“Somehow our society has formed a one-side view of the human personality, and for some reason everyone understood giftedness and talent only as it applied to the intellect. But it is possible not only to be talented in one’s thoughts but also to be talented in one’s feelings as well.”
- Lev Vygotsky
We are living in the information digital age, where Democratic Citizenship Education is concern itself with the goal of nurturing future generations with capacity to make appropriate use of changes to active political and social democracy. Davies (2015) mention that Vygotsky ideas are common associated with these principals, by the beliefs of social roles dependent on cultural practices and mediated language. The theorist Lev Vygotsky’s perspective has also shown that social and cognitive development is working together and children’s world view is based on by the environment they live in (Mooney, 2013), by family, community, socioeconomic and culture. This paper will discuss the role that citizenship education can and/or should play in produce democratic citizens, where visual communication is characterizes as a new language and understanding of the world.
With global perspective it can help students acquire the attitudes, knowledge, and skills needed to function in multicultural communities other than their own, within the national cultural community, as well as within the global community. Based by Democratic Citizenship Education, gives a approach to acquire a delicate balance of cultural, national and global identifications and attachment. Develop students understandings of the interdependence among nations in the modern world, clarified attitudes toward other nations and peoples, and reflective identifications with the world community. As Parks (2004) explains about an increasingly intercultural in society not only create new worlds but also collapse borders and brings all people of ages, ethnicity, genders, and classes together to interact and respond to variety of issue. One option I recommend when include global perspective as pedagogy, is to make curriculum be revised so that it reflects the cultures of the diverse groups in society and the diverse cultures of students.
NORM CRITICAL APPROACH
A norm critical approach is a way of creating awareness of norms in everyday life. Norms or standards that may be traditional gender patterns, ethnic stereotypes, social constructions, language, cultural or religious expressions. By focus on understanding and compassion for others and empathize so that no one should be subjected to discrimination or other degrading treatment on the grounds of gender, ethnic affiliation, religion, transgender identity, sexual orientation, age or functional impairment. Hooks (1994) claims that previous teaching reflected a single norm of thought and experience, which encouraged to believe one universal true for both white and nonwhite teachers. I want to mention that norm critical approach as pedagogy is not about bring up racism and discrimination as point of issue, but with hidden curriculum by highlight the norms it brings awareness to reflect its standard. And with that method in teaching, your turn on roles and throw down hierarchies, focus on to getting a overview of when and how we restore the norm system.
When norm critical approach presents in a frame of Democratic Citizenship Education, hidden curriculum have its purpose when students learns in different ways, and not neither sufficiency (Authentic Education) or insufficient (Standard Education). And as pedagogy it combats all forms of discrimination by avoiding transmitting stereotypes, by not focus on perceived as deviants in a context but focusing the norms and hierarchies. Norm critical approaching in Art Education for intercultural classes, is not about analyzing the studio practice, but to explore together with students, how to influence situations so that misconduct is not sustained or maintained. All images that exists around us in everyday life contains strong normative forces, and visual practice and education can be used to generate meaning and understanding between students. By using the student’s experience, technical tools, visual cultural competencies, and mainstream in teaching I think it encourages their creation and thinking, and try alternative materials or styles. Intercultural within Democratic Citizenship Education can also create social competence and perspective of multicultural society, and by Art Education brings opportunity to use image as a form of knowledge and means of their identity as citizens and cultural being.
With Manifold (2009) by her experience how young people expressing their visual culture and Parks (2009) about increasingly intercultural in society, I can see a connection between global perspective and norm critic where norms need to be questioned. It also confirms my notion how migrations and immigrations of large groups of people from another geographic regions changing the social constructions of classroom. Which will give the conclusion that by including student’s diverse cultural background in Art Educational brings reflection. And by highlight the norms creates discussion among students. And presenting several art and visual context will initiate them to explore, but also investigate the excluded forms of art and art history. That is a norm critical approach for a globalization school, based by Democratic Citizenship Education.
- Mooney, C., (2013). Theories of Childhood, (2nd ed.), St. Paul, MN: Redleaf
- Hooks, B. (1994). Teaching to transgress. New York, NY: Routledge.
- Parks, N. S., (2009) Facilitating Intercultural Competencies in Cyberspace. In Delacruz, E. M., Arnold, A., Kun, A., & Parsons, M., Editor (Eds) Globalization, Art & Education. (193-197) Reston, VA: National Art
- Manifold, M. C., (2009) Creating Parallel Global Culture: The Art-Making of Fans in Fandom Communities. In Delacruz, E. M., Arnold, A., Kun, A., & Parsons, M., Editor (Eds) Globalization, Art & Education. (171-178) Reston, VA: National Art