1) It takes, on average, 25-30 minutes until you start fading out while studying. Studying more isn't always the best option. The moment you start to slide, you're shovelin' against the tide. Take a break. During this break treat yourself with some music, talking to someone, or something similiar. After you are done with a long studying session (3h+), give yourself a big treat.
2) Find a good place to study, the bedroom or kitchen is not a good option. For me libraries (school and local) will definitely be the best option. Primary function of a bedroom is sleep. Secondary is sex. Primary function of a dining table is eating. Secondary is sex. Etc. Get in the habit of getting up and walking around during your breaks. Sitting down and studying will become increasingly automatic. You NEED to turn off distractions. Background music does not help with studying at all as long as it's quiet enough.
3) Rote memorization vs deep understanding. Concepts will stay with you a lifetime when you fully understand them. Facts will not, thats why we have google. Can you put the concept into your own words? If you can't then you really dont understand it. Something is meaningful if you can relate it to something you already know: If there is a concept completely greek to you, you break it down so far that eventually you know something about it. ´Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny´.
4) Study groups. Study groups work because the people who have just learned something can be better at explaining it than a teacher who has known it for years.
5) Biggest thing: Recognition vs Recollection. Everyone confuses these two. Say you're reading through a chapter and you want to check whether you've learned anything. So you'll start from the beginning, and as you're reading you go "yup, that one about that thing", and it feels like you've learned everything. This is an illusion. When the test comes it turns out you know nothing. This is what causes the feeling of knowing exactly where in the book this thing on the test was but not being able to recall the facts. If you can turn page, look up in the sky, and say in your own words what that was about, yeah you know it, and won't forget it.
6) Sleep. 22.00 to 6.45 is good.
7) Taking notes is vital. However, most people do it wrong. The most important thing is to take five minutes after each class to flesh out your notes, give them depth. Even waiting to get home to expand your notes will waste potential. If you don't remember, ask a classmate. Or a teacher. They love that.
8) Teaching others: It's so powerful, because it tells you whether you truly understand it. If you can put a concept into your own words, and give answers to the questions of the people you're teaching, then you truly understand it. There's nothing wrong with talking out loud, teach an empty chair if you want to. 80% of your study time is best spent reciting, and only 20% reading.
9) The power of textbooks. Most people don't appreciate them, because they haven't been taught how to use them. SQRRR = Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review.
Survey: Looking through the book, becoming more familiar with the contents
Question: As you're surveying you ask questions: what's this? Surveying and questioning a chapter only takes a few minutes.
Read: Take notes of things you don't understand. Learn them.
Recite: This is the putting it in your own words part.
Review: When you're studying for a test you should already be here. During your study sessions you should have read and recited everything already to the point of knowing it.
If you intend to find something, you will find it, and remember it. This is why SQ is so powerful. Reading like a novel won't help you learn. If you already know what you're looking for it will be much easier.
10) Time management. Most students don't start studying until a couple days before each test. By this time you should already have a deep understanding of the whole test material. This is why scheduled studying is important. Plan some set amount of time each week/day to study and do nothing else for this time. Do this and you'll find that you don't even have to learn anything new for each test, you'll simply be reviewing the material.
11) Facts and mnemonics: better than rote memorization. Mnemonics can be acronyms, coined sayings, Interacting images etc. A mnemonic is any system which facilitates recall. "Radeo". Might even want to have a separate couple pages just for these.