Mooring covers are usually designed to snap onto the gunwale (and perhaps the windshield) with small, metal button snaps. When removing the mooring cover, be sure to remove on snap at a time to avoid damaging the canvas or the snap

All marine supply stores sell rather inexpensive repair kits and extra snaps so that damaged snaps can easily be repaired.

A little bit of prevention thinking and care and maintenance of your boats canvas will save you a lot of trouble and make your voyage a lot more enjoyable! Have a great cruise!

. Most mooring covers are not intended for use while trailering as the wind can sometimes get under the cover and cause it to rip off of the boat.Taking care of the canvas accessories of your boat need not be a time consuming or difficult task.

Side Curtains Many times, there are small, custom made pieces of clear plastic which provide closure between a deployed convertible top and the gunwale of the boat. This is to fully enclose the area under the top from the weather elements. When attaching a cover, if you will pull the canvas a snap or two ahead of the one that you are intending to attach, it will make the process go much smoother.

There may also be an aft curtain to fully enclose the cockpit. When the side curtains are stored, make certain that they are stored in a dry space and that heavy objects are not placed upon them or other items which might tend to move and scratch the plastic.

Normally the canvas components of a boat are very few: a convertible top, side curtains (which usually are not really much canvas), boots, and boat covers. When deployed the top may be attached to a permanent windshield or other boat structure by means of small button snaps or perhaps by means of a zipper. Having left a couple of very expensive mooring covers along the highway, I would strongly advise against pulling a boat along at highway speeds with a mooring cover in place. Care must always be taken when attaching or detaching the canvas to pull the snaps directly up from a grasp that is very close to the snap. Care must me taken when storing these curtains to ensure that the clear plastic material is rolled up and not pinched as it is stored as this will result in cracks and tears in the plastic material.

Convertible Tops Most boats have some sort of convertible top.) or secured in such a way that it will not catch air as the boat moves along in the water. A little regular maintenance and attention to detail when you are boating will make your canvas last the life of your boat. There is a metal (usually aluminum or stainless) frame that is attached to the gunwale of the boat by means of a swiveling piece of hardware which permits the top to fold down or stand up in a position to yield sufficient shade to the boats occupants. Lets address each of these items. Where zippers are used, care must be taken to get the zipper started properly before attempting to zip the length of the zipper. When closing the top to place it in the boot, be sure that it is neatly folded and not simply crammed into the boot.

Whenever the canvas convertible top is not deployed, it should be secured in it appropriate Boot (Usually a small zip up canvas cover that safely covers the folded up convertible top in its closed position. You may ease this process by removing pressure on the canvas by detaching the aft end of the top from its clips to get the zipper started. Many tops have been ruined by crewmembers trying to grab the canvas at one end and, with a single yank, try to unsnap more than a single snap. If you must cover the top when it is wet, be certain to open it up and let it air dry before leaving it in the boot for any extended period of time. When left outside and uncovered for any extended period of time, boats tend to get very weathered and lose much of their appeal and value. Usually, these are mostly canvas and sometimes contain a clear plastic window. To store a wet piece of canvas is to ask for mold and mildew which are the biggest enemies of canvas beyond human neglect. Like the snaps on the top, the buttons should be removed one at a time to ensure that they do not tear or rip. Marine zippers tend to get dry and hard to work. Usually the side curtains are attached to the convertible top by means of a zipper or small, metal button snaps and also attached to the gunwale or windshield of the boat by button snaps. The same techniques for storing, folding and deploying apply as with side curtains. Boat covers tend to come in two varieties Storage covers which fully enclose the boat and are tied down to the trailer for movement along a highway, and Mooring covers which are intended to cover the boat while it is docked, moored or otherwise sitting still. You will find this to be considerably easier. Applying a little chap stick along the zipper and zipping it open and closed a couple of times will sheet metal bending manufacturers tend to ease zipper problems greatly.

Boat Covers When mooring, storing or trailering the boat, it is advisable to cover the boat from the elements. It pays to do this in advance of the need for the cover. Zippers should be periodically lubricated with wax or Chap Stick. Whether yours is a small fishing boat, a runabout, a sailboat or a family cruiser, thy all employ the same basic principle



This means that to increase the viscosity of a given inert lubricant, it is often simply a matter of synthesizing the molecule with extra repeats of the chemical motif that comprises its molecular backbone structure.

Uses of Inert Lubricants

Inert lubricants are most often used to provide lubrication, but they can also be used as industrial solvents, non-flammable bath fluids (suitable for use at low as well as high temperatures), plasticizers for fluorinated products, metal-working fluid for work with metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and tantalum, and as a safe, high-density and non-reactive fluid for laboratory tests. Depending on the exact nature of the lubricant, it may or may not be miscible in solutions of ketones, alcohols, mineral oils, or other organic solvents. Greases are often more solid than liquid, and thus have an entirely different set of uses in comparison to many oils. Often they are used to protect a finished product from the oxidative effects of chlorine or oxygen, or simply to act as a water-barrier. Inert lubricants are used in industries and processes as diverse as the pulp paper industry, where they are used in bleaching wood pulp, to the treatment of drinking water with fluorine and chlorine.

The property of being inert is of course the most desirable of the chemical properties of these oils, waxes, and greases: this is, in fact, why they are made. In the metals industry, inert waxes are also often used as a friction-reducing lubricant.

Oils: Inert oils are very heavily used in automotive industries, including the aeronautic, aviation, and marine industries in addition to traditional automotives.Inert lubricants have an enormous number of industrial and commercial uses, from oils used to keep heavy machinery running smoothly, to the wax that skiers use to decrease the friction between snow and their skis.

Most halocarbon oils are made up of molecules comprised of a single of repeating chemical motifs, with the viscosity being dependent on the length of the chain.

. This factor is actually relatively easy to control in the synthesis of inert lubricants, as the length of lubricant molecule chains determines their viscosity. Again, any machine with moving parts is subject to increased wear and tear without the use of a lubricant, and inert lubricants are needed to reduce reactivity. These properties make them highly useful for many industrial purposes. Inert lubricants are non-corrosive, non-flammable, have little toxicity, and provide good lubricity.

The viscosity of inert lubricants is one important factor that determines how they are used in industry. Inert lubricants do not react to highly oxidative substances such as fluorine, acids, and oxygen, and remain stable at high temperatures. They may be used as engine oils, transmission fluid, gearbox fluid, brake fluids, and hydraulic fluids, or in fact in any piece of equipment or machinery that has moving parts that may be subject to high heat and friction. The longer the chain, the more viscous the lubricant will be.

Waxes: Inert waxes tend to be used as protective coatings or barriers, often designed to either keep moisture out, or to reduce friction between two moving parts (as in the case of skiers and their skis).

Chemical and Physical Properties of Inert Lubricants

Inert lubricants include three basic categories: oils, greases, and waxes.

All three types of lubricant tend to be immiscible with water, and as they are inert, they are also non-reactive in most situations. In other industries, inert oils may be used in steam and gas turbines, motors, air and gas compressors, and bearing and circulating systems. This means its possible, by carefully choosing the structure of the inert lubricant molecule, to create an inert lubricant with just the right viscosity, which is miscible with whatever specific liquid chemicals are desired.

Greases: These are traditionally comprised of a jelly that is emulsified with mineral oil (which is itself an inert lubricant), to produce an inert lubricant with a much higher viscosity than that of oil. While greases are often used for industrial purposes, to prevent the wear and tear caused by metal-to-metal aluminum welding suppliers contact in machinery and equipment, many types of inert greases are used in places such as laboratories, where chemically inert lubricants are particularly important for preventing reactions between lubricants and experimental substances. The main difference between each of the three types is their level of viscosity, with oils being the least viscous of the lubricants, and waxes being the most viscous



Excel packages can be easier to use than database systems and produce the end products every small limited company requires in a small business accounting software package, automated accounts requiring no bookkeeping skills and no previous financial accountancy software experience with the valuable end product of a fully automated final set of accounts for the limited liability company.5 to zero making the accounting software suitable for both vat registered and non vat registered businesses.

While quarterly vat returns are generated for vat registered business the accounting package is also suitable for non vat registered business. The vat calculations can be disabled by non vat registered small businesses by changing the standard vat rate from 17.

The sales and purchase spreadsheets include columns for entering CIS tax deductions and payments and the certificate numbers. A minimal level of accounting knowledge is required to correctly list the closing debtors and creditors and check the totals of those lists agrees with the automated balances shown on the company accounts balance sheet

Other features

The product has a stock control feature to monitor any stock losses.

The limited company corporation tax liability is calculated within the package in such a way that all the calculations; additions and deductions are both automated and visible.

Financial transactions such as sales or expenses are listed on the appropriate month. Capital allowances on both existing and new assets being shown on the corporation tax calculation. The CIS tax being then automatically entered on the self assessment tax return. Each excel workbook being arranged in 12 monthly worksheets. To produce a vat return clients open the vat returns file and select the vat quarter end date from a drop down menu and the figures for the vat return are automatically generated. Depreciation calculation are also automated being preset with depreciation percentages that can be changed as required.

Accountancy knowledge required

The limited liability company accounting software is based upon single entry of transactions requiring no accountancy or bookkeeping knowledge. A trial balance with embedded formulae automating all the double entry accounting transactions. The limited company accounting software reviewed contained a wages interface that fully integrates the payroll software when the payroll files are saved into the same folder as the accounting software files. The accounting software also works fine with an Open Source spreadsheet package. This simple listing process is a definite advantage to non accountants as no previous bookkeeping or accountancy software knowledge is required.

Bank spreadsheets can be entered by listing the items that appear on the bank statement and include a box to enter the statement balance each month.

The financial accounting software file should contain an automated monthly profit and loss account to enable limited companies to track their financial performance and very important, the package also produces a balanced profit and loss account and balance sheet in the correct format for submission of the final accounts. The formulae within the excel spreadsheet then automatically checks that the entries made agree with the statement balance producing effective bank reconciliation. All the accounting knowledge required to perform the double entry of transactions which is a required feature to produce a balance sheet automated through the accounting software formulae and linking structure.

. Prime data entry excel spreadsheets being provided for sales, purchases, cash, bank, savings account and credit card account. And should a change be necessary any item can be easily changed. Being written on excel spreadsheets all transactions are visible and capable of being changed by for example overwriting any errors aluminum fabrication suppliers as opposed to a database system that requires new transactions to be entered to reverse previous entries. The company accounts package has a feature so that the figures for the previous year may be entered and lists of opening debtors and creditors recorded. No entries are required from the user removing the need for accounting experience. This set of final accounts automatically gathering the financial information from the basic entries made with the final accounts also including the statutory notes required for a set of company accounts being published. As the small business accounting software is written on excel spreadsheets then it is essential that users have a version of excel from 1998 onwards installed to use the program.This whole small business accounting software for a limited liability company can be written on excel spreadsheets which means all bookkeeping transactions are visible at the click of a button. The trial balance is purely an accounting solution, visible, transparent and contains an audit check to ensure the company accounts are accurate. This feature that ensures entries are recorded accurately in the companies accounts.

From the lists of sales and purchases plus the bank statement entries all the information is automatically transferred to the financial accounts file.

The fixed asset schedule is preset with the capital allowance tax rates to automatically calculate capital allowances when fixed assets are entered