Carrier (Jarnbararen), photographed by Robert Olsson and starring Anna-lisa Hellstrom and Ivan Hedqvist. Similar to the early cinematography of Robert Olsson were the films shot by Ernest Florman, who wrote and directed the film Skona Helena (1903), which had starred Swedish actress Anna Norrie.
Another of Sweden's earliest photographers was Walfrid Bergström, who was behind the camera between 1907-1911 in Stockholm for Apollo productions. In 1907 Bergström filmed Den glada ankan, one of the three films produced by Albin Roosval starring Carl Barklind and Emma Meissner and Konung Oscar II's likbegangelse. Between 1907 and 1911, Bergstrrom would photographed Skilda tiders danser with Emma Meissner and Rosa Grunberg in 1909 and Ryska sallskapsdanser in 1911. During 1908, Svenska Biografteatern produced two short films with the actress Inga Berentz, Sjomansdansen, photographed by Walfrid Bergstrom, and I kladloge och pascen, photographed by Otto Bokman.
Charles Magnusson, who came to the United States, directed and wrote The Pirate and Memories from the Boston Sports Club in 1909 and Orpheus in the Underworld (Urfeus i underjorden) in 1910. Magnusson in 1909 had become the managing director of Svenska Biografteatern, which Julius Jaenzon become part of in 1910. Notably, while under N. E. Sterner of Svensk Kinematograf, Charles Magnusson had photographed Konung Haakons mottagning i Kristiania (1905), a short film of the King of Norway's visit to Kristiania almost as though to presage that it would be there, rather than Rasunda that he would begin the Swedish Film industry, his also having directed the films Gosta Berlings land(Bilder fran Frysdalen, 1907), Gota elf-katastrofen (1908) and Resa Stockholm-Goteborg genom Gota och Trollhatte kanaler (1908). Konstantin Axelsson, in 1911, directed Hon fick platsen eller Exkong Manuel i Stockholm. Starring Ellen Landquist, the film was produced in Stockholm by Apollo and was photographed by Walfrid Bergstrom.
Like Charles Magnusson, Frans Lundberg produced short silent films in Sweden, the first two filmed in 1910. Stora Biografteatern, in Malmo, Sweden, photographed To Save a Son (Massosens offer), directed by Alfred Lind and starring Agnes Nyrup-Christensen, and The People of Varmland (Varmlandingarna), directed by Ebba Lindkvist, photographed by Ernst Dittmer and starring Agda Malmberg, Astrid Nilsson and Ester Selander. The following year Ernesr Dittmer would write and direct the film Rannsakningsdomaren, starring Gerda Malmberg and Ebba Bergman.
In Malmo Sweden, for Stora Biografteatern, Otto Hoy during 1911 wrote and directed the film The Spy (Spionen), starring Paul Welander and Agnes Nyrop-Christensen, the manager of Stora Biografteatern, Frans Lundberg. Paul Welander wrote and directed his first film in 1911, Champagneruset.
Carl Engdahl later appeared in the 1926 film Mordbrannerskan, directed by John Lindlof.
Forsyth Hardy notes that the early Swedish films of 1911 were films in which "the camera remained static and the action was artificially concentrated into a small area in front of it." Not quite apart from this and very much like the silent film included in Vardac's account of the use of the proscenium arch in early cinema in Stage to Screen,the films directed by Anna Hofman Uddgren in 1911 were transpositions of Miss Julie and The Father (Fadren) ,the intimate theater of Swedish playwright August Strindberg. Cameraman Otto Bokman used two exterior shots during The Father, the film having starred Karin Alexandersson and Renee Bjorling. Miss Julie, a film that had had its Stockholm premiere at the Orientaliska Teatern, starred Karin Alexandersson and Manda Bjorling. Both plays were later to be filmed by Alf Sjöberg. Stiller had, in fact, been the manager of the Lilla Teaten and a contemporary of August Falk and Manda Bjorling had acted with him and Anna Flygare at the Intima Theatern. Uddgren also in 1911 directed Single a Dream (Blott in drom), starring Edith Wallen Sisters (Systarna), starring Edith Wallen and Sigurd Wallen and Stockholmsdamernas alskling, starring Carl Barcklind, Erika Tornberg and Anna-Lisa Hellström. Balif vid Molle (1911) was photographed by John Bergqvist. Also in Stockholm, the Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern, later managed by both Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson, was headed by Gustaf Fredriksson between 1904-1907 and then by Knut Michaelson between 1908-1910. Swedish Film Institue founder Charles Magnusson in 1911 directed The Talisman (Amuletten), starring Lili Bech. Victor Sjöström had had his own theater with Einar Froberg before his directing under Magnusson, it having been Froberg that had spoken to Magnusson before he and Sjöström had met. Swedish film director Gustav Molander had in fact been at the Intima Teatern from 1911 to 1913. The Blue Tower, where August Strindberg lived in Stockholm between 1908-1912 and where he wrote the play The Great Highway, is now part of The Strindberg Museum.
Thanhouser was also producing adaptations of literature for the screen and in 1911 filmed three plays by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen: Pillars of Society (Samfundets stotter), Lady from the Sea (Fruen fra havet, Theodore Marston
) and A Doll's House (Et dukkehjem). Lubin that year filmed a version of Ibsen's Sins of the Father (Gengangere).
Although a theory of a cinema of attractions depends less upon the use of the proscenium arch written about by Nicholas A. Vardac or the camera's photographic reproduction of drama that had previously been enacted upon the stage and more upon the act of display having preceded the use of cinematic and editorial devices to propel narrative, the grammar of film would be used both to transpose the theatricality of the stage play and to adapt novels to the screen in ways which they could not be performed in front of a theater audience not only in regard to the modes of address which would position the spectator but also in regard to the public sphere of reception. Within the reception of each film there soon was a heterogeneity of filmgoers and that films were visual soon transversed language barriers between audiences that would otherwise have been seperate. Characteristic of early films that were adaptions of novels was the use of a linear narrative similar to that of the "well made novel" novel of the nineteenth century, the camera following the character into each subsequent scene. There soon would be films in which there would be a contemporaneity of narrative and attraction. Raymond Spottiswoode distinguishes between the photoplay, the adaptation of the stage play to the screen with little or no editing, and the screenplay, where camera movement and technique is used to convey narrative- the photoplay can be likened to a cinema of attractions where the scene is filmed from a fixed camera position, whereas the screenplay includes the cut from a medium shot to a close shot in order to build the scene.
In regard to the camera being authorial, Raymond Spottiswoode writes, "The spatial closeup is the usual means of revealing significant detail and motion. Small movements which must necessarily have escaped the audiences of a play sitting removed some distance from its actors can thus be selected from their surroundings and magnified to any extent." While writing that how the camera is authorial includes its having only one position, that of the viewer, which, differing from that of the theater audience can vary with each shot change, depending upon the action within the scene, Spottiswoode cautions that the well written stage play is not suited for the camera's mobility. He also indirectly addresses the use of nature as a way to connect characters to their enviornment while they are being developed that is quite often significant in Scandinavian films when writing about the possibility there being a "difference film", by that his referring to a film which uses relational cutting. "To constitute such a 'difference film' is not sufficiently merely to photograph mountains and streams which are inaccessible to theater producers; the film must also choose a method of carrying on its purposive themes or meaning from moment to moment." He continues, "the public can be trained to appreciate that the differences between nature seen and nature filmed constitute the chief value of the cinema."
In the United States, with Edison (The Road of Anthracite, Race for Millions and The Society Raffles) and Vitagraph (Raffles, the Amatuer Cracksman, The Burgler on the Roof), the attraction had literally become filmed theater, scenes based on those of the stage solely for dramatic value, photographed in one reel as though in one act, from which came the knee shot, or medium full shot; the use of the proscenium arch is more pronounced before the Vitagraph nine foot line, the camera distance of the knee shot, in that there would be space left as visible in between the actor's feet and the bottom frameline, space articulated in tableau that would be more like that of when the spectator is in the audience at a theater. The legnth of one reel would be between eight hundred and one thousand feet. At first the films of Melies were shot in a single scene, as though filmed theater; in order to film narrative he then put seperate shots in order to become connected scenes, or "artificially arranged scenes". It would later become "a constant shifting of scenes" (Lewis Jacobs). Although the article discusses the lack of narrative closure and unicity of frame in early cinema, the subject of a recent e-mailed book review was the writing of one author that has offered the idea that there is less of a demarcation between early cinema and the films that provide transition to the two-reel film -writing about the editing of Melies, Ezra gives an account of his films being comprised of combinations of photographic reproduction, spectacle and narrative. Quite certainly, the images of film are moving images and can advance the narrative and more of the film that was to come later would be dramatic narrative. The cinema of Melies has been likened to a cinema of attractions in its repetitive use of suprise and sudden appearance; the temporality of attraction one of appearance-nonappearance rather than that of development.
One particular silent film, Sherlock Holmes Baffled (1900), considerably under one minute in legnth, had starred William Gillete, ushering in the new century with the first screen appearance of the consulting detective. On vieweing the single shot film, the audience is as baffled as Holmes by the abrupt vanishings of a burgler that disappears and reappears throughout the room through the use of stop-motion trick photography, the film a superb example of early cinema and possibly any narrative of attractions (action within the frame) there may have been.
The Great Train Robbery, produced by Edwin S. Porter, was made by the Edison Manufacturing Co. and is included in the 275 silent films of the Paper Print Collection. Also included in the collection is the early silent film The Little Train Robbery filmed by the Edison Manufacturing Co. in 1905. The Library of Congress also holds a collection of early animation, in which two films produced by silent film pioneer Thomas A. Edison are included, as well as Dinosaur and the missing link, produced by Edison and written by Willis O'Brien in 1917. Charles Musser writes that more than four fifths of the films made by Edison between 1904 and 1907 were narrative or stage fiction; among these was the 1906 film Kathleen Mavourneen. The Edison company released its last film as a studio, The Unbeliever (Alan Crosland, six reels) in 1918. Not Incidentally, the term 'one sheet' used to describe the standard size of movie posters begin with the Edison photoplay; it was a size of approximately 27 inches by 41 inches and often included a synopsis of the plotline of the film. The early silent films of Thomas Edison are also presently available from Kino. 
 
     William Rothman writes that only one sixth of the film before 1907 had storyline. 
     While Kenneth MacGowan also mentions filmmakers that had used trick photography other than Melies, among them G. A Smith of England, he adds that not untill Cecil Hepworth, with the silent film Alice in Wonderland, (1903) were there films that included seperate scenes to articulate fantasy or narrative. A later screen version of the silent film Alice and Wonderland was filmed by W. W. Young in 1915. Edison had filmed a version of Jack and the Beanstalk as early as 1902. Silent film director Cecil Hepworth would shortly thereafter bring the element of editing narrative into his films with Rescued by Rover. (1905)
Heath sees early cinema as space articulated in tableau, filmed frontally, storyline achieved by the linking of scenes, as when they are linked by characters and their having entered the frame, to the viewer, spectacle being horizontal, scenographic space. Mary Ann Doanne equates the cinema of attractions with "an early form of cinema organized around single events" looking to the one-shot films as their often being "the spectacular deployment of the female body", as in the Biograph film, Pull Down the Curtains, Suzie (1904). The director at Biograph untill June 1908 had been Wallace McCutheon (Personal, 1904). The technique of crosscutting has been attributed to McCutheon (Her First Adventure, 1906; The Elopement, 1907); on occaision directors were beginning to hint at cutting on action by 1907 and were also beginning to link seperate scenes together, as when the same character appears in two scenes that are adjacent. If, within a cinema of attractions, narrative exposition had previously used a discontinuous style, one of filming a single action within what was then an autonomous shot, it would acquire as form a continuous style; when there were to be juxtapositions within narrative from shot to shot, they would be decisions of editing used for the advancement of plot. That intertitles were at first often explanatory shows the beginnings of a narrative within cinema. During an early scene of the silent Frankenstien (J. Searle Dawley, Edison, 1910), there is, in between scenes, an expository intertitle that uses of a close shot of a letter to develop character within the narrative, epistolary form used on the screen. A similar insert shot is used in the film Dash Through the Clouds (1912). Certainly by 1917 films made in the United States, and the films made by Sjöström and Stiller in Sweden had acquired a narrative transitivity, a chronological plot outline, more often than not their being characterized by their having a causal motivation of scene and its structure. In regard to film preservation and the intertitle, The Danish Film Institute used the screenplay to Dreyer's film Der var Engang to provide descraptive intertitles to the film that explain its plot, including explanatory descraption that now appears in the same intertitle as the dialouge to the silent photoplay. Carl Dreyer had adapted the screenplay from the stage and seperated the two different types of intertitle while writing.
D. W. Griffith uses offscreen space in his structuring of shots during the 1910 film What Daisy Said, directed for Biograph. Most of the shots to the film are exterior longshots with two or more characters with a static camera. Starring with Gertrude Robinson, Mary Pickford enters the frame from the far left of the screen and exits near to the end of the shot from that same side. In a subsequent shot she enters from the right side of the frame, quickly climbs a set of outdoor stairs, exits from the left and then reenters the frame from the left to begin the next shot, her dancing from one side of the screen to the other and the camera cutting almost on her action of entering and exiting to begin each shot. She runs in fron of the camera from the offscreen space that frames the exterior and then runs back to the same side of the screen to exit the frame in a brief shot. She later slowly descends the outdoor stairs during the film to depict despair. Her movement as a unifying image, the moving subject, serves to link the adjacent shots, her movement within the frame carried into each subsequent shot so that the spatial relationships with the frame of each individual shot are seen with the shot to shot relationships of camera position and reposition, character movement linking the image to create narrative continuity as the viewer is brought to the edges of the rectangular frame. The significant action of the scene bringing an involvement with with the protagonist, the causality in the storyline of the film is constructed without the frequent use of explanatory intertitles.
It is not suprising that Kenneth Macgowan writing as early as 1965 in Behind the Screen divides early silent film into three periods: 1896-1905; 1906-1915; 1916-1925. Form and content in film technique seem to have developed together.
In regard to film preservation and the search for silent film, in April 2005, United Press International reported that films dating back as far as 1910, including one film entitled "Little Snow White", were found by the Huntley Archive., the unknown of collection totalling more than six hundread cans of film kept hidden in an airplane hanger in the south of England. To add to this, during June of 2006, the only copy of the first British narrative film, a film depicting a pickpocket directed by Birt Acres in 1895, as well as as many as six films that were included in the body of work filmed by Thomas Edison, was found in an attic in West Midlands, England. In his biography of Victor Sjöström, Bengt Forslund exuberantly remarks upon the discovering of a hitherto unknown copy of Predators of the Sea (Sea Vultures, Havsgama, 1914). Urban Gad directed Asta Nielsen in her first film, The Abyss (Afgrunden, 1910) in Denmark, a film often written about due to her popularity and to a scene contained in it in which she dances eroticly; both directors went to Germany. Among the films produced by Nordisk Films Kompagni in 1906 was Bonden i Kobenhavn (Hunting of a Polar Bear), directed by its manager, Ole Olsen. Having established the Biografteatret, Copenhagen's first movie theater, Ole Olsen established its first production company in 1906, Ole Olsen's Film Industry, which that year filmed Pigeons and Seagulls (Duer og Maager). Ole Olsen also produced the 1906 films The Funeral of King Christian IX (King Christian IX's Bisaettelse) and The Proclamation of King Fredderick VIII (King Frederick VIII's Proklamtion). There were thirty one silent films produced by Ole Olsen that were given to the Royal Library during the year 1913.
Vitriolic Drama (Vitrioldrama), Violinist's Romance (Violinistens Roman), Rivalinder (A Woman's Duel/The Rivals), Gelejslaven, Tandpine, Knuste Haaband and Kortspillere were also filmed by Nordisk Films Kompagni during 1906. In 1906 Louis Halberstadt for Nordisk Films Kompagni directed the film Konfirmation, photographed by Rasmus Bjerregaard, it having been the first Danish silent film in which Greta Garbo co-star Jean Hersholt (The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox) was to appear.
The Danish photographer Axel Sorensen began filming for Larsen in 1906 and continued solely with Larsen untill 1911, when he began photographing first for Danish director August Blom and then for Danish director Urban Gad under the name of Axel Graatkjae. One film photographed by Axel Sorensen that Viggo Larsen is particularly noted for directing is The Lion Hunt (Lovejaten, 1907).
      In the year 1906, the actress Margrethe Jespersen had starred in the films Anarkistens svigermor (Larsen), Knuste hab, Caros dod, Haevnet (Larsen) and Fiskerliv i Norden (Larsen). Clara Nebelong appeared with her in the film Roverens brud. Among the films directed by Larsen in 1907 were A Modern Naval Hero (En Moderne Sohelt) and Once Upon a Time (Der var engang) with Clara Nebelong, Gerda Jensen and Agnes Norlund Seemann, both of which he appeared in as an actor. Actress Clara Nebelong also that year appeared in the films Vikingeblod and From the Rococo Times (Rosen), also directed by Viggo Larsen and photographed by Axel Sorensen. The Artist's Model's Sweetheart (Den Romersk Model) is among the films credited as having been directed by Viggo Larsen in 1908. 
     In 1909, Viggo Larsen directed the film Child as Benefactor (Barnet som Velgorer).
     Emmanuel Tvede directed only one film in Denmark, Faldgruben, and yet in it was future star Emilie Sannom in one of her first screen appearances, Danish actress Kate Fabian also having appeared in the film.
In addition to Nordisk Films, during 1910 the Regina Kunst Kompagni briefly produced films in Denmark, notably the first three films in which actress Clara Weith Pontoppidan had, as Clara Weith, starred, Elskovsleg, Djaevelsonaten, and Ett Gensyn, in which she starred with actresses Annegrette Antonsen and Ellen Aggerholm. Director Axel Strom directed Clara Weith in the film Dorian Grays Portraet, in which she starred with Valdemar Psilander as well as his having directed Johanne Dinesen in the film Den doe Rotte. Danish silent film actress Emilie Sannon also starred on screen for the Regina Kunst Kompagni, her having starred in the film Doden.
The versatility of Asta Nielsen, directed by her husband Urban Gad, was especially shown from film to film. The Abyss begins with a shot of the actress Asta Nielsen as Magda and her boarding a train as though it were a whistle stop. It continues with exterior longshots, untill the two characters are seen at an outdoor coffee table. There is a cut to an interior where she is seen in full shot opening a letter, the camera distance well behing the Vitagraph nine foot line, particularly for an interior filmed in 1910. Seated, the next shot shows her at a closer angle, filmed higher than her as she is reading the letter. It then cuts to a train station and then a series exterior full shots of her arriving in the country. The scene then shifts to an outdoor circus and an exterior full shot during which she dances. The storyline becomes dramatic, or sensational in its being melodramatic, where she flees with the circus, much like in the Greta Garbo film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox. There is in the film a near panning shot following characters as a horse drawn carriage parks near the exterior of a building, the camera then cutting to the interior where she is recieving guests.
     In Denmark, Urban Gad also directed actresses Emilie Sannom and Ellen Kornbeck, among the films Gad directed for Nordisk Films in 1911 two having been When Passion Binds Honesty (Dyrekobt Glimmer), in which both actresses appeared with Johannes Poulsen and Elna From, and An Aviator's Generosity (Den Store Flyver, 3 reels), which had starred Christel Holck. Also that year Gad directed the films Spansk Elsker, and Sydens Born in Denmark. It was also that year that Urban Gad and Asta Nielsen would travel to Germany to film for Deutsche Bioscop. Asta Nielsen appeared on screen under Urban Gad's direction with the cinematographer Karl Freund behind the camera that year in the films The Moth (Nachtfalter) and The Strange Bird (Der fremde Vogel). Asta Nieslen also continued in 1911 to appear under Gad's direction in the films The Traitoress (Die Verraterin), Hot Blood (Heisses Blut), In Those Large Eye Glances (In dem grossen Augenblick).
The first Finnish narrative film, Bootleggers (Salaviinanpolttajat), was given to the Swedish director Louis Sparre, the film photographed by Frans Engstrom in 1907. Jaenzon filmed The Dangers of a Fisherman's Life- An Ocen Drama (Fiskarliv ets farer-et Drama paa havet), an early Norwegian silent film under the direction of Hugo Hermansen. The first two Finnish directors, Erkki Karu and Teuvo Puro, are particularly noted for their use of nature as a background and landscape to complement the thematic, and yet Sylvi (1913) has been particularly likened to the film Ingeborg Holm, directed by Victor Sjöström. Peter Cowie notes that Karu's The Logroller's Bride (Koskenlaskijan morsian, 1923) has an exterior landscape scene that had been filmed by using six different cameras; the director later remade the film as the first Finnish film to include sound. The film Tukijoella (Log River) continued the influence of the Scandinavian film directors upon the silent cinema of Finland in their being a relation shown between the characters of the film and its background landscape, it having appeared in theaters in 1928. Also directing in Finland in 1913 was playwright Kaarle Halme who brought the films (The Bloodless Ones/Verettomat) and The Young Pilot (Nuori luotsi) to silent film audiences who had previously looked to the theater; the photplay, although quickly a new form of literature to convey the dramtic, and melodramtic, was still in Finland before 1919 contained within static camera angles without the frequent use of editing to complicate plotlines and character relationships, characters often shown in full figure, at the same camera distance, as at Vitagraph studios in the United States. 
 
Peter Lykke-Seest, who had founded the first Norwegian film studio, the Christiana Film Company, was a screenwriter for Victor Sjöström (and Mauritz Stiller) before his directing The Story of a Boy (Historien om en gut) in 1919.
Aside from this was the consideration that once films had been begun to have been made that were two reels or more, dialouge,through the use of intertitles, and expository descraptions could be added to the way the causality of plotline was developed during a film and how character was delineated, intertitles that would not only lend continuity to the linear progression of storyline but also bring unity to it. Victor Sjöström later would in fact use intertitles to act as retrospective first person, voice over narrative. As well, narrative would no longer need to be only linear in regard to its structure and the syntax of film could include transitions between scenes; technique, in part could become the attraction.
Technique would become the ordering of images within an arrangement of shots that would bring seperate compositions into a relation within narrative- the film technique that would later be described by Christian Metz as consisting of syntagmatic categories, technique that would avail questions regarding whether a segment would be autonomous, chronological, linear, narrative or descraptive, continuous and whether it would be organized, was beginning to be decided. Metz in fact had viewed the narrative function in cinema as being what had brought about its development, it being more than possible that the techniques developed by Ince and Griffith were the exingencies of narrative form.
That Sjöström the actor would later be shown in both long shot and close shot in the same sequence shows the relation between the character on the screen and the space within the frame; in that the camera had been becoming increasingly authorial, it often seemed to provide an embodied viewpoint from which an idealized spectator could view onscreen space, and by its being authorial, could seem to reposition the spectator during the film through the use of a second central character. While discussing film technique as something that is a reproduction of the images before the spectator, Raymond Spottiswoode claims that "it can never attain to art", and yethe adds that there must be a freedom available to the director "if he is to infuse his purpose and character into the beings of nature, to change them that their life becomes more living, their meaning more significant, their vlaue more sure and true." He continues that while it can be put forth that there is only one camera angle that any scene can be photographed from, one relation to the camera that any object can be aquire within the varying spatial relations that it takes while arranged with the other objects in front of the camera, "there is no reason to suppose that the choice of a camera angle is not perfectly free." The attention of the spectator could be directed spatially. It is by being authorial that the camera can impart meaning, technique not only to have brought an objectification of what was in front of the camera but also of the camera itself as it observed the actors within the scene, as it photographed the object, the structure of the image deigned by the placement of the camera, the pleasure of the spectator derived in part from the parallel between the spectator and the camera. In regard to the camera being authorial, a group member of an e-mailed silent film mailing list recently in a post quoted a postulate of the theory of there being a cinema of attractions, "The narrator in the early films is sporadic; an occaisional specter rather than a unified presence."
Sjöström had said, "At one time, Moje was without any doubt in love with Garbo, and she with him." and she had reiterated that if ever she were to love anyone it would be Mauritz Stiller, the director who had taken her to see her first motion picture in the United States, The Lady Who Lied (1925, eight reels) with Lewis Stone and Nita Naldi.

 Fredrick Sands quotes Victor Sjöström as having said, "For a certain time at least Stiller was in love with her and she with him. They told me so themselves." Stiller, after having met cameraman Julius Jaenzon, had begun directing for Svenska Bio in 1912 with Mother and Daughter (Mor och Dotter), in which he acted with Anna Norrie and Lily Jacobsson and then in the same year The Black Masks (De svarta maskerna), in which Sjöström acted with Lili Bech and the film The Tyrannical Fiancee (Den Tyranniske Fastmannen), in which he starred with Agda Helin. Produced by AB Svenska Biografteatern, the film The Black Masks, is a circus movie in regard to its subject. It has been noted that the film is exceptionally edited, its numerous, varied scenes, "a constantly changing combination of interiors and exteriors, close-ups and panoramic shots." (Forsyth Hardy). 
     Greta Garbo later had met Jaenzon on a train to Rasunda, Sweden after a screen test for Stiller. 
     Marina Dahlquist chronicles, "In the spring of 1912, Charles Magnusson, the head of Swedish Biograph, Siegmund Popert and Victor Sjostrom went to Paris to visit the Pathe studio, perhaps to discuss the distribution of Swedish films in the international market." In addition to securing co-production and Sweden's entrance into an international market, it brought director Paul Garbagni to the Lidingo studio, where he showcased Victor Sjostrom, George af Klerker and Anna Norrie in the film Springtime of Life (I Livets Var), adapted from the novel The First Mistress by August Blanche. Victor Sjöström and Mauritz Stiller had met in Stockholm the day before the shooting of the film The Gardner (The Broken Spring Rose) at the studios in Lindingo was to begin.
      Bengt Forslund chronicles that, "Sjöström did not know Stiller before they became associated at Svenska Bio, but he was aware of his reputation." It had been early in 1912 that Magnusson had met with screen writer Erik Ljungberger who gave Magnusson Victor Sjöström's name and who telephoned him for Magnusson. Victor Sjöström that year wrote and directed The Marriage Bureau (Aktenskapsbryan) with Victor Lundberg and directed A Secret Marriage (Ett hemlight giftermal) with Hilda Borgström, Smiles and Tears (Lojen och tarar) with Mia Hagman, a film written by Charles Magnusson and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, A Summer's Tale (En Sommar Saga) and Lady Marion's Summer Flirtation (Lady Marion's sommarflirt, photographed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Hilda Borgström.
That year Paul Garbagni directed both Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller with actress Astrid Endgelbrecht in the film Springtime of Life (In the Spring of Life, I livets var), almost as soon as Swedish cinema had begun, it had begun adapting the novel to film; the significance of the cinema of attractions would now be in the shot, the placement of the shot within the scene, display relegated to frame compositions.
Eric Malmberg that year directed the films Oceanbreakers and Stolen Happiness (Branningar eller Stulen lycka) with Lily Jacobsson, Tollie Zellman and Victor Arfvidson, Det grona halsbandet with Lilly Jacobsson and Agda Helin and Samhallets dom, with Lily Jacobsson, Agda Helin, Tollie Zellman and actress Lisa Holm in the first film in which she was to appear, as well as Agaton and Fina (Agaton och Fina), and Two Swedish Emigrants in America (Tva svenska emigranters afventyr i Amerika), both photographed by Julius Jaenzon, also with Lily Jacobsson. John Ekman directed Swedish actress Stina Berg in her first appearance on the screen in the film The Shepherd Girl (Saterjantan), photographed by Hugo Edlund for Svenska Biografteatern. The Last Performance (Dodsritten under cirkuskupolen), Musiken makt, starring Lily Jacobsson, Jupiter pa jorden, with Axel Ringvall, and Tva broder with Birger Lundstedt and Eugen Nilsson, were filmed by Georg af Klercker. Algot Sandberg that year directed the film Farbror Johannes ankomst till Stockholm.
In Malmo, Sweden, for the Danish film producer Frans Lundberg and Stora Biografteatern, Paul Welander in 1912 contributed the films The Pace That Kills (Broder och syster), The Circus Queen (Circusluft), and two films photographed by photographer Ernst Dittmer, The Boa Constrictor (Ormen), The Flirt (Karlekens offer) and Princess Charlotte (Komtessan Charlotte), starring Phillipa Frederiksen and Agners Nyrup-Christensen, Welander also that year having starred with Ida Nielsen in The Bonds of Marriage (Karleksdrommar) a film made by Frans Lundberg. Charles Magnusson would direct The Green Necklace (Det grona halsbandet) and The Vagabond's Galoshes (Kolingens galosher), both photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Jaenzon that year was the photographer and director of the film Condemned by Society.
1912 was also the year that Hjalmar Söderberg, often considered the nearest contemporary to Strindberg, published the novel The Most Serious Game (Den allvarsamm leken) and the one act play Aftonstjarnan. The first publication to appear written by Par Lagerkvist, People (Manniskor), a collection of short stories was also printed that year as well.
In the United States, Mary Pickford had a year earlier left Biograph where she had filmed under the direction of D. W. Griffith and Frank Powell to film with Thomas Ince at IMP studios during the first two months of the beginning of 1911. Among the films she made there were Their First Misunderstanding, The Dream, Maid or Man, At Duke's Command, The Mirror, While the Cats Away, Her Darkest Hour and
Artful Kate. Before returning to Biograph, she spent the last two months of 1911 at The Majestic Company, filming under the direction of George Loane Tucker and Owen Moore.
The year of 1912 was to mark the first film with Lillian and Dorothy Gish, An Unseen Enemy, along with the Mary Pickford film A New York Hat, the first photoplay written by Anita Loos. Within the short scenes of the film, Mary Pickford is shown in to the right of the screen in medium close shot trying on a hat, her hands and bended elbows in frame. Griffith cuts on the action of her leaving the frame to exterior shots. In a later scene, Griffith positions her to the left of the screen, and, his already having shown time having elapsed between the two two scenes, then brings the ensuing action back to the right of the screen frame. As an early reversal of screen direction, or screen positioning, there is the use of scene editing in between the complementary positions of showing her in the same interior. During the film, the actress is, almost referentially, often kept in right profile, facing the right of the screen's frame.
During the Biograph silent film short The Musketeers of Pig Alley (1912) Griffith frames Lillian Gish at a table, only half of her visible in the frameline untill she leaves the table, and then cuts on the action of her leaving the frame as she crosses the screen from one interior into the adjacent one, her crossing the screen from left to right in both the shots Griffith had edited together, toward the far left side of the screen in the first, toward the middle of the screen in the next. Vertical space allows a disclosure in the film, one allowed by the moving figure as Gish skirts from one room to the next, her moving into the unexpected space the audience may or may not have already seen where there is action that has been simultaneously transpiring within the temporality of the film. In a film from the same year in which Gish only briefly appears, A Burgler's Dilema, Griffith again cuts on action often, particularly during entrances, but interpolates very brief exterior shots in between scenes, increasing their frequency and interspersing within the scene as the film continues and the pace of the action hastens, or complicates, with the plotline.
If it is that spatial compostition can be included as a part of the grammar, or syntax, of film, within that is pictorial continuity and the use of visual tropes. A spatial relation is established through screen direction as figure movment becomes motion within the frame and action that the camera can cut on before continuing it in the subsequent frame, the camera cutting within the scene for effect. The spatial movement of the character is continued from shot to shot, linking each of them through a directional continuity, and yet, within the scene, the contour of objects, their proximity to the camera and their arrangement in front of the camera as its various positions cause it to become more authorial, is varied with each contrast between the adjacent shots within the temporality of the scene. As an inscraption of its own being authorial, the camera could participate in narrative drama as an unseen presence, particularly through its own repostioning, unobtrusive if omnipresent in its guiding the spectator toward the action of the scene. Establishing the relation between spectator and content, the actress as an element of the film's pictorial compostion, in turn, could, as an aesthetic object, often substitute for the gaze of the female spectator, particularly as a motif for femininity, quite possibly more noticebly during cut in close ups where, while photographed with the space between her and the camera only represented by her near filling the area of the frame, spectator interest would recess into brief plateau before the narrative would climb into an increase of identification untill the quiet, slow stillness of the close up that would come next.
The following year Mary Pickford would go from Biograph to Famous Player to make Bishop Carriage (four reels), Hearts Adrift (four-five reels) and A Good Little Devil (five reels) with the director Edwin S. Porter. Of the film, Pickford wrote, "we were made to read our entire speeches before the camera. The result was a silent reproduction of the play, instead of what should have been, a restatement of the play in terms of action and pantomine." For the most part, when filming her, Porter used medium and long shots; Kirkland would later use the close up. Writing about 1912 in her autobiography Sunshine and Shadow, silent film actress Mary Pickford remembers her first close up, "Billy took the shot, which was a semi-close up, cutting me at the waist...It was a new image of my face that I was waiting to see. What a frightening experience when my grotesquely magnified face finally flashed on the screen...But I was critical enough to notice the make up...'I think there's too much eyebrow pencil and shadowing around my eyes,' I said. Later,on a seperate occaision, she had realized there was low light reflected back towards her while she was readying her make up for a scene and had asked her director to use artificial light from below while filming her. The autobiography of silent film star Douglas Fairbanks, Laugh and Live, is available online from sunrisesilents.
Having directed  The Indian Massacre and Across the Plains the year before, Thomas Ince directed the silent films The Invaders (three reels), starring its co-director, Francis Ford,and Ethel Grandin, Shadows of the Past and Custer's Last Fight in 1912. Ince, and the directors that photographed with him, have been attributed with having been among the early directors to have varied camera postitions with the use of more than one shot during a scene, particularly the use of the reverse angle to cut around a scene and its use to develop the action of the scene during its climax. It is often acknowledged that Thomas Ince was the first director to use a shooting scrapt. Author Kenneth MacGowan notes that Ince "strove for a theatric effect", but only with scrapts that were "direct and tight" and used intertitles to advance character action, dramatically relating events as a technique of exposition. If this was later remarked upon as being part of a comparision and contrast, Mary Pickford was to write, "As I recall, D. W. Griffith never adhered to a scrapt. Improvisation was frequently the order of the day. Sometimes the camera registered an impromputu piece of off-story action and that too stayed in the film." Lillian Gish in no way contradicts her by writing about how Griffith used the editing room to develop storyline, particularly by adding close ups and shots of objects, "Later, he would make sense of the assorted shots in the cutting room, giving them drama and continuity." These cut-in shots were inserted into the scene to add "depth and dimension to the moment".
During 1912 the first film that would star Mary Miles Minter would appear on the marquee, the one reel The Nurse and Anna Q. Nilsson would make her first film, the one reel Molly Pitcher. Oddly enough, Nilsson's studio, Kalem, had given the title role of The Vampire to Alice Hollister, the two later united on the screen in A Sister's Burden (1915). In addition to the films of Louise Glaum,whom Fred Niblo directed in Sex (1920, seven reels), and Valeska Suratt, another film of that title had starred Olga Petrova, it seeming that quickly " 'vamp' became an all too common noun and in less than a year it was a highly active verb, transitive and intransitive" (Ramsaye). Stiller had directed Sjöström in his first roles as an actor in For sin Karlekskull (Because Her Love), When Love Kills (Nar karleken dodar) in which he starred with Georg af Klercker, The Child (Barnet) and, coincidently, The Vampire (Vampyren/The Nightclub Dancer),in which he starred with Lili Bech. Anna Q. Nilsson would appear in War's Havoc, Under a Flag of Truce and The Soldier Brothers of Suzanna in 1912. Lillian Gish would later play a vamp in Diane of the Follies (1916). Birgitta Steene writes that in the films of Ingmar Bergman, "the vamp is portrayed as the social victim rather than the embodiment of sin." 
 
Danish silent film direct Wilhelm Gluckstadt began directing in 1912 with the film The Blue Blood (Det blaa Blod), scrapted by Stellan Rye and starring Elina Jorgen Jensen, Grethe Ditlevsen and Gudrun Houlberg. That year Wilhelm Gluckstadt also directed the exceptionally beautiful Danish film actress Eimilie Sannom in the films Konfetti, De to brodre and Zigeunerorkestret. Exceptionally pretty Danish film actress Ebba Thomsen first appeared on the screen in 1912 under the direction of Robert Dinesen in two films, Den glade Lojtnant and Lystrallen. Danish film director Aage Brandt during 1912 would direct Vera Brechling in A Death Warning (Dodsvarlet)
Danish silent film director August Blom in 1912 filmed with the photographer Johanne Ankerstjerne for Nordisk Film, notably with the actress Clara Weith Pontoppidan, whom he directed in the film Faithful Unto Death (Et Hjerte af Guld) and had directed a year earlier in the film In the Prime of Life (Ekspedtricen), photographed by Axel Sorensen. Blom that year also for Nordisk Film directed Robert Dinesen in the films Stolen Treaty (Secret Treaty/ Den Magt Trede
and The Black Chancellor (Den Sorte Kansler) with Valdemar Psilander, Ebba Thomsen and Jenny Roelsgaard, The Black Chancellor having been a film in which Danish silent film scraptwriter Christian Schroder appeared on screen as an actor. That year August Blom also directed A High Stake (Hjaerternes Kamp.
Danish film director Benjamin Christensen , however by 1913 had begun directing with his first film Sealed Orders (Det hemmelinghstulde X), a melodrama that had included a use of montage in its editing, followed by Blind Justice (Haevnansnat, 1915), both films having starred the actress Karen Caspersen. The two films by Christensen were of the only three produced by the Dansk Biograf Compagni. Benjamin Christensen had starred as an actor with actress Karen Caspersen and Ellen Malmberg during 1913 in Skaebnebaeltet, directed by Danish silent film director Sven Rindom, his also that year having starred in the films Children of the Stage (Scenens Born, Bjorn Bjornson), starring Bodil Ipsen and Aud Egede-Nissen and Lille Klaus Og Store Klaus (Elith Reumert). Children of the Stage was produced by Dania Biofilm Kompagni.
For Ingmar Bergman,the first notable Swedish film is Ingeborg Holm from 1913. In an interview with Jonas Sima, he describes the directing of Victor Sjöström, "It is one of the most remarkable films ever made...Often he works on two planes, something being played out in the foreground,but then,through a doorway for instance,one sees something quite different is going on in the background.". Produced by AB Svenska Biograteatern and five reels in legnth, it is also his screenplay from a play by Nils Krook which Sjöström had adapted for the stage in 1907. Like Sarah Bernhardt, Hilda Borgström had came to film. Also in the film are Aron Lindgren and George Gronroos. William Larsson and Carl Barcklind both appear in the film as well. It is almost astounding that under the title Give Us This Day the legnth of the film is listed as having reached seven reels. Einar Lauritzen wrote, "The primitive tableau of the time cannot destroy the genuine feeling for both character and enviornment which Sjöström brought to almost every scene."
Much like it being that the films of Bergman "concern interior journeys: journeys into the soul of the character, or into the souls of two related characters" (John Simon), that Ingeborg Holm was a contemporary drama is particularly a matter for aesthetics, as was the observation that there may have been the photoplay of intimacy, the photoplay of action or the photoplay of splendor. As a side note from the present author, the caption on the cover to the filmed version of The Painted Veil, starring Naomi Watts reads, "Sometimes the greatest journey is the distance between two people." What is beautiful is not only that the images of film consist of our being in a position to them spectatorially, or the look that is entailed within suture, but that behind the close ups of faces there is a character, quite often one in the midst of drama- if the cinema of attractions was followed by a cinema of narrative integration, what concerns aesthetics is that no matter how maudlin or whether or not plot was translated into fantasy, the cinema had begun to develop character more fully, more deeply. Bengt Forslund writes, "I am fairly convinced that it was always the fate of the individual that intrigued Sjöström- not the circumstances that led to it."
Interestingly enough, one of the best explanations of classical narrative construction, narrative form which is often based on there being a casual relationship between events that are connected spatially during the film brought about by its characters, comes from the Swedish director Ingmar Bergman. In his autobiography Images, Ingmar Bergman relates that it was Stina Bergman, then head of the scrapt department, who had asked for him at Svensk Filmindustri. She and her husband Hjalmar Bergman had in fact met with Victor Sjöström while in the United States, where Stina Bergman had acquired the technique of scraptwriting. "This technique was extremely obvious, almost rigid; the audience must never have the slightest doubt where they were in the story. Nor could there be any doubt about who was who, and the transitions between various points of the story were to be treated with care. High points should be allotted and placed at specific places in the scrapt and culmination had to be saved for the end. Dialougue had to be kept short." Author David Bordwell often approximates this descraption of continuity in the feature film. Bergman continues in the autobiography to write that many of the remarks that Stina Bergman made at that time were treasured by him and that Hjalmar Bergman was his idol.
The Miller's Daughter, The Song of the Shirt (1908) and A Corner in Weat (1909) directed by D. W. Griffith, are early films that depicted the individual within a social context, the early photoplay Falling Leaves directed by Alice Guy Blanche the year prior to the filming of Ingeborg Holm, also being among films which centered its characters around a social drama. Later films, including The White Rose (1923), with Mae Marsh, more elaborately presented theme as being intertwined with the drama in which the characters were situated. Sweden, in 1953, made The Bread of Love (Karlekens brod). Writing about the films of Victor Sjöstrom, Bengt Forslund notes, "Guilt Redeemed, shot in the early summer of 1914, may perhaps be seen as an attempt to repeat the success of Ingeborg Holm. Guilt Redeemed (Skana Skuld) starred actress Lili Bech.
The films that Victor Sjöström had made in 1913 were scheduled to be shot within one or two weeks. Among them were Half-Breed (Halvblod) with Karin Molander, its screenwriter Peter Lykke-Seest, The Voice of Blood (Blodets rost) with Greta Almroth and Ragna Wettergreen, The Conflicts of Life (Livets konflikter) starring Gösta Ekman, A Good Girl Should Solve Her Own Problems (Bra flicka reder sig sjalv) with Clara Pontoppidan and Jenny Tschernichin and The Clergyman (Prasten), starring Clara Pontoppidan and Egil Eide. Alongside Sjöström, that year Maurtiz Stiller would film Nar larmklockan ljunder, with Lilly Jacobsson, en pojke I livets strid, The Modern Suffragette (Den moderna suffragetten), Brother Against Brother (People of the Border, Gransfolken), which was the film debut of Edith Erastoff and in which Anders Henrikson had appeared, The Girl From Abroad (The Unknown Woman, Den okanda), with Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson and Grete Wiesenthal and The Fateful Roads of Life (Pa livets odesvagar), with Clara Pontoppidan. No less than four Swedish silent film actresses would make their first appearance on the screen in Mauritz Stiller's film The Fashion Model (Mannekangen) : Ida Otterström, Anna Diedrich, Lili Ziedner and Mary Johnson. Of Svenska Bio in 1913, Begnt Förslund notes, "Sjöström was not always permitted to choose his material." scrapts were submitted to Victor Sjöström much in the same way they would be to directors the United States.
     Carl Barklind directed his first film that year, The Suicide Club (De lefvande dodas klubb), photographed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Hilma Barcklind and Nils Arehn. Barcklind had appeared as an actor in the film Den glada ankan in 1907. Paul Welander directed and Axel Briedahl scrapted the 1913 film Black Heart and White (Karleken rar) starring Ida Nielsen, Martha Helsengreen and Ellen Hygolm. John Bergqvist that year directed the films Amors pilar eller Karlek i Hoga Norden and Lappens brud eller Dramat i vildmarken, both with Birger Lundstedt and Hildi Waernmark as well as the film Truls som mobiliserar, with Otto Sandgren. Paul Welander in 1913 directed A Fallen Star (Hjaltetenoren). Arthur Donaldson that year directed Lilly Jacobsson in the film En skargardsflickas roman, which he wrote and in which also appeared as an actor.
In 1913, Griffith directed Blanche Sweet in the films Love in an Apartment, Broken Ways, If We Only Knew and Death's Marathon. After the four reel Judith of Bethulia, a film which interestingly "is really an interior drama, in as much as the majority of the action is thoughtful, an interchange of emotions between two characters" (Slide), Griffith had left Biograph for Mutual to direct Gish in the five reel The Battle of the Sexes. With the advent of the feature film, in adddition to including a greater number of characters during each film, directors could more often include minor characters that would become spectators in the film watching the action, as when the camera had cut from a master shot to a closer angle, or during panning, character interest increased as the characters the viewer was watching were observed by the other characters in the film, the individual characters on the screen visual elements of the film that were to move in relation to each other, the film's secondary characters framing the action and visual interest of the film. The editing of Griffith would in fact begin to shift from one group of characters to another more often.
Betty Nansen, before her later appearing on the the silver screen in the United States, made her first two films in Demark in 1913, Bristet Lykke (A Paradise Lost, August Blom) and Prinsesse Elena (The Princess's Dilemma, Holger-Madsen). While in the United States, Betty Nansen appeared in the films of producer William Fox. Among them, four were directed by J. Gordon Edwards in 1915: A Woman's Resurrection, The Song of Hate, scrapted by Rex Ingram, Should a Mother Tell, also written by Rex Ingram, and Anna Karenina (five reels), scrapted by Clara Beranger.
Lon Chaney appeared in his first films in 1913, among those being Back to Life (Alan Dwan, two reels), The Lie, Discord and Harmony and The Embezzler. There were two film adapations of A Study in Scarlet photographed in 1914, one in the United States, in which the director Francis Ford also starred as the detective Sherlock Holmes, the other in England, produced by British film director George Pearson with James Braginton in the role. The latter film was followed by a version of The Valley of Fear, with H. A. Saintsbury, in 1916.
Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström both had continued to direct in 1914 and 1915, the former with His Wife's Past (Hans hustrus forflutuna), The Avenger (Hamnaren) ,which, starring Karin Molander, was the first film in which the actress Tyra Dorum had appeared on the screen, Playmates (Lekkamraterna), The Red Tower (Det Roda tornet), written by Charles Magnusson and starring Karin Molander, Stormy Petrel (Stormfageln), starring Lilly Jacobsson The Master Thief (Matsertjuven) with Wanda Rothgardt, Gentleman of the Room (Kammarjunkaren) with Clara Pontoppidan, Madame de Thebes, starring Karin Molander and The Dagger (Dolken) starring Lars Hanson.
The latter, Victor Sjöström, continued directing with The Miracle (Miraklet) with Clara Pontoppidan and Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson, photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. In regard to the film, based on a story by Zola, Bengt Forslund views as the foreground to the film Monastery of Sendomir and Love's Crucible with the caution that Sjöström may not truly have had an affinity with making "cloistered romances" much in the way his making The Divine Woman may have been pedestrian, significantly the author adds, "It is clearly the first time that Sjöström consciously made use of a particular stretch of natural landscape as a background to the drama." Victor Sjöström also that year continued with Landshovdingens dottar, a film adapted by Sjöström from the novels of Marika Stiernstedt, Do Not Judge (Domen icke) starring Hilda Borgström, Children of the Streets (Gatans Barn), photographed by Henrik Jaenzon and starring Stina Berg, Love Stronger than Hate (Karlek Starkare an Hat), starring Emmy Elffors and John Ekman, Daughter of the High Mountain (Hogfjalletts dotter), in which Sjöström starred with Greta Almroth and Lili Bech, Hearts that Meet (Hjartan som motas), photographed by Henrik Jaenzon and starring Karin Molander and Greta Almroth, The Strike (Strejken), in which Sjöström starred with Lilly Jacobsson, It Was in May (Det var i Maj), written by Algot Sandberg and photographed by Henrik Jaenzon, The Price of Betrayal (Judaspengar), starring Stina Berg, Stick to your last, Shoemaker (Skomakare, bliv vid din last), starring Stina Berg and In the Hour of Trial (I provingens stund), in which he starred with Greta Pfeil and Kotti Chave. Recently, the theater in the city of Uppsala where the Swedish silent films Domen icke and Bra flicka reder sig sjalv, directed by Victor Sjöström, and the film Stromfagelin directed by Mauritz Stiller, were first shown has been renovated, restoring it to how it first looked when built in 1914. Victor Sjöström ,incidentally, had returned to the stage in 1914 and 1915 at the Intima Theatre under the direction of Gustaf Collijn for a production of Strindberg's play To Damascus.
After his having starred in the films of Victor Sjöström, Gunnar Tolnaes, who in 1915 appeared in the films One Out of the Many (En av de manga) with Greta Almroth, Lilly Jacobsson and Lili Bech, and When Artists Love (Nar konstnarer alska), returned to Denmark from Sweden to film Doktor X under the direction of Robert Dinesen.
At Svenska Biograteatern in 1914 Axel Breidahl directed King Solomon's Judgement (Salomos drom) with Lili Zeidner and Stina Berg and the films The Birthday Present (Fodelsedagspresenten) starring Karin Alexandersson, Stina Berg and Lili Ziedner and The Way to A Man's Heart (Vagen till mannens hjarta) starring Lili Ziedner, Stina Berg and Hilda Borgström, both photographed by Henrik Jaenzon.
Danish Silent film director Holger-Madsen often filmed with the cinematographer Marius Clausen. Betty Nansen in 1914 starred in his film For the Sake of A Man (Under Skaebnens Hjul), which, also starring Maja Bjerre-Lind, Christel Holch and Ingeborg Jensen, was among those films he photographed with Clausen. In 1914, Danish silent film director Vilhelm Gluckstadt directed the film Youthful Sin (Ungdomssynd), starring Sigrid Neiiendam.
Swedish Film director Edmond Hansen in 1915 directed the film Revenge (Hamnden ar ljuv), his also having that year directed Edith Erastoff in two films for Svenska Biografteatern, A Hero in Spite of Himself (Hjalte mot sin vilja), which was not only the first film photographed by Swedish cameraman Carl Gustaf Florin but also the first film scrapted by Swedish screenwriter Oscar Hemberg, and The First Prize (Hosta vinsten), photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Arvid Endglin wrote and directed the film An Error (En forvillelse), starring Clara Pontoppidan, William Larsson and Egil Eide and directed Patrick's Adventures (Patriks aventyr), starring Alfred Lundberg and Hilda Forsslund, the film having been the first in which she was to appear.


Klercker's assistant director, Gothson having had been being the assistant director to the 1915 film In the King's Uniform (I kronas klader).


Besides the photographers Julius and Henrik Jaenzon, another of Sweden's cameramen was Hugo Edlund who photographed the film His Father's Crime (Hans faders brott, 1915), the director F. Magnussen's first film, it having starred Richard Lund and Thure Holm. Both Edlund and Julius Jaenzon are listed as having been the cinematographer to the films Den Moderna suffragetten and For sin karleks skull. Magnussen in 1916 also directed the films The Hermits Wife (Enslingens hustru), starring Greta Almroth, Her Royal Highness (Hennes kungliga hoghet) ,starring Karin Molander and At the Eleventh Hour (I elfte timmen), also starring Greta Almroth, each filmed by Hugo Edlund.
It was in 1915 that Frances Marion began writing photoplays, her being the scenarist to Daughter of the Sea (Charles W. Seay, five reels). She wrote The Gilded Cage (H. Knoles, five reels) in 1916 and Stolen Paradise (H. Knoles, five reels), Battle of Hearts (Apfel, five reels) and The Feast of Life in 1917. Theda Bara would make her first film in 1915, The Clemenceau Case and two films for the director Herbert Brenon, Kreutzer Sonata (five reels) and Two Orphans (seven reels), which had been filmed by Selig in 1911 with Kathlyn Williams. Montague Love, who appeared with Lillian Gish in Victor Sjöström's The Wind began in film in 1915 with Exile and in 1916 with A Woman's Way, The Gilded Cage, and Bought and Paid For.
Greta Garbo director Clarence Brown during 1915-1917 was the assistant director and editor at Universal for director Maurice Tourneur. Notably, in 1925 he directed The Goosewoman with Louise Dresser and Constance Bennet for Universal/Jewel. Greta Garbo cameraman William Daniels had been an assistant cameraman at Triangle before becoming chief cameraman at Universal.
(photo:cinemateket) Directed by Victor Sjostrom and photgraphed by Julius Jaenzon, the first of Gustaf Molander's screenplays to become well known was Terje Vigen (1916), from the poem by Henrik Ibsen. The intertitles being from the poem, the structure of a poem would accomodate the structure of a silent film, and yet the film shows that there was beginning to be a grammar to film technique of its own. Edison's 1912 The Charge of the Light Brigade has a similar use of the lines from the poem as intertitles and there had been an adaptation by the Independent Motion Picture Company of Hiawatha (1909) with Gladys Hulette as well. The 1912 poem Vanteenheittajat, written in Finland by Eino Leino, was to be filmed shortly after its publication by director Kaarle Halme as Summer (Kesa) with Hilma Rantanen. In regard to film preservation, the film Terje Vigen was rediscovered from a German print in 2004 and the translated restored intertitles charmingly read Svenska Biografteatern at the top framed by their owl logo and are in the from of stanzaic quotation, their being expository. The opening sequence is shot beuatifully and shows Victor Sjostrom portraying Terje Vigen as elderly against a background of the ocean at night during a storm in a series of shots during which he is filmed in blue tint and is shown framed by a doorway in adjacent masked shots alternating between over-the-shoulder and strait on shots, our sharing his view of the storm as well as watching his looking out into it. The intertitles then take the form of narrator as the film cuts to a restropective scene shot in a sepia-like red of Sjostrom as a young man aboard a ship to begin the storyline. Tytti Soila writes, "The film also established the term 'literary cinema' in Sweden." When reviewed in the United States, the film was seen as "forcefull despite its occaisional indulgence in too much sentimentality and moralizing." Bengt Forslund writing about the film notes, "the explanation is undoubtedly that the descraption of Nature plays such a major role. It is really the sea that has the main part, like the mountains in The Outlaw and His Wife and the dust strom in Sjostrom's last major work, The Wind. Appearing in the film with Victor Sjostrom are Bergliot Husberg, Edith Erastoff and August Falck. Molander had written Miller's Dokument (1916), directed by Konrad Tallroth and starring Greta Almroth, before writing for Sjöström. Later, with his film Defiance (Trots, 1952) Molander was to introduce another screenwriter to modern audiences, Vilgot Sjöman (Lek pa regnbagen, Playing on the Rainbow, 1958). The film begins the story of Terje Vigen aboard a ship, the early exterior shots including his climbing the mast. Sjostrom cuts from an extreme longshot to a full shot of Terje Vigen sitting on the mast. His wife in the film is portrayed by Swedish silent film actress Bergliot Husberg the interior shots in which she is shown with are for the main part non-titned. Sjostrom is seen in the foreground of a midshot during a tinted exterior shot and then, during the shot, runs from the camera to the background of the shot, the camera then returning to an exterior midshot of the husband and wife. To reinforce his use of the Scandinavian landscape and the foreground of the shot as a source of compositional depth, the interior scenes are again, contrastingly, non-tinted intercut with shots of Terje Vigen silhouetted in the froeground of the shot in front of the expanse of the night sea, the film tinted blue. During the film, the movement within the composition of the frame is often that of the sea. Act Two beins with Terje Vigen having eluded his pursuers. He is show in the foreground of the shot in his skiff rowing against the background of the sea, spotted in a vignette circled masked shot of his pursuers telescope. Crosses at a graveyard are silhouetted against the ocean's horizon to end Act Two. Act Three begins with the same scene that was used to being the film, Sjostrom as elderly looking toward the ocean at night. He leaves his cottage to kneel on the beach, the waves crashing against the rock. Sjostrom espies a sinking craft admist the pounding surf and boards his skiff to aid in their rescue, the ship tossing in the spray of the ocean. In a later shot, Sjostrom leaves his cottage as Edith Erastoff sails away, the film ending with a shot of the crosses at the graveyard near the ocean.
Writing about Victor Sjöström and quoted by Charlotte de Silva for the Embassy of Sweden in London, Jon Wengström of the Swedish Film Institute writes, "The pictorial compositions in Havsgamar/Sea Vultures (1916) and the complex narrative structure in the recently rediscovered Dodskyssen/Kiss of Death (1916) show a director in full command of the medium." In addition to The Kiss of Death (Dodskyssen,four reels), in which Sjöström playing a double role and which not only uses retrospective narrative but also includes the use of double exposures, in 1916 Sjöström directed the films Ships that Meet (Skepp som Motas) with Lili Bech and August Warberg, Therese, a melodrama which had included intercutting and retrospective narrative starring Lars Hanson and She Was Victorious (Hon segrade) , in which he starred with Lili Bech and Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson. Mauritz Stiller directed The Fight for His Heart (Kampen om hans hjarta), starring Karin Molander, His Wedding Night (Hans brollopsnatt), The Lucky Brooch (Lyckonalen), starring Greta Almroth and The Mine Pilot. The most widely known of Stiller's films from 1916 were The Ballet Primadonna (Balettprimadonnan) with Lars Hanson, Love and Journalism (Karleck och journalistik) with Karin Molander and The Wings (Vigarne), a film in which photographer Julius Jaenzon appears on the screen.
Appearing on the screen as as an actor as well, Edmond Hansen at Svenska Biografteatern during 1916 wrote and directed the films The Consequences of Jealousy (Svartsjukans foljder) with Eric Petschler, Stina Berg and Ellis Elis and Old Age and Folly (Alderdom och darskap) with Edith Erastoff and Greta Almroth. He that year directed Love's Wanderings (Karlekens irrfarder), photographed by Carl Florin and starring Nicolay Johannsen and Greta Pfeil as well as Pa detta numera vanliga satt, starring Greta Almroth and Jenny Tschenichin Larsson.
Among the films directed by George af Klerker during 1916 was Triumph of Love (Karleken segrar), starring Mary Johnson, Tekla Sjoblom, Selma Wiklund Klerker and Lily Cronwin in the first film in which she was to appear and Mother in Law Goes for a Stroll (Svarmor pa vift) starring Greta Johansson, Maja Cassel and Zara Backman. Also that year, Geoge af Klercker wrote and directed the film Calle's New Clothes (Calles nya klader), starring Mary Johnson and Tekla Sjoblom, and Calle as a Millionaire (Calle som miljonar), the first film in which actress Helge Kihlberg was to appear. Actress Gerda Thome Mattssen appearred in two films directed by George af Klerker, the first having been Hogsta visten(1916), in which the director George af Klerker is seen with heron screen as an actor. During 1916, Klerker was allowed to film more professionally in a larger studio, on Otterhallan and in Castles, one being at Borshuset. The running time of the films of George af Klercker that year went from those of a half hour duration, to those lasting an hour. One Swedish webpage can be quoted when looking for the use of landscape in Swedish films and the filming of a direct relationship betwee the motifs in nature and those that develope character, "Like Stiller and Sjöström is af Klerker sparse with the custom of closes-up. that he on your height uses that dramatic effective emphasis in an enviornment that total to be dominated of the entire picture format. 
In 1916, F. Magnussen directed Victor Sjostrom, Lili Bech and Lars Hanson in the film The Gold Spider (Guldspindeln), photographed by Hugo Edlund for Svenska Biografteatern.
Captain Grogg's Wonderful Journey (Kapten Grogg's underbara resa) in 1916 introduced to Swedish audiences a series of films showcasing the animation of director Victor Bergdahl that would continue untill 1922. One of two films directed by Bergdahl that would use animation to narrate circus stories, Cirkus Fjollinski, also appeared that year.
As part of its Women and the Silent Screen series held June 11-13, 2008, the Cinematecket in Stockholm will be screening a the 1916 Danish film The Queen of the Stock Exchange (Die Borsenkonigin), written and directed by Edmund Edel. The film is from the Nederlands Filmmuseum. Paired with the film will be the trailer to the lost film The Sunken (Die Gesunkenen, Rudolf Walther-Fein, 1925) also starring Asta Nielsen, a film in which she costarred with the actress Olga Tschechova. 

In the United States, Lillian Gish during appeared in the films Sold for Marriage, Flirting with Fate and Pathways of Life. Mae Marsh had made Hoodoo Ann (five reels) for Triangle as well as The Wharf Rat (five reels). Mary Pickford that year was filming under the direction of John B. O'Brien, for whom she made three films five reels in legnth, The Eternal Grind, The Foundling and Hulda from Holland. That year she also starred in Poor Little Peppina (Sidney Olcott, seven reels) and Less Than Dust (John Emerson, seven reels). silent film actress Corrine Griffith, "The Orchid Lay of the Screen", appeared in the film The Last Man in 1916.
Triangle Film Corporation had been formed in late 1915 to combine the efforts of Thomas Ince, D. W. Griffith and Mack Sennett. Sennett, who began at Biograph as an actor under Griffith had founded Keystone Studios in 1912. Not only was Sennett present at Biograph and Triangle with Griffith, but as a pioneer of silent film his name is alongside Griffith's in his contribution to the development of film technique and the development of a grammar of film, a grammar of scene construction. It may well be that the comedies of Mack Sennett have their origin in, or are a continuation of, the earliest of narrative films that prior to 1907, and prior to Griffith's joining Biograph, had brought together a cinema of attractions with films that depicted action, or the chase film. Just as Swedish silent film directors would use nature and landscape as a visual language, comedy would rely upon the visual in its use of the sight-gag. Among the comedies of 1912 were Love, Speed and Thrills directed by silent film director Mack Sennett and Love, Loot and Crash, also directed by the silent film pioneer Sennett, both films currently in public domain and both presently offered online by the Internet Archive, who were kind enough to write to the present writer and who it is sincerely hoped that in the future they will return again as my reader.
At Keystone in 1914 Mack Sennett had directed the first films of Charlie Chaplin, Making a Living and the silent film Kid Auto Races at Venice. In 1915, the silent film The Tramp would introduce a Chaplin character that would become familiar to audiences untill the end of the silent era.Silent comedian Charlie Chaplin would in 1916 leave Essanay studios, where he had made fourteen films, to film two-reel comedies with the Mutual Company, where he filmed The Immigrant (1917). Anthony Slide writes that Chaplin used as much film to shoot The Immigrant as D. W. Griffith had to film The Birth of A Nation. It was also at Mutual, where Chaplin had made eight films untill 1923, that Chaplin would film his first full legnth feature as director.
In 1912, while Stiller was beginning to film comedy in Sweden and Mack Sennet was beginning to film at Keystone, one of the other studios to produce comedies was Vitagraph. After joining Vitagraph in 1910, a studio for which he appeared in the film A Tale of Two Cities (1911) with Florence Turner and Norma Talmadge, John Bunny quickly became one of the most beloved of early silent screen comedians, teaming with Flora Finch in 1912 for films that included A Cure for Pokeritis, Stenographers Wanted, Irene's Fascination, and The Suit of Armor. The 1913 film Queen for A Day with John Bunny and the 1915 film Unusual Honeymoon with Flora Finch was screened July 30,2005 in Rosslyn, Virginia, near Arlington Virginia, as part of their film festival of silent comedies, which opened July 28 with the film Pool Sharks and a retrospective of the films of Mack Sennet, including Billy Bevan in the film Hoboken to Hollywood (1928).
The Sunbeam, the first film written by June Mathis appeared on the screen during the year 1916 and Frank Lloyd would direct his first film, The Code of Marcia Gray (five reels), King Vidor his first film, Intrigue. Louise Glaum would that year star in The Wolf Woman (five reels). John Gilbert appeared in the films Apostle of Vengence, Bullets and Brown Eyes (five reels), The Eye of Night, Hell's Hinges and The Phantom and Lewis Stone appeared in his first films, The Man Who Found Out (1915) and Honor's Altar (Raymond B. West, 1916, five reels).

In directing The Girl From Marsh Croft (Tosen fran Stormyrtopet, 1917) for AB Svenska Biografteatern, Victor Sjostrom began a marriage between novel and film in his adapting the novels of Selma Lagerlof-one that would establish Swedish silent cinema as being f ilmic poetry. It is also his screenplay, as are the other screenplays he adapted from her novels, each of them having been reviewed by Lagerlöf. Writing in 1971 that the films of Swedish silent cinema were those to which "the prescence of mountain and pastoral landscapes gave a dimension of authenticity and elemental persuasiveness", Peter Cowie remarks upon Sjöström's use of bucolic subjects, David Robinson upon Sjöström's depiction of man's relationship to nature. Both find something spiritual or supernatural to the writings of Selma Lagerlöf, as though within the relation to the character's surroundings there is a solitude. Lauritzen noted that there is often the "juxtaposition of man and nature" in early Swedish cinema. Although remarking upon the films of Brunius, Stiller and Sjöström not having had been distributed to large audiences, as were the films of Ernst Lubitsch (Passion) that had starred Pola Negri, author Lewis Jacobs writes, "Opposed to the artificiality of the German films in their stress on the real world of nature, the sea and the landscape, Swedish pictures were impressive for their simplicity, realism, sensitive acting and sincerity." Starring the actress Karin Molander, when reviewed in the United States, the film was commended for its "unity of plot structure" and for "all its dramatic elements (being) dramatically related, its development (being) climactic and consitent.". Also in the film are Greta Almroth, Concordia Selander and Hilda Castegren in her first appearance on screen. The novel was in fact filmed again in 1947 by Gustaf Edgren and in 1958 by Gustav Ucicky with Maria Emo. Peter Cowie has put the films of Finnish director Ruani Mollberg (Earth is a Sinful Song, Maa on syntinen laula, 1973) alongside the films of Victor Sjöström and Mauritz Stiller, his writing, "His characters move not against the backdrop of field and lake and forest, but deep within the enveloping topography." To Bengt Forslund, Sjöström had found a "descraptive visual language" which accounts for his collaboration with Selma Lagerlof and her novels being particularly suited for adaptation. Charles Magnusson in 1909 had hoped to film the novel The Wonderful Journey of Nils Holgersson, which Victor Sjöström had read with enthusiasm. Allan Eyles notes that The Covered Wagon (James Cruze, 1923), filmed in the United States, was remarkable for its depicting the relationships of theP characters within narrative to the enviornment in which the story takes places, its plotline built around the interaction of its three primary characters.

Greta Garbo is quoted by Sven Broman as having said, "I know that he courted Sarah Bernhardt and wanted to write plays for her...But Strindberg still managed to get Sarah Bernhardt to do a guest performance in Stockholm- in La Dame aux Camelias at the Royal Dramatic Theatre." Mothers of France (1917) would be the last film which would feature The Divine Woman, Sarah Bernhardt. Directing in 1912, Louis Mercanton had filmed Berhardt for four reels using only long, static shots; there are twenty three scenes in the film and of the twenty two intertitles, only three are interpolated. Most summarize the dialougue and its consequence to the action untill the exclamation in scene twenty one, "May God forgive you, I never will." Of his having directed Greta Garbo, Sjöström had remarked after filming, "I and Metro's own scraptwriter, Frances Marion, wrote the story eight times before it was accepted. By that time nothing remained of the original material and every trace of the divine Sarah had been obliterated."
J. Gordon Edwards in 1917 would direct Cleopatra (ten reels) and Camille (six reels), written by Frances Marion, as well as Salome (seven reels), The Rose of Blood (six reels), The Forbidden Path and Under the Yoke (five reels). Frank Powell directed Heart of the Desert. A Modern Musketeer (five reels), directed and written by Allan Dwan, starred Marjorie Drew and Douglas Fairbanks. His first screen appearance had been in Bertie The Lamb. Frances Marion that year also wrote the photoplay to the film Temple of Dusk (James Young, five reels), her following it in 1919 with the scenarios to A Regular Girl (James Young, five reels), The World and its Woman (Frank Lloyd, seven reels) and The Cinema Murder (George Baker, five reels). Lillian Gish in 1917 had starred in the films The House Built Upon Sand (Ed Morrisey, five reels) with Kate Bruce and Souls Triumphant (John G. O'Brien, five reels) with Wilfred Lucas.
In addition to directing and starring with Gerda Thome-Mattsson and Tollie Zellmann in For hem och hard, Swedish director Georg af Klercker that year directed Mary Johnson in the films Revelj and The Suburban Vicar (Forstadprasten), in which she starred with Corcordia Selander and Lilly Graber. Actress Olga Hallgren appeared in two films directed by George Klerker, Brottmalsdomaren, with Gabriel Alw and the actor George Blickingborg in his first appearance on screen and Ett konst narsode with Greta Pfeil, the assistant director to the film, Manne Göthson. For hem och hard was photographed by Swedish cameraman Sven Pettersson, Brottmalsdomaren by Swedish cameraman Gustav A Gustafson and Ett konst narsode, by Carl Gustav Florin. In 1918 Klercker directed The Lighthouse Keeper's Daughter (Fyrvaktarens dottar), Night Music (Nattliga toner), photographed by Gustav A Gustafson and starring Agda Helin, Helge Kihlberg and Tekla Sjöblom and Nobelpristagaren.
The director George af Klerker is portrayed by the actor Bjorn Granath in the film Jar ar Nyfiken film (Stig Björkman). The Last Scream, a two character play in one act, depicts a fictional meeting between silent film director George af Klerker and Charles Magnusson, founder of the Swedish Film Institute, and was written by Ingmar Bergman. The play was published by New Press in the volume The Fifth Act. And yet, the film Mysteriet natten till den 25ie prooves to be more enigmatic than its director. It stars Swedish actress Mary Johnson and Carl Barklind and was photographed by Sven Petersson- it was not shown to audiences untill 1975.
Konrad Tollroth in 1917 directed and starred with Lili Bech in The Bird of Paradise (Paradisfageln), directed and starred with Lisa Hakansson-Taube in Sig egen slav and directed and starred with Greta Almroth in Allt hamnar sig. That year he also directed Edith Erastoff in the film Chanson triste and Greta Almroth and Jenny Tschemichin-Larsson in the film Miljonarvet, and Karin Molander in the film Vem skot?. Egil Eide both directed and starred with Edith Erastoff in the films Every Man Forges his own Happiness (Envar sin egen lyckas smed) and Mrs. Bonnet's Slip (Fru Bonnets felsteg), which also starred Karin Molander. F. Magnussen that year wrote and directed the films Jungeldrottingens smyke, photographed by Henrik Jaenzon and starring William Larsson, Den levande mumien, photographed by Hugo Edlund and starring William Larsson and The Secret of the Inn (Vardshusets hemlighet), starring Edith Erastoff.
1917 was to mark the first publication written by the Swedish author Swedish author Agnes von Krusenstjerna, the volume Nina's Dagbook.
In 1918, Thomas Ince left the Triangle Motion Picture to form Thomas H. Ince Studios. One silent short that had belonged to Blackhawk Films, was a tour of the studios filmed by Hunt Stromberg between 1920-1922. An intertitle from Blackhawk Films reads, "Insisting upon strict adherence to complete shootingscrapts, Ince supervised the direction and editing of each picture and thus managed to give all the appearance of having been directed by Thomas H. Ince, regardless of who did actually direct." The short, sent to exhibitors, shows footage of Ince viewing the rushes from the previous afternoon.
After Hearts of the World (1918, twelve reels), Griffith followed with The Great Love (1918, seven reels) for Famous Lasky Players, it starring Lillian Gish, Robert Harron and Rosemary Theby and with The Greatest Thing in Life (1918, seven reels), starring Lillian Gish, Robert Harron and Kate Bruce. In Hearts of the World, during a scene in which soldiers are marching, he used reverse direction cutting, which he had briefly used in A Girl and Her Trust (1912). Matching the screen direction when the camera cut had often preserved continuity in early silent cinema. Part of Sjöström's directing included placing objects in an anglular relation to the camera. He reversed the direction of the character's profile when cutting back between full shots and close ups of the same shot and cut ins of the exterior landscape in the use of varying camera distance, the size of the object within the frame of each shot, the composition within the rectangle of the frame, also varying, it becoming "a screen technique of close up and cutback to clarify plot movement, intensify emotional content" (Ramsaye). The dramatic interest is as though fastened to the character, the attention of the spectator directed to him or her within the relation of each shot to the shots that are subsequent to them, composition decided upon in accordance with editing; an element of the scene could be included in the interest of the scene by the director with each decision as to where to position the camera. It may often be that character interest can be enhanced by thematic meaning and its processes, as something that is reiterated at different junctures of events and as a background to the developing relationships between characters, their interactions, it being that thematic meaning, within narrative, is enacted. It is not only landscape that can provide a backdrop that will develop the atmosphere within a film, but there is also the scrapt, mood advanced with and by plotline, the character bringing unity to the narrative. In that both are elemnts of composition, the use of nature as a background and mise-en scene are part and parcel of each other, subject positioning being not only that characters interact not only with the spectator but also with mise en scene reflecting that spatial temporality is the interplay between mise en scene and the film's characters, characters that move into the space seperating the objects in the film, characters that move in front of and behind objects within the frame, characters that inhabit the space in which they are seen. If narrative organization could be provided by the use of mise en scene, mise en scene that would include within the spatial arrangement of composition the figure of the character within subject positioning, narrative clarity could be provided by the use of camera positions and the editorial devices of technique. There is a unique use of reverse direction in the opening sequences of F. W. Murnau's film Sunrise (nine reels) where the screen direction of adjacent shots is reversed while being incorporated into the montage, the montage effect, of the sequence.
During Orphans of the Storm, Griffith reverses the screen direction of close shots during a dialouge scene by inserting a shot of the absent Lillian Gish. After a dialouge intertitle of it being announced that the character is to marry a Princess of the Blood, Griffith cuts from a close shot in profile of the character facing the left edge of the frame to an interpolated shot of Gish as his beloved and object of his reverie, her facing the left edge of the frame, the camera then cutting back to the conversation and original close shot of his facing the left edge of the frame, Griffith reversing the screen direction while both are in close shot. In effect, the shot functions as disruptive-associative montage, the shots linked thematicly by their placement in the sequence. It very well could be that the use of spatial discontinuity, the cutting to a different location during the scene, harkens back to the cinema of attractions and the use of brief static shots for effect, a single shot with its own aesthetic value included into the narrative as being seperate, editing and camera placement articulating the erotic as thematic within narrative through the use of the eroticism of display. When seen by Norwegian director Tancred Ibsen, Orphans of the Storm was one of the films included in his decision to go to Hollywood, albeit none of the scrapts he wrote while there were realized.


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